The following is a list of notable unsolved problems grouped into broad areas of physics.[1]

Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result. The others are experimental, meaning that there is a difficulty in creating an experiment to test a proposed theory or investigate a phenomenon in greater detail.

There are still some questions beyond the Standard Model of physics, such as the strong CP problem, neutrino mass, matter–antimatter asymmetry, and the nature of dark matter and dark energy.[2][3] Another problem lies within the mathematical framework of the Standard Model itself—the Standard Model is inconsistent with that of general relativity, to the point that one or both theories break down under certain conditions (for example within known spacetime singularities like the Big Bang and the centres of black holes beyond the event horizon).[4]

General physics

Quantum gravity

Quantum physics

Cosmology and general relativity

Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe

High-energy/particle physics

See also: Beyond the Standard Model

Colour Confinement is the observed phenomenon that colored particles (quarks and gluons) can't be isolated and are always bound to color neutral groups (at low energies). Such bound states are generally called hadrons.

Astronomy and astrophysics

Main article: List of unsolved problems in astronomy

Nuclear physics

The "island of stability" in the proton vs. neutron number plot for heavy nuclei

Fluid dynamics

Condensed matter physics

A sample of a cuprate superconductor (specifically BSCCO). The mechanism for superconductivity of these materials is unknown.
Magnetoresistance in a u = 8/5 fractional quantum Hall state

Quantum computing and quantum information

Plasma physics

Biophysics

Foundations of physics

Problems solved in the past 30 years

General physics/quantum physics

Cosmology and general relativity

High-energy physics/particle physics

Astronomy and astrophysics

Nuclear physics

Rapidly solved problems

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "This problem is widely regarded as one of the major obstacles to further progress in fundamental physics ... Its importance has been emphasized by various authors from different aspects. For example, it has been described as a 'veritable crisis" ...] and even 'the mother of all physics problems' ... While it might be possible that people working on a particular problem tend to emphasize or even exaggerate its importance, those authors all agree that this is a problem that needs to be solved, although there is little agreement on what is the right direction to find the solution."[24]
  2. ^ When physicists strip neutrons from atomic nuclei, put them in a bottle, then count how many remain there after some time, they infer that neutrons radioactively decay in 14 minutes and 39 seconds, on average. But when other physicists generate beams of neutrons and tally the emerging protons — the particles that free neutrons decay into — they peg the average neutron lifetime at around 14 minutes and 48 seconds. The discrepancy between the “bottle” and “beam” measurements has persisted since both methods of gauging the neutron's longevity began yielding results in the 1990s. At first, all the measurements were so imprecise that nobody worried. Gradually, though, both methods have improved, and still they disagree.[26]

References

  1. ^ Ginzburg, Vitaly L. (2001). The physics of a lifetime : reflections on the problems and personalities of 20th century physics. Berlin: Springer. pp. 3–200. ISBN 978-3-540-67534-1.
  2. ^ Hammond, Richard (1 May 2008). "The Unknown Universe: The Origin of the Universe, Quantum Gravity, Wormholes, and Other Things Science Still Can't Explain". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A. 456 (1999): 1685.
  3. ^ Womersley, J. (February 2005). "Beyond the Standard Model" (PDF). Symmetry Magazine. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
  4. ^ Overbye, Dennis (11 September 2023). "Don't Expect a 'Theory of Everything' to Explain It All - Not even the most advanced physics can reveal everything we want to know about the history and future of the cosmos, or about ourselves". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 September 2023. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
  5. ^ "Alcohol constrains physical constant in the early universe". Phys Org. 13 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  6. ^ Bagdonaite, J.; Jansen, P.; Henkel, C.; Bethlem, H. L.; Menten, K. M.; Ubachs, W. (13 December 2012). "A Stringent Limit on a Drifting Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio from Alcohol in the Early Universe". Science. 339 (6115): 46–48. Bibcode:2013Sci...339...46B. doi:10.1126/science.1224898. hdl:1871/39591. PMID 23239626. S2CID 716087. Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  7. ^ Sokal, Alan (22 July 1996). "Don't Pull the String Yet on Superstring Theory". New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  8. ^ Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R. (2004). "Quantum information and relativity theory". Reviews of Modern Physics. 76 (1): 93–123. arXiv:quant-ph/0212023. Bibcode:2004RvMP...76...93P. doi:10.1103/revmodphys.76.93. S2CID 7481797.
  9. ^ Joshi, Pankaj S. (January 2009). "Do Naked Singularities Break the Rules of Physics?". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012.
  10. ^ Harlow, Daniel (2018). "TASI Lectures on the Emergence of Bulk Physics in AdS/CFT". Proceedings of Science. TASI2017: 002. doi:10.22323/1.305.0002. hdl:1721.1/121453.
  11. ^ Isham, C. J. (1993). "Canonical Quantum Gravity and the Problem of Time". Integrable Systems, Quantum Groups, and Quantum Field Theories. NATO ASI Series. Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 157–287. arXiv:gr-qc/9210011. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-1980-1_6. ISBN 9789401048743. S2CID 116947742.
  12. ^ "Yang–Mills and Mass Gap". Clay Mathematics Institute. Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  13. ^ Rees, Martin (3 May 2001). Just Six Numbers: The Deep Forces That Shape The Universe. New York, New York: Basic Books; First American edition. p. 4. ISBN 9780465036721.
  14. ^ Gribbin, J. and Rees, M., Cosmic Coincidences: Dark Matter, Mankind, and Anthropic Cosmology, pp. 7, 269. 1989, ISBN 0-553-34740-3
  15. ^ Davis, Paul (2007). Cosmic Jackpot: Why Our Universe Is Just Right for Life. New York: Orion Publications. p. 2. ISBN 978-0618592265.
  16. ^ Podolsky, Dmitry. "Top ten open problems in physics". NEQNET. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  17. ^ a b c d e Brooks, Michael (19 March 2005). "13 things that do not make sense". New Scientist. Issue 2491. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  18. ^ "Quanta Magazine". Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  19. ^ a b c d Abdalla, Elcio; Abellán, Guillermo Franco; Aboubrahim, Amin (11 March 2022). "Cosmology Intertwined: A Review of the Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Associated with the Cosmological Tensions and Anomalies". Journal of High Energy Astrophysics. 34: 49. arXiv:2203.06142v1. Bibcode:2022JHEAp..34...49A. doi:10.1016/j.jheap.2022.04.002. S2CID 247411131.
  20. ^ Krishnan, Chethan; Mohayaee, Roya; Colgáin, Eoin Ó; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Yin, Lu (16 September 2021). "Does Hubble Tension Signal a Breakdown in FLRW Cosmology?". Classical and Quantum Gravity. 38 (18): 184001. arXiv:2105.09790. Bibcode:2021CQGra..38r4001K. doi:10.1088/1361-6382/ac1a81. ISSN 0264-9381. S2CID 234790314.
  21. ^ a b Ellis, G. F. R. (2009). "Dark energy and inhomogeneity". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 189 (1): 012011. Bibcode:2009JPhCS.189a2011E. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/189/1/012011. S2CID 250670331.
  22. ^ a b Colin, Jacques; Mohayaee, Roya; Rameez, Mohamed; Sarkar, Subir (20 November 2019). "Evidence for anisotropy of cosmic acceleration". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 631: L13. arXiv:1808.04597. Bibcode:2019A&A...631L..13C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201936373. S2CID 208175643. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  23. ^ Steinhardt, P. & Turok, N. (2006). "Why the Cosmological constant is so small and positive". Science. 312 (5777): 1180–1183. arXiv:astro-ph/0605173. Bibcode:2006Sci...312.1180S. doi:10.1126/science.1126231. PMID 16675662. S2CID 14178620.
  24. ^ a b Wang, Qingdi; Zhu, Zhen; Unruh, William G. (11 May 2017). "How the huge energy of quantum vacuum gravitates to drive the slow accelerating expansion of the Universe". Physical Review D. 95 (10): 103504. arXiv:1703.00543. Bibcode:2017PhRvD..95j3504W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.103504. S2CID 119076077.
  25. ^ Dirac, Paul (1931). "Quantised singularities in the electromagnetic field" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 133 (821): 60. Bibcode:1931RSPSA.133...60D. doi:10.1098/rspa.1931.0130. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2010.
  26. ^ a b Wolchover, Natalie (13 February 2018). "Neutron lifetime puzzle deepens, but no dark matter seen". Quanta Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 July 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  27. ^ Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W. (2011). "Elements of fast proton decay". Nuclear Physics B. 846 (1): 43–99. arXiv:1003.2570. Bibcode:2011NuPhB.846...43L. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2010.12.014. S2CID 119246624.
  28. ^ Hansson, Johan (2010). "The "proton spin crisis" – a quantum query" (PDF). Progress in Physics. 3: 23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  29. ^ Langacker, Paul (2012). "Grand unification". Scholarpedia. 7 (10): 11419. Bibcode:2012SchpJ...711419L. doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.11419.
  30. ^ Wu, T.-Y.; Hwang, W.-Y. Pauchy (1991). Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Fields. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-02-0608-6.
  31. ^ Blumhofer, A.; Hutter, M. (1997). "Family structure from periodic solutions of an improved gap equation". Nuclear Physics. B484 (1): 80–96. Bibcode:1997NuPhB.484...80B. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.343.783. doi:10.1016/S0550-3213(96)00644-X.
  32. ^ "India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)". Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  33. ^ Nakamura, K.; et al. (Particle Data Group) (2010). "2011 Review of Particle Physics". J. Phys. G. 37 (7A): 075021. Bibcode:2010JPhG...37g5021N. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/37/7A/075021. hdl:10481/34593. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  34. ^ Mention, G.; Fechner, M.; Lasserre, Th.; Mueller, Th.A.; Lhuillier, D.; Cribier, M.; Letourneau, A. (29 April 2011). "Reactor antineutrino anomaly". Physical Review D. 83 (7): 073006. arXiv:1101.2755. Bibcode:2011PhRvD..83g3006M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.83.073006. S2CID 14401655. Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  35. ^ Fallot, Muriel (19 June 2017). "Getting to the bottom of an antineutrino anomaly". Physics. 10: 66. Bibcode:2017PhyOJ..10...66F. doi:10.1103/Physics.10.66. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  36. ^ Blum, Thomas; Denig, Achim; Logashenko, Ivan; de Rafael, Eduardo; Roberts, B. Lee; Teubner, Thomas; Venanzoni, Graziano (2013). "The muon (g − 2) theory value: Present and future". arXiv:1311.2198 [hep-ph].
  37. ^ Muir, H. (2 July 2003). "Pentaquark discovery confounds skeptics". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
  38. ^ Amit, G. (14 July 2015). "Pentaquark discovery at LHC shows long-sought new form of matter". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  39. ^ Michael J. Thompson (2014). "Grand Challenges in the Physics of the Sun and Sun-like Stars". Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences. 1: 1. arXiv:1406.4228. Bibcode:2014FrASS...1....1T. doi:10.3389/fspas.2014.00001. S2CID 1547625.
  40. ^ Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F. (20 March 2003). "Discovery of X-Ray Quasi-periodic Oscillations from an Ultraluminous X-Ray Source in M82: Evidence against Beaming". The Astrophysical Journal. 586 (1): L61–L64. arXiv:astro-ph/0303665. Bibcode:2003ApJ...586L..61S. doi:10.1086/374732. S2CID 118992703.
  41. ^ Titarchuk, Lev; Fiorito, Ralph (10 September 2004). "Spectral Index and Quasi-Periodic Oscillation Frequency Correlation in Black Hole Sources: Observational Evidence of Two Phases and Phase Transition in Black Holes" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 612 (2): 988–999. arXiv:astro-ph/0405360. Bibcode:2004ApJ...612..988T. doi:10.1086/422573. hdl:2060/20040182332. S2CID 4689535. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  42. ^ Shoji Kato (2012). "An Attempt to Describe Frequency Correlations among kHz QPOs and HBOs by Two-Armed Nearly Vertical Oscillations". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 64 (3): 62. arXiv:1202.0121. Bibcode:2012PASJ...64...62K. doi:10.1093/pasj/64.3.62. S2CID 118498018.
  43. ^ Ferrarese, Laura; Merritt, David (2000). "A Fundamental Relation between Supermassive Black Holes and their Host Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 539 (1): L9–L12. arXiv:astro-ph/0006053. Bibcode:2000ApJ...539L...9F. doi:10.1086/312838. S2CID 6508110.
  44. ^ a b c d e f Baez, John C. (March 2006). "Open Questions in Physics". Usenet Physics FAQ. University of California, Riverside: Department of Mathematics. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  45. ^ "Scientists Find That Saturn's Rotation Period is a Puzzle". NASA. 28 June 2004. Archived from the original on 29 August 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
  46. ^ Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Greisen, E. W.; Yin, Q. F.; Perley, R. A.; Taylor, G. B.; Broderick, J. J. (1998). "The NRAO VLA Sky Survey". The Astronomical Journal. 115 (5): 1693–1716. Bibcode:1998AJ....115.1693C. doi:10.1086/300337. S2CID 120464396.
  47. ^ Singal, Ashok K. (2011). "Large peculiar motion of the solar system from the dipole anisotropy in sky brightness due to distant radio sources". The Astrophysical Journal. 742 (2): L23–L27. arXiv:1110.6260. Bibcode:2011ApJ...742L..23S. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/742/2/L23. S2CID 119117071.
  48. ^ Tiwari, Prabhakar; Kothari, Rahul; Naskar, Abhishek; Nadkarni-Ghosh, Sharvari; Jain, Pankaj (2015). "Dipole anisotropy in sky brightness and source count distribution in radio NVSS data". Astroparticle Physics. 61: 1–11. arXiv:1307.1947. Bibcode:2015APh....61....1T. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2014.06.004. S2CID 119203300.
  49. ^ Tiwari, P.; Jain, P. (2015). "Dipole anisotropy in integrated linearly polarized flux density in NVSS data". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 447 (3): 2658–2670. arXiv:1308.3970. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.447.2658T. doi:10.1093/mnras/stu2535. S2CID 118610706.
  50. ^ Hutsemekers, D. (1998). "Evidence for very large-scale coherent orientations of quasar polarization vectors" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 332: 410–428. Bibcode:1998A&A...332..410H.
  51. ^ Hutsemékers, D.; Lamy, H. (2001). "Confirmation of the existence of coherent orientations of quasar polarization vectors on cosmological scales". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 367 (2): 381–387. arXiv:astro-ph/0012182. Bibcode:2001A&A...367..381H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20000443. S2CID 17157567.
  52. ^ Jain, P.; Narain, G.; Sarala, S. (2004). "Large-scale alignment of optical polarizations from distant QSOs using coordinate-invariant statistics". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 347 (2): 394–402. arXiv:astro-ph/0301530. Bibcode:2004MNRAS.347..394J. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07169.x. S2CID 14190653.
  53. ^ Angelica de Oliveira-Costa; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Hamilton, Andrew (2004). "The significance of the largest scale CMB fluctuations in WMAP". Physical Review D. 69 (6): 063516. arXiv:astro-ph/0307282. Bibcode:2004PhRvD..69f3516D. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.69.063516. S2CID 119463060.
  54. ^ Eriksen, H. K.; Hansen, F. K.; Banday, A. J.; Górski, K. M.; Lilje, P. B. (2004). "Asymmetries in the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Field". The Astrophysical Journal. 605 (1): 14–20. arXiv:astro-ph/0307507. Bibcode:2004ApJ...605...14E. doi:10.1086/382267. S2CID 15696508.
  55. ^ Pramoda Kumar Samal; Saha, Rajib; Jain, Pankaj; Ralston, John P. (2008). "Testing Isotropy of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 385 (4): 1718–1728. arXiv:0708.2816. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.385.1718S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.12960.x. S2CID 988092.
  56. ^ Pramoda Kumar Samal; Saha, Rajib; Jain, Pankaj; Ralston, John P. (2009). "Signals of Statistical Anisotropy in WMAP Foreground-Cleaned Maps". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 396 (511): 511–522. arXiv:0811.1639. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.396..511S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14728.x. S2CID 16250321.
  57. ^ Casagrande, L.; Schönrich, R.; Asplund, M.; Cassisi, S.; Ramírez, I.; Meléndez, J.; Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S. (2011). "New constraints on the chemical evolution of the solar neighbourhood and Galactic disc(s)". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 530: A138. arXiv:1103.4651. Bibcode:2011A&A...530A.138C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201016276. S2CID 56118016.
  58. ^ Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Lundström, I. (July 2004). "A possible age–metallicity relation in the Galactic thick disk?". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 421 (3): 969–976. arXiv:astro-ph/0403591. Bibcode:2004A&A...421..969B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20035957. S2CID 10469794.
  59. ^ Gilmore, G.; Asiri, H. M. (2011). "Open Issues in the Evolution of the Galactic Disks". Stellar Clusters & Associations: A RIA Workshop on Gaia. Proceedings. Granada: 280. Bibcode:2011sca..conf..280G.
  60. ^ Casagrande, L.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Schlesinger, K. J.; Stello, D.; Huber, D.; Serenelli, A. M.; Scho Nrich, R.; Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Hodgkin, S.; Milone, A. P.; Feltzing, S.; Asplund, M. (2015). "Measuring the vertical age structure of the Galactic disc using asteroseismology and SAGA". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 455 (1): 987–1007. arXiv:1510.01376. Bibcode:2016MNRAS.455..987C. doi:10.1093/mnras/stv2320. S2CID 119113283.
  61. ^ Fields, Brian D. (2012). "The Primordial Lithium Problem". Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science. 61 (2011): 47–68. arXiv:1203.3551. Bibcode:2011ARNPS..61...47F. doi:10.1146/annurev-nucl-102010-130445. S2CID 119265528.
  62. ^ Platts, E.; Weltman, A.; Walters, A.; Tendulkar, S.P.; Gordin, J.E.B.; Kandhai, S. (2019). "A living theory catalogue for fast radio bursts". Physics Reports. 821: 1–27. arXiv:1810.05836. Bibcode:2019PhR...821....1P. doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2019.06.003. S2CID 119091423.
  63. ^ Fong, Richard; Doroshkevich, Andrei; Turchaninov, Victor (1995). "Dark Matter in Voids". AIP Conference Proceedings. 336: 429–432. Bibcode:1995AIPC..336..429F. doi:10.1063/1.48369.
  64. ^ Doroshkevich, Andrei; Fong, Richard; Gottlober, Stefan; Mucket, Jan; Muller, Volker (1995). "The formation and evolution of large- and superlarge-scale structure in the universe - I: General Theory". arXiv:astro-ph/9505088.
  65. ^ Geller, Margaret; Hwang, Ho Seong (2015). "Schwarzschild Lecture 2014: HectoMAPping the Universe". Astronomische Nachrichten. 336: 428. arXiv:1507.06261. doi:10.1002/asna.201512182. S2CID 11799339.
  66. ^ Ben-Amots, N. (2021). "Helium as a major portion of the dark matter and the cell structure of the universe". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1956 (1): 012006. Bibcode:2021JPhCS1956a2006B. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1956/1/012006. S2CID 235828320.
  67. ^ Charles Fefferman. "Existence and Uniqueness of the Navier-Stokes Equation" (PDF). Clay Mathematics Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  68. ^ Schlein, Benjamin. "Graduate Seminar on Partial Differential Equations in the Sciences – Energy and Dynamics of Boson Systems". Hausdorff Center for Mathematics. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  69. ^ Kenneth Chang (29 July 2008). "The Nature of Glass Remains Anything but Clear". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  70. ^ P.W. Anderson (1995). "Through the Glass Lightly". Science. 267 (5204): 1615–1616. doi:10.1126/science.267.5204.1615-e. PMID 17808155. S2CID 28052338. The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition.
  71. ^ Zaccone, A. (2023). Theory of Disordered Solids. Lecture Notes in Physics. Vol. 1015 (1st ed.). Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-031-24706-4. ISBN 978-3-031-24705-7. S2CID 259299183.
  72. ^ Pohl, R.O.; etc, etc (2002). "Low-temperature thermal conductivity and acoustic attenuation in amorphous solids". Rev. Mod Phys. 74: 991. doi:10.1080/14786437208229210.
  73. ^ Leggett, A.J. (1991). "Amorphous materials at low temperatures: why are they so similar?". Physica B. 169 (1–4): 322–327. Bibcode:1991PhyB..169..322L. doi:10.1016/0921-4526(91)90246-B.
  74. ^ Cryogenic electron emission phenomenon has no known physics explanation Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Physorg.com. Retrieved on 20 October 2011.
  75. ^ Meyer, H. O. (1 March 2010). "Spontaneous electron emission from a cold surface". Europhysics Letters. 89 (5): 58001. Bibcode:2010EL.....8958001M. doi:10.1209/0295-5075/89/58001. S2CID 122528463. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  76. ^ Storey, B. D.; Szeri, A. J. (8 July 2000). "Water vapour, sonoluminescence and sonochemistry". Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 456 (1999): 1685–1709. Bibcode:2000RSPSA.456.1685S. doi:10.1098/rspa.2000.0582. S2CID 55030028.
  77. ^ Wu, C. C.; Roberts, P. H. (9 May 1994). "A Model of Sonoluminescence". Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 445 (1924): 323–349. Bibcode:1994RSPSA.445..323W. doi:10.1098/rspa.1994.0064. S2CID 122823755.
  78. ^ Yoshida, Beni (1 October 2011). "Feasibility of self-correcting quantum memory and thermal stability of topological order". Annals of Physics. 326 (10): 2566–2633. arXiv:1103.1885. Bibcode:2011AnPhy.326.2566Y. doi:10.1016/j.aop.2011.06.001. ISSN 0003-4916. S2CID 119611494.
  79. ^ Dean, Cory R. (2015). "Even denominators in odd places". Nature Physics. 11 (4): 298–299. Bibcode:2015NatPh..11..298D. doi:10.1038/nphys3298. ISSN 1745-2481. S2CID 123159205.
  80. ^ Mukherjee, Prabir K. (1998). "Landau Theory of Nematic-Smectic-A Transition in a Liquid Crystal Mixture". Molecular Crystals & Liquid Crystals. 312 (1): 157–164. Bibcode:1998MCLCA.312..157M. doi:10.1080/10587259808042438.
  81. ^ A. Yethiraj, "Recent Experimental Developments at the Nematic to Smectic-A Liquid Crystal Phase Transition" Archived 15 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Thermotropic Liquid Crystals: Recent Advances, ed. A. Ramamoorthy, Springer 2007, chapter 8.
  82. ^ Norris, David J. (2003). "The Problem Swept Under the Rug". In Klimov, Victor (ed.). Electronic Structure in Semiconductors Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment (in Semiconductor and Metal Nanocrystals: Synthesis and Electronic and Optical Properties). CRC Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-203-91326-0. Archived from the original on 27 April 2022. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  83. ^ Lipa, J. A.; Nissen, J. A.; Stricker, D. A.; Swanson, D. R.; Chui, T. C. P. (14 November 2003). "Specific heat of liquid helium in zero gravity very near the lambda point". Physical Review B. 68 (17): 174518. arXiv:cond-mat/0310163. Bibcode:2003PhRvB..68q4518L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.68.174518. S2CID 55646571.
  84. ^ Campostrini, Massimo; Hasenbusch, Martin; Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore (6 October 2006). "Theoretical estimates of the critical exponents of the superfluid transition in $^{4}\mathrm{He}$ by lattice methods". Physical Review B. 74 (14): 144506. arXiv:cond-mat/0605083. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.74.144506. S2CID 118924734.
  85. ^ Hasenbusch, Martin (26 December 2019). "Monte Carlo study of an improved clock model in three dimensions". Physical Review B. 100 (22): 224517. arXiv:1910.05916. Bibcode:2019PhRvB.100v4517H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.100.224517. ISSN 2469-9950. S2CID 204509042.
  86. ^ Chester, Shai M.; Landry, Walter; Liu, Junyu; Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David; Su, Ning; Vichi, Alessandro (2020). "Carving out OPE space and precise $O(2)$ model critical exponents". Journal of High Energy Physics. 2020 (6): 142. arXiv:1912.03324. Bibcode:2020JHEP...06..142C. doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2020)142. S2CID 208910721.
  87. ^ Rychkov, Slava (31 January 2020). "Conformal bootstrap and the λ-point specific heat experimental anomaly". Journal Club for Condensed Matter Physics. doi:10.36471/JCCM_January_2020_02. Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  88. ^ Barton, G.; Scharnhorst, K. (1993). "QED between parallel mirrors: light signals faster than c, or amplified by the vacuum". Journal of Physics A. 26 (8): 2037. Bibcode:1993JPhA...26.2037B. doi:10.1088/0305-4470/26/8/024. A more recent follow-up paper is Scharnhorst, K. (1998). "The velocities of light in modified QED vacua". Annalen der Physik. 7 (7–8): 700–709. arXiv:hep-th/9810221. Bibcode:1998AnP...510..700S. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3889(199812)7:7/8<700::AID-ANDP700>3.0.CO;2-K. S2CID 120489943.
  89. ^ a b c Aaronson, Scott. "Ten Semi-Grand Challenges for Quantum Computing Theory". ScottAaronson.com. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  90. ^ Ball, Phillip (2021). "Major Quantum Computing Strategy Suffers Serious Setbacks". Quanta Magazine. Retrieved 2 September 2023.
  91. ^ Skyrme, Tess (20 March 2023). "The Status of Room-Temperature Quantum Computers". EE Times Europe. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  92. ^ Shor, Peter (2000). "Quantum Information Theory: Results and Open Problems" (PDF). In Alon N.; Bourgain J.; Connes A.; Gromov M.; Milman V. (eds.). Visions in Mathematics, GAFA 2000 Special Volume: Part II. Modern Birkhäuser Classics. Birkhäuser Basel. pp. 816–838. doi:10.1007/978-3-0346-0425-3_9. ISBN 978-3-0346-0425-3.
  93. ^ F. Wagner (2007). "A quarter-century of H-mode studies" (PDF). Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. 49 (12B): B1. Bibcode:2007PPCF...49....1W. doi:10.1088/0741-3335/49/12B/S01. S2CID 498401. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 February 2019..
  94. ^ André Balogh; Rudolf A. Treumann (2013). "Section 7.4 The Injection Problem". Physics of Collisionless Shocks: Space Plasma Shock Waves. Springer. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-4614-6099-2. Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  95. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn L. (2001). "Major Unsolved Problems in Space Plasma Physics". Astrophysics and Space Science. 277 (1/2): 349–369. Bibcode:2001Ap&SS.277..349G. doi:10.1023/A:1012264131485. S2CID 189821322.
  96. ^ Dill, K. A.; MacCallum, J. L. (2012). "The Protein-Folding Problem, 50 Years On". Science. 338 (6110): 1042–1046. Bibcode:2012Sci...338.1042D. doi:10.1126/science.1219021. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 23180855. S2CID 5756068.
  97. ^ Cabello, Adán (2017). "Interpretations of quantum theory: A map of madness". In Lombardi, Olimpia; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian (eds.). What is Quantum Information?. Cambridge University Press. pp. 138–143. arXiv:1509.04711. Bibcode:2015arXiv150904711C. doi:10.1017/9781316494233.009. ISBN 9781107142114. S2CID 118419619.
  98. ^ Wiseman, Howard (2014). "The Two Bell's Theorems of John Bell". Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. 47 (42): 424001. arXiv:1402.0351. Bibcode:2014JPhA...47P4001W. doi:10.1088/1751-8113/47/42/424001. ISSN 1751-8121. S2CID 119234957.
  99. ^ Fuchs, Christopher A.; Mermin, N. David; Schack, Rüdiger (2014). "An introduction to QBism with an application to the locality of quantum mechanics". American Journal of Physics. 82 (8): 749. arXiv:1311.5253. Bibcode:2014AmJPh..82..749F. doi:10.1119/1.4874855. S2CID 56387090.
  100. ^ Atmanspacher, Harald (2020), "Quantum Approaches to Consciousness", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2020 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 12 April 2023
  101. ^ Philip M. Pearle (1970), "Hidden-Variable Example Based upon Data Rejection", Phys. Rev. D, 2 (8): 1418–1425, Bibcode:1970PhRvD...2.1418P, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.2.1418
  102. ^ Hensen, B.; et al. (21 October 2015). "Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres". Nature. 526 (7575): 682–686. arXiv:1508.05949. Bibcode:2015Natur.526..682H. doi:10.1038/nature15759. PMID 26503041. S2CID 205246446.
  103. ^ Markoff, Jack (21 October 2015). "Sorry, Einstein. Quantum Study Suggests 'Spooky Action' Is Real". New York Times. Archived from the original on 31 July 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  104. ^ Giustina, M.; et al. (16 December 2015). "Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons". Physical Review Letters. 115 (25): 250401. arXiv:1511.03190. Bibcode:2015PhRvL.115y0401G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.250401. PMID 26722905. S2CID 13789503.
  105. ^ Shalm, L. K.; et al. (16 December 2015). "Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism". Physical Review Letters. 115 (25): 250402. arXiv:1511.03189. Bibcode:2015PhRvL.115y0402S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.250402. PMC 5815856. PMID 26722906.
  106. ^ "Einstein papers at the Instituut-Lorentz". Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  107. ^ Castelvecchi, Davide; Witze, Witze (11 February 2016). "Einstein's gravitational waves found at last". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19361. S2CID 182916902. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  108. ^ B. P. Abbott; et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) (2016). "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Physical Review Letters. 116 (6): 061102. arXiv:1602.03837. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. PMID 26918975. S2CID 124959784.
  109. ^ "Gravitational waves detected 100 years after Einstein's prediction". www.nsf.gov. National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 June 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  110. ^ Pretorius, Frans (2005). "Evolution of Binary Black-Hole Spacetimes". Physical Review Letters. 95 (12): 121101. arXiv:gr-qc/0507014. Bibcode:2005PhRvL..95l1101P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.121101. PMID 16197061. S2CID 24225193. Campanelli, M.; Lousto, C. O.; Marronetti, P.; Zlochower, Y. (2006). "Accurate Evolutions of Orbiting Black-Hole Binaries without Excision". Physical Review Letters. 96 (11): 111101. arXiv:gr-qc/0511048. Bibcode:2006PhRvL..96k1101C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.111101. PMID 16605808. S2CID 5954627. Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Koppitz, Michael; Van Meter, James (2006). "Gravitational-Wave Extraction from an Inspiraling Configuration of Merging Black Holes". Physical Review Letters. 96 (11): 111102. arXiv:gr-qc/0511103. Bibcode:2006PhRvL..96k1102B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.111102. PMID 16605809. S2CID 23409406.
  111. ^ R. Aaij et al. (LHCb collaboration) (2015). "Observation of J/ψp resonances consistent with pentaquark states in Λ0
    b
    →J/ψKp decays". Physical Review Letters. 115 (7): 072001. arXiv:1507.03414. Bibcode:2015PhRvL.115g2001A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.072001. PMID 26317714. S2CID 119204136.
  112. ^ a b Rafelski, Johann (2020). "Discovery of Quark-Gluon Plasma: Strangeness Diaries". The European Physical Journal Special Topics. 229 (1): 1–140. arXiv:1911.00831. Bibcode:2020EPJST.229....1R. doi:10.1140/epjst/e2019-900263-x. ISSN 1951-6355.
  113. ^ Higgs, Peter (24 November 2010). "My Life as a Boson" (PDF). Talk given by Peter Higgs at King's College, London, 24 November 2010, expanding on a paper originally presented in 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2013. – the original 2001 paper can be found at: Duff and Liu, ed. (2003) [year of publication]. 2001 A Spacetime Odyssey: Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Michigan, USA, 21–25 May 2001. World Scientific. pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-9812382313. Archived from the original on 27 April 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  114. ^ a b Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Bhat, Narayana P.; Briggs, Michael S.; Koshut, Thomas M.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N. (1993). "Identification of two classes of gamma-ray bursts". The Astrophysical Journal. 413: L101. Bibcode:1993ApJ...413L.101K. doi:10.1086/186969.
  115. ^ Cho, Adrian (16 October 2017). "Merging neutron stars generate gravitational waves and a celestial light show". Science. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  116. ^ Casttelvecchi, Davide (25 August 2017). "Rumours swell over new kind of gravitational-wave sighting". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2017.22482. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  117. ^ Shull, J. Michael, Britton D. Smith, and Charles W. Danforth. "The baryon census in a multiphase intergalactic medium: 30% of the baryons may still be missing." The Astrophysical Journal 759.1 (2012): 23.
  118. ^ "Half the universe's missing matter has just been finally found". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  119. ^ Nicastro, F.; Kaastra, J.; Krongold, Y.; Borgani, S.; Branchini, E.; Cen, R.; Dadina, M.; Danforth, C. W.; Elvis, M.; Fiore, F.; Gupta, A.; Mathur, S.; Mayya, D.; Paerels, F.; Piro, L.; Rosa-Gonzalez, D.; Schaye, J.; Shull, J. M.; Torres-Zafra, J.; Wijers, N.; Zappacosta, L. (June 2018). "Observations of the missing baryons in the warm–hot intergalactic medium". Nature. 558 (7710): 406–409. arXiv:1806.08395. Bibcode:2018Natur.558..406N. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0204-1. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 29925969. S2CID 49347964.
  120. ^ Cleveland, Bruce T.; Daily, Timothy; Davis, Jr., Raymond; Distel, James R.; Lande, Kenneth; Lee, C. K.; Wildenhain, Paul S.; Ullman, Jack (1998). "Measurement of the Solar Electron Neutrino Flux with the Homestake Chlorine Detector". The Astrophysical Journal. 496 (1): 505–526. Bibcode:1998ApJ...496..505C. doi:10.1086/305343.
  121. ^ Helled, Ravit; Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai (2015). "Saturn's fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness". Nature. 520 (7546): 202–204. arXiv:1504.02561. Bibcode:2015Natur.520..202H. doi:10.1038/nature14278. PMID 25807487. S2CID 4468877.
  122. ^ Wilczek, Frank (2012). "Quantum Time Crystals". Physical Review Letters. 109 (16): 160401. arXiv:1202.2539. Bibcode:2012PhRvL.109p0401W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.160401. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 23215056. S2CID 1312256.
  123. ^ Shapere, Alfred; Wilczek, Frank (2012). "Classical Time Crystals". Physical Review Letters. 109 (16): 160402. arXiv:1202.2537. Bibcode:2012PhRvL.109p0402S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.160402. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 23215057. S2CID 4506464.
  124. ^ Khemani, Vedika; Lazarides, Achilleas; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, S. L. (21 June 2016). "Phase Structure of Driven Quantum Systems". Physical Review Letters. 116 (25): 250401. arXiv:1508.03344. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116y0401K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.250401. PMID 27391704. S2CID 883197.
  125. ^ Else, Dominic V.; Bauer, Bela; Nayak, Chetan (25 August 2016). "Floquet Time Crystals". Physical Review Letters. 117 (9): 090402. arXiv:1603.08001. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.117i0402E. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.090402. PMID 27610834. S2CID 1652633.
  126. ^ Yao, N. Y.; Potter, A. C.; Potirniche, I.-D.; Vishwanath, A. (2017). "Discrete Time Crystals: Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations". Physical Review Letters. 118 (3): 030401. arXiv:1608.02589. Bibcode:2017PhRvL.118c0401Y. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.030401. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 28157355. S2CID 206284432. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 21 November 2021.
  127. ^ Zhang, J.; et al. (8 March 2017). "Observation of a discrete time crystal". Nature. 543 (7644): 217–220. arXiv:1609.08684. Bibcode:2017Natur.543..217Z. doi:10.1038/nature21413. PMID 28277505. S2CID 4450646.
  128. ^ Choi, S.; et al. (8 March 2017). "Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system". Nature. 543 (7644): 221–225. arXiv:1610.08057. Bibcode:2017Natur.543..221C. doi:10.1038/nature21426. PMC 5349499. PMID 28277511.
  129. ^ Khaire, V.; Srianand, R. (2015). "Photon underproduction crisis: Are QSOs sufficient to resolve it?". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. 451: L30–L34. arXiv:1503.07168. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.451L..30K. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slv060. S2CID 119263441.
  130. ^ Van Leeuwen, Floor (1999). "HIPPARCOS distance calibrations for 9 open clusters". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 341: L71. Bibcode:1999A&A...341L..71V.
  131. ^ Charles Francis; Erik Anderson (2012). "XHIP-II: Clusters and associations". Astronomy Letters. 38 (11): 681–693. arXiv:1203.4945. Bibcode:2012AstL...38..681F. doi:10.1134/S1063773712110023. S2CID 119285733.
  132. ^ OPERA collaboration (12 July 2012). "Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam". Journal of High Energy Physics. 2012 (10): 93. arXiv:1109.4897. Bibcode:2012JHEP...10..093A. doi:10.1007/JHEP10(2012)093. S2CID 17652398.
  133. ^ Turyshev, S.; Toth, V.; Kinsella, G.; Lee, S. C.; Lok, S.; Ellis, J. (2012). "Support for the Thermal Origin of the Pioneer Anomaly". Physical Review Letters. 108 (24): 241101. arXiv:1204.2507. Bibcode:2012PhRvL.108x1101T. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.241101. PMID 23004253. S2CID 2368665.
  134. ^ Overbye, Dennis (23 July 2012). "Mystery Tug on Spacecraft Is Einstein's 'I Told You So'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2014.