Developer(s)Waterloo Maple (Maplesoft)
Initial release1982
Stable release
2022 (15 March 2022; 4 months ago (2022-03-15)) [±][1]
Written inC, Java, Maple
PlatformWindows (7, 8 and 10), macOS, Linux
Available inEnglish, Japanese, and limited support in additional languages[2]
TypeComputer algebra system, Numeric computation
LicenseProprietary commercial software

Maple is a symbolic and numeric computing environment as well as a multi-paradigm programming language. It covers several areas of technical computing, such as symbolic mathematics, numerical analysis, data processing, visualization, and others. A toolbox, MapleSim, adds functionality for multidomain physical modeling and code generation.

Maple's capacity for symbolic computing include those of a general-purpose computer algebra system. For instance, it can manipulate mathematical expressions and find symbolic solutions to certain problems, such as those arising from ordinary and partial differential equations.

Maple is developed commercially by the Canadian software company Maplesoft. The name 'Maple' is a reference to the software's Canadian heritage.


Core functionality

Users can enter mathematics in traditional mathematical notation. Custom user interfaces can also be created. There is support for numeric computations, to arbitrary precision, as well as symbolic computation and visualization. Examples of symbolic computations are given below.

Maple incorporates a dynamically typed imperative-style programming language (resembling Pascal), which permits variables of lexical scope.[3] There are also interfaces to other languages (C, C#, Fortran, Java, MATLAB, and Visual Basic), as well as to Microsoft Excel.

Maple supports MathML 2.0, which is a W3C format for representing and interpreting mathematical expressions, including their display in web pages.[4] There is also functionality for converting expressions from traditional mathematical notation to markup suitable for the typesetting system LaTeX.


Maple is based on a small kernel, written in C, which provides the Maple language. Most functionality is provided by libraries, which come from a variety of sources. Most of the libraries are written in the Maple language; these have viewable source code. Many numerical computations are performed by the NAG Numerical Libraries, ATLAS libraries, or GMP libraries.

Different functionality in Maple requires numerical data in different formats. Symbolic expressions are stored in memory as directed acyclic graphs. The standard interface and calculator interface are written in Java.


The first concept of Maple arose from a meeting in late 1980 at the University of Waterloo.[5] Researchers at the university wished to purchase a computer powerful enough to run the Lisp-based computer algebra system Macsyma. Instead, they opted to develop their own computer algebra system, named Maple, that would run on lower cost computers. Aiming for portability, they began writing Maple in programming languages from the BCPL family (initially using a subset of B and C, and later on only C).[5] A first limited version appeared after three weeks, and fuller versions entered mainstream use beginning in 1982.[6] By the end of 1983, over 50 universities had copies of Maple installed on their machines.[citation needed]

In 1984, the research group arranged with Watcom Products Inc to license and distribute the first commercially available version, Maple 3.3.[6] In 1988 Waterloo Maple Inc. (Maplesoft) was founded. The company’s original goal was to manage the distribution of the software, but eventually it grew to have its own R&D department, where most of Maple's development takes place today (the remainder being done at various university laboratories[7]).

In 1989, the first graphical user interface for Maple was developed and included with version 4.3 for the Macintosh. X11 and Windows versions of the new interface followed in 1990 with Maple V. In 1992, Maple V Release 2 introduced the Maple "worksheet" that combined text, graphics, and input and typeset output.[8] In 1994 a special issue of a newsletter created by Maple developers called MapleTech was published.[9]

In 1999, with the release of Maple 6, Maple included some of the NAG Numerical Libraries.[10] In 2003, the current "standard" interface was introduced with Maple 9. This interface is primarily written in Java (although portions, such as the rules for typesetting mathematical formulae, are written in the Maple language). The Java interface was criticized for being slow;[11] improvements have been made in later versions, although the Maple 11 documentation[12] recommends the previous ("classic") interface for users with less than 500 MB of physical memory.

Between 1995 and 2005 Maple lost significant market share to competitors due to a weaker user interface.[13] With Maple 10 in 2005, Maple introduced a new "document mode" interface, which has since been further developed across several releases.

In September 2009 Maple and Maplesoft were acquired by the Japanese software retailer Cybernet Systems.[14]

Version history


Features of Maple include:[27]

Examples of Maple code

The following code, which computes the factorial of a nonnegative integer, is an example of an imperative programming construct within Maple:

myfac := proc(n::nonnegint)
   local out, i;
   out := 1;
   for i from 2 to n do
       out := out * i
   end do;
end proc;

Simple functions can also be defined using the "maps to" arrow notation:

 myfac := n -> product(i, i = 1..n);



 int(cos(x/a), x);



Compute the determinant of a matrix.

 M := Matrix([[1,2,3], [a,b,c], [x,y,z]]);  # example Matrix

Series expansion

series(tanh(x), x = 0, 15)

Solve equations numerically

The following code numerically calculates the roots of a high-order polynomial:

 f := x^53-88*x^5-3*x-5 = 0


 -1.097486315, -.5226535640, 1.099074017

The same command can also solve systems of equations:

 f := (cos(x+y))^2 + exp(x)*y+cot(x-y)+cosh(z+x) = 0:

 g := x^5 - 8*y = 2:

 h := x+3*y-77*z=55;
 fsolve( {f,g,h} );

 {x = -1.543352313, y = -1.344549481, z = -.7867142955}

Plotting of function of single variable

Plot with ranging from -10 to 10:

 plot(x*sin(x), x = -10..10);

Plotting of function of two variables

Plot with and ranging from -1 to 1:

plot3d(x^2+y^2, x = -1..1, y = -1..1);

Animation of functions

plots:-animate(subs(k = 0.5, f), x=-30..30, t=-10..10, numpoints=200, frames=50, color=red, thickness=3);
2D bell solution
2D bell solution
plots:-animate3d(cos(t*x)*sin(3*t*y), x=-Pi..Pi, y=-Pi..Pi, t=1..2);
3D animation of function
3D animation of function
 M := Matrix([[400,400,200], [100,100,-400], [1,1,1]], datatype=float[8]):
 plot3d(1, x=0..2*Pi, y=0..Pi, axes=none, coords=spherical, viewpoint=[path=M]);
Maple plot3D fly-through
Maple plot3D fly-through

Laplace transform

f := (1+A*t+B*t^2)*exp(c*t);
 inttrans:-laplace(f, t, s);
inttrans:-invlaplace(1/(s-a), s, x);

Fourier transform

 inttrans:-fourier(sin(x), x, w)

Integral equations

Find functions that satisfy the integral equation

eqn:= f(x)-3*Int((x*y+x^2*y^2)*f(y), y=-1..1) = h(x):

Use of the Maple engine

The Maple engine is used within several other products from Maplesoft:

Listed below are third-party commercial products that no longer use the Maple engine:

See also


  1. ^ "Maplesoft Media Releases". Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  2. ^ "International Language Support in Maple". Maplesoft. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  3. ^ Power of two Bitwise Magazine
  4. ^ "Welcome to the Maplesoft MathML Home Page".
  5. ^ a b MacCallum, Malcolm A. H. (2018). "Computer algebra in gravity research". Living Reviews in Relativity. 21 (1): 6. doi:10.1007/s41114-018-0015-6. ISSN 2367-3613. PMC 6105178. PMID 30174551.
  6. ^ a b "History of Maple". 1998-12-15. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  7. ^ Two such university labs are the Symbolic Computation Group at the University of Waterloo and the Ontario Research Centre for Computer Algebra at the University of Western Ontario
  8. ^ Maple V Release 2 Notes Maplesoft
  9. ^ "MTN Special Issue 1994".
  10. ^ Maple 6.0 Macworld, Feb 2001
  11. ^ Capturing knowledge with pure maths, Scientific Computing World.
  12. ^ Maple 11 Installation Guide Maplesoft
  13. ^ Interview with Gaston Gonnet, co-creator of Maple Archived 2007-12-29 at the Wayback Machine, SIAM History of Numerical Analysis and Computing, 16 March 2005
  14. ^ "Maplesoft Media Releases".
  15. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Maple 13 and MapleSim 2 now available". Retrieved 28 Apr 2009.
  16. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Announcing Maple 14 and MapleSim 4". Retrieved 29 Apr 2010.
  17. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Introducing Maple 15". Retrieved 11 Apr 2011.
  18. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Maple 16 is here". Retrieved 28 Mar 2012.
  19. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Introducing Maple 17". Retrieved 13 Mar 2013.
  20. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Announcing Maple 18". Retrieved 5 Mar 2014.
  21. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Maple 2015 is now available!". Retrieved 4 Mar 2015.
  22. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Announcing Maple 2016". Retrieved 2 Mar 2016.
  23. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Announcing Maple 2017". Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  24. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Maple 2018 is here!". Retrieved 21 Mar 2018.
  25. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Announcing Maple 2019". Retrieved 14 Mar 2019.
  26. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Maple 2020 has launched!". Retrieved 20 Mar 2020.
  27. ^ "What is Maple: Product Features - Math & Engineering Software - Maplesoft".
  28. ^ Using the New Fly-through Feature in Maple 13 Maplesoft
  29. ^ Mahmud, Khizir; Town, Graham E. (June 2016). "A review of computer tools for modeling electric vehicle energy requirements and their impact on power distribution networks". Applied Energy. 172: 337–359. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.03.100.
  30. ^ "MaplePrimes Blog - Introducing the Maple Quantum Chemistry Toolbox". Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  31. ^ "Release Notes for Symbolic Math Toolbox". MathWorks. Retrieved 10 July 2014.