Depiction of Siddha Shila as per Jain cosmology which is abode of infinite Siddhas

Sanskrit moksha or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, attained after the destruction of all karmic bonds. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge and infinite perception. Such a soul is called siddha and is revered in Jainism.

In Jainism, moksha is the highest and the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. In fact, it is the only objective that a person should have; other objectives are contrary to the true nature of soul. With the right view, knowledge and efforts all souls can attain this state. That is why Jainism is also known as mokṣamārga or the "path to liberation".

According to the Sacred Jain Text, Tattvartha sutra:

Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage and with the functioning of the dissociation of karmas the annihilation of all karmas is liberation.

— Tattvārthsūtra (10-2)[1]


From the point of view of potentiality of mokṣa, Jain texts bifurcates the souls into two categories: bhavya and abhavya. Bhavya souls are those souls who have faith in mokṣa and hence will make some efforts to achieve liberation.[2] This potentiality or quality is called bhavyata.[2] However, bhavyata itself does not guarantee mokṣa, as the soul needs to expend necessary efforts to attain it. On the other hand, abhavya souls are those souls who cannot attain liberation as they do not have faith in mokṣa and hence never make any efforts to attain it.[2]

The path to liberation

According to Jainism, purification of soul and liberation can be achieved through the path of three jewels:[3][4][5] Samyak darśana (Correct View), meaning faith, acceptance of the truth of soul (jīva);[6] Samyak jnana (Correct Knowledge), meaning undoubting knowledge of the tattvas;[7] and Samyak charitra (Correct Conduct), meaning behavior consistent with the Five vows.[7] Jain texts often add samyak tap (Correct Asceticism) as a fourth jewel, emphasizing belief in ascetic practices as the means to liberation (moksha).[8] The four jewels are called moksha marg.[4] According to Jain texts, the liberated pure soul (Siddha) goes up to the summit of universe (Siddhashila) and dwells there in eternal bliss.[9]

According to Jainism, the Ratnatraya or "three Gems", samyagdarśana (correct perception), samyagjñāna (right knowledge) and samyakchāritra (right conduct), together constitute the mokṣamarga or the path to liberation.[10] According to Acharya KundaKunda's Samayasara:

Belief in the nine substances as they are is right faith (samyagdarśana). Knowledge of these substances without doubt, delusion or misapprehension, is right knowledge (samyagjñāna). Being free from attachment etc. is right conduct (samyakcāritra). These three, together, constitute the path to liberation.[11]

Samyak Darsana or rational perception is the rational faith in the true nature of every substance of the universe.[12][page needed]

Samyak Caritra or rational conduct is the natural conduct of a (soul) living being. It consists in following austerities, engaging in right activities and observance of vows, carefulness and controls.[13] Once a soul secures samyaktva, mokṣa is assured within a few lifetimes. The fourteen stages on the path to liberation are called Gunasthāna. These are:[14]

Gunasthāna (Stages on the Path) Meaning
1. Mithyātva The stage of wrong believer (Gross ignorance)
2. Sasādana Downfall from right faith
3. Misradrsti Mixed right and wrong belief
4. Avirata samyagdrsti Vowless right belief
5. Deśavirata The stage of partial self-control
6. Pramattasamyata Slightly imperfect vows
7. Apramatta samyata Perfect vows (Mahavratas)
8. Apūrvakaraņa New thought-activity
9. Anivāttibādara-sāmparāya Advanced thought-activity (Passions are still occurring)
10. Sukshma samparaya Slightest delusion
11. Upaśānta-kasāya Subsided delusion
12. Ksīna kasāya Destroyed delusion
13. Sayoga kevali Omniscience with vibration (destruction of all inimical karmas)
14. Ayoga kevali The stage of omniscience without any activity

Those who pass the last stage are called siddha and become fully established in Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct.[15]


Nirvāna means final release from the karmic bondage. When an enlightened human, such as an Arihant or a Tirthankara, extinguishes his remaining aghatiya karmas and thus ends his worldly existence, it is called nirvāna. Technically, the death of an Arhat is called their nirvāṇa, as he has ended his worldly existence and attained liberation. Moksha (liberation) follows nirvāṇa. However, the terms moksa and nirvana are often used interchangeably in the Jain texts.[16][17] An Arhat becomes a siddha, the liberated one, after attaining nirvana.

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira died, freed from all pains, the eighteen confederate kings of Kasi and Kosala, the nine Mallakis and nine Licchavis, on the day of new moon, instituted an illuminations on the Poshadha, which was a fasting day; for they said: 'Since the light of intelligence is gone, let us make an illumination of material matter!'(128)[18]

Liberated soul

A liberated soul dwells in Siddhashila with infinite faith, infinite knowledge, infinite perception, and infinite perfection. According to the Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya:

Having achieved the ultimate goal, knowing everything that needs to be known, and enjoying eternal and supreme bliss, the Omniscient, Effulgent Soul, rests permanently in the Highest State (of liberation).

— Puruşārthasiddhyupāya (224)[19]

See also



  1. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2011, p. 146.
  2. ^ a b c Jaini 2000, p. 95.
  3. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2011, p. 6.
  4. ^ a b Cort 2001a, pp. 6–7.
  5. ^ Fohr 2015, pp. 9–10, 37.
  6. ^ Jaini 1998, pp. 141–147.
  7. ^ a b Jaini 1998, pp. 148, 200.
  8. ^ Cort 2001a, p. 7.
  9. ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 282–283.
  10. ^ Kuhn, Hermann (2001). Karma, The Mechanism : Create Your Own Fate. Wunstorf, Germany: Crosswind Publishing. ISBN 3-9806211-4-6.
  11. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 165.
  12. ^ Jaini 1998.
  13. ^ *Varni, Jinendra (1993). Prof. Sagarmal Jain, Translated Justice T.K. Tukol and Dr. K.K. Dixit (ed.). Samaṇ Suttaṁ. New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. Verse 262 - 4
  14. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2014, p. 14.
  15. ^ Champat Rai Jain (1917), The Practical Path, The Central Jaina Publishing House, p. 121
  16. ^ Jaini 2000, p. 168.
  17. ^ Michael Carrithers, Caroline Humphrey (1991) The Assembly of listeners: Jains in society Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521365058: "Nirvana: A synonym for liberation, release, moksa." p.297
  18. ^ Jacobi, Hermann; Ed. F. Max Müller (1884). Kalpa Sutra, Jain Sutras Part I, Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 22. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
  19. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 178.