Panch Kalyanaka (Sanskrit: pan̄ca kalyāṇaka, "Five Auspicious Events") are the five chief auspicious events that occur in the life of tirthankara in Jainism.[1][2][3] They are commemorated as part of many Jain rituals and festivals.[4]

Kalyanaka

These auspicious life events are as below:[3][4][5][6]

  1. Garbh kalyāṇaka: When the ātman (soul) of a tirthankara enter's their mother's womb.[7]
  2. Janma kalyāṇaka: Birth of the tirthankara.[2][7] Janmabhisheka [8] is a ritual celebrating this event in which Indra does abhisheka with 1008 Kalasha (holy vessels) on the tirthankara on Mount Meru.[9]
  3. Dīkṣā kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara renounce all worldly possessions and becomes an ascetic.[10]
  4. Kēvalajñāna kalyāṇaka: The event when a tirthankara attains kēvalajñāna (absolute knowledge). A divine samavasarana (preaching hall) appears, from where the tirthankara delivers sermons and restores the Jain community and teachings.[11]
  5. Nirvāṇa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara leaves their mortal body, it is known as nirvana. It is followed by final liberation, moksha. A tirthankara is considered a Siddha after that.[12][13]

Kalyanaka Dates of 24 Tirthankara

These dates are called Kalyanaka Tithi. All dates are considered according to Jain calendar known as Jain Panchang based on the Vira Nirvana Samvat, but they differ according to different sects of Jain tradition and sometimes different within the same tradition also.[14][15][16][17][s][d][o]

The following table states the Kalyanaka Tithis according to the Digambar Jain tradition from the Vira Nirvana Samvat Calendar.

No. Tirthankara Garbha Kalyanaka Janma Kalyanaka Tapa Kalyanaka Jnana Kalyanaka Nirvana Kalyanaka
1 Rishabhanatha Ashadha Krishna 2 Chaitra Krishna 9 Chaitra Krishna 9 Falguna Krishna 11 Magha Krishna 14
2 Ajitanatha Jyeshtha Krishna 15 Magha Shukla 10 Magha Shukla 10 Pausha Shukla 11 Chaitra Shukla 5
3 Sambhavanatha Falguna Shukla 8 Kartika Shukla 15 Margashirsha Shukla 15 Kartika Krishna 4 Chaitra Shukla 6
4 Abhinandananatha Vaishakha Shukla 6 Magha Shukla 12 Magha Shukla 12 Pausha Shukla 14 Vaishakha Shukla 6
5 Sumatinatha Shravana Shukla 2 Chaitra Shukla 11 Vaishakha Shukla 9 Chaitra Shukla 11 Chaitra Shukla 11
6 Padmaprabhu Magha Krishna 6 Kartika Krishna 13 Kartika Krishna 13 Chaitra Shukla 15 Falguna Krishna 4
7 Suparshvanatha Bhadrapada Shukla 6 Jyeshtha Shukla 12 Jyeshtha Krishna 12 Falguna Krishna 6 Falguna Krishna 7
8 Chandraprabhu Chaitra Krishna 5 Pausha Krishna 11 Pausha Krishna 11 Falguna Krishna 7 Falguna Krishna 7
9 Pushpadanta Falguna Krishna 9 Margashirsha Krishna 1 Margashirsha Shukla 1 Kartika Shukla 2 Bhadrapada Shukla 8
10 Shitalanatha Chaitra Krishna 8 Magha Krishna 12 Magha Krishna 12 Pausha Krishna 14 Ashvina Shukla 8
11 Shreyansanatha Jyeshtha Krishna 6 Falguna Krishna 11 Falguna Krishna 11 Magha Krishna 15 Shravana Shukla 15
12 Vasupujya Ashadha Krishna 6 Falguna Krishna 14 Falguna Krishna 14 Magha Shukla 2 Bhadrapada Shukla 14
13 Vimalanatha Jyeshtha Krishna 10 Magha Shukla 4 Magha Shukla 4 Magha Shukla 6 Ashadha Krishna 8
14 Anantanatha Kartika Krishna 1 Jyeshtha Krishna 12 Jyeshtha Krishna 12 Chaitra Krishna 15 Chaitra Krishna 15
15 Dharmanatha Vaishakha Krishna 14 Magha Shukla 13 Magha Shukla 13 Pausha Shukla 15 Jyeshtha Shukla 4
16 Shantinatha Bhadrapada Krishna 7 Jyeshtha Krishna 14 Jyeshtha Krishna 14 Pausha Shukla 10 Jyeshtha Krishna 14
17 Kunthunatha Shravana Shukla 10 Vaishakha Shukla 1 Vaishakha Shukla 1 Chaitra Shukla 3 Vaishakha Shukla 1
18 Arahanatha Falguna Shukla 3 Margashirsha Shukla 14 Margashirsha Shukla 10 Kartika Shukla 12 Chaitra Krishna 15
19 Mallinatha Chaitra Shukla 1 Margashirsha Shukla 11 Margashirsha Shukla 11 Pausha Krishna 2 Falguna Shukla 5
20 Munisuvrata Shravana Krishna 2 Vaishakha Krishna 10 Vaishakha Krishna 10 Vaishakha Krishna 9 Falguna Krishna 12
21 Naminatha Ashvina Krishna 2 Ashadha Krishna 10 Ashadha Krishna 10 Margashirsha Shukla 11 Vaishakha Krishna 14
22 Neminatha Kartika Shukla 6 Shravana Shukla 6 Shravana Shukla 6 Ashvina Shukla 1 Ashadha Shukla 7
23 Parshvanatha Vaishakha Krishna 2 Pausha Krishna 11 Pausha Krishna 11 Chaitra Krishna 4 Shravana Shukla 7
24 Mahavira Ashadha Shukla 6 Chaitra Shukla 13 Margashirsha Krishna 10 Vaishakha Shukla 10 Kartika Krishna 15


Note: This list is according to Śvētāmbara tradition and months are according to the Gujarati calendar.

No. Tirthankara Garbh Kalyanaka Janma Kalyanaka Diksha Kalyanaka Kevala Jnana Kalyanaka Nirvana Kalyanaka
1 Rishabha Jeth Vad 4 Fagan Vad 8 Fagan Vad 8 Maha Vad 11 Posh Vad 13
2 Ajitanatha Vaisakh Sud 13 Maha Sud 8 Maha Sud 9 Posh Sud 11 Chaitra Sud 5
3 Sambhavanatha Fagan Sud 8 Magsar Sud 14 Magasar Sud 15 Asho Vad 5 Chaitra Sud 5
4 Abhinandananatha Vaisakh Sud 4 Maha Sud 2 Maha Sud 12 Posh Sud 14 Vaisakh Sud 8
5 Sumatinatha Shravan Sud 2 Vaisakh Sud 8 Vaisakh Sud 9 Chaitra Sud 11 Chaitra Sud 9
6 Padmaprabha Posh Vad 6 Asho Vad 12 Asho Vad 13 Chaitra Sud 11 Chaitra Sud 9
7 Suparshvanatha Shravan Vad 8 Jeth Sud 12 Jeth Sud 13 Maha Vad 6 Maha Vad 7
8 Chandraprabha Fagan Vad 5 Magasar Vad 12 Magasar Vad 13 Maha Vad 7 Shravan Vad 7
9 Pushpadanta Maha Vad 9 Kartak Vad 5 Kartak Vad 6 Kartak Sud 3 Bhadarva Sud 9
10 Shitalanatha Chaitra Vad 6 Posh Vad 12 Posh Vad 13 Magasar Vad 14 Chaitra Vad 2
11 Shreyanasanatha Vaisakh Vad 6 Maha Vad 12 Maha Vad 13 Posh Vad Amaas Ashadh Vad 3
12 Vasupujya Jeth Sud 9 Maha Vad 14 Maha Vad Amaas Maha Sud 2 Asadh Sud 14
13 Vimalanatha Vaisakh Sud 12 Maha Sud 3 Maha Sud 4 Posh Sud 6 Jeth Vad 7
14 Anantanatha Asadh Vad 7 Chaitra Vad 13 Chaitra Vad 14 Chaitra Vad 14 Chaitra Sud 5
15 Dharmanatha Vaisakh Sud 7 Maha Sud 3 Maha Sud 12 Posh sud 15 Jeth Sud 5
16 Shantinatha Shravan Vad 7 Vaishakh Vad 13 Vaiskh Vad 14 Posh Sud 9 Vaisakh Vad 13
17 Kunthunatha Asadh Vad 9 Chaitra Vad 14 Chaitra Vad 5 Chaitra Vad 5 Chaitra Vad 1
18 Aranatha Fagan Sud 2 Magsar Sud 10 Magsar Sud 11 Kartik Sud 12 Magsar Sud 10
19 Māllīnātha Fagan Sud 4 Magsar Sud 11 Magsar Sud 11 Magsar Sud 11 Fagan Sud 12
20 Munisuvrata Shravan Sud 15 Vaisakh Vad 8 Fagan Sud 12 Shravan Vad 12 Vaisakh Vad 9
21 Naminatha Asho Sud 15 Ashadh Vad 8 Jeth Vad 9 Magsar Sud 11 Chaitra Vad 10
22 Neminatha Asho Vad 12 Shravan Sud 5 Shravan Sud 6 Bhadarva Vad Amaas Ashadh Sud 8
23 Parshvanatha Fagan Vad 4 Magsar Vad 10 Magsar Vad 11 Fagan Vad 4 Shravan Sud 7
24 Mahavira Asadh Sud 6 Chaitra Sud 13 Kartak Vad 10 Vaisakh Sud 10 Asho Vad Amaas
Keys

Kalyanaka Places of 24 Tirthankara

Kalyanaka Bhumi are places where any of these Kalyanaka took place in relation to 24 Tirthankara. They are considered places of pilgrimage by Jains.[5] 20 out of 24 Tirthankaras' Nirvana kalyanaka took place at Shikharji.[13]

They are as below:[13][18][19]

No. Tirthankara Chyavan Kalyanaka Janma Kalyanaka Diksha Kalyanaka Keval Gyan Kalyanaka Nirvan Kalyanaka
1 Rishabha Ayodhya Purimtal ( now Prayag or Allahabad) Ashtapad
2 Ajitnath Ayodhya Shikharji
3 Sambhavanath Shravasti
4 Abhinandananatha Ayodhya
5 Sumatinath
6 Padmaprabha Kausambi
7 Suparshvanath Bhadaini, Varanasi
8 Chandraprabha Chandrapuri
9 Suvidhinatha Kakandi (now Khukhundu, Deoria district)
10 Sheetalnath Bhadilpur or Bhadrikapuri
11 Shreyansanath Sinhpuri, Varanasi
12 Vasupujya Champapuri (now Bhagalpur)[20]
13 Vimalnath Kampilya Shikharji
14 Anantnath Ayodhya
15 Dharmanath Ratnapuri
16 Shantinath Hastinapur
17 Kunthunath
18 Aranath
19 Mallinath Mithila
20 Munisuvrata Rajgruhi
21 Nami Natha Mithila
22 Neminatha Sauripur Girnar
23 Parshva Varanasi Ahichchhatra Shikharji
24 Mahavira Kundalagrama (Kshatriya Kund) near Vaishali Rijuvalika Pavapuri

Rituals

Some Jain rituals have close relationship with these five Kalyanakas. Panch Kalyanaka Puja is a ritual solemnizes all five Kalyanaka. It was narrated by Pandit Virvijay. Snatra Puja is a ritual related to Janma Kalyanaka in which icons of Tirthankara are bathed symbolising Indra doing Abhisheka on Tirthankara on Mount Meru after birth of Tirthankara. It performed before many other rituals and before starting of new enterprises, birthdays.[9]

When a new Jain Temple is erected, these Five Auspicious Life Events are celebrated known as Panch Kalyanaka Pratishtha Mahotsava. It is followed by Anjana Shalaka, a ceremony to install new Tirthankara icon. An Acharya recite mantras related to Panch Kalyanaka followed by applying special paste to eyes of Tirthankara image. After these an icons of Tirthankara gets a status of real Tirthankara which can be worshipped by Jains. Acharya have to fast for three days before that.[21]

Festivals

Many Jain festivals mark Kalyanaka of Tirthankara especially Janma and Nirvana Kalyanaka.

Mahavir Janma Kalyanak marks Janma Kalyanak (birth) of 24th Tirthankara, Mahavira. Abhisheka of icons are done on this day and procession celebrating this event takes place in the cities. It is on 13th day of bright half of Chaitra month of Jain calendar (March/April).[9]

Diwali is a day of Nirvana Kalyanaka of Mahavira. He attained Moksha on this day in 527 BCE. It falls on fifteenth day of dark half of Ashwin (Aaso) month (September/October) which is also a last day of a year.[9]

Pausha Dashmi is celebrated on 10th day of dark half of Pausha (Pushya) month of Hindu calendar(December/January). It marks Janma kalyanaka (birth) of 23rd Tirthankara, Parshvanath. Three days fast is observed by many Jains.

Maun Agiyaras or Ekadashi marks Kalyanaka of many Tirthankaras. It is celebrated on 11th day of Magshar month of Jain calendar (October/November). On this day, complete silence is observed and fasting is kept. Meditation is also performed.[9]

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998). The Jaina Path Of Purification. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 196, 343, 347. ISBN 9788120815780. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  3. ^ a b Mehta, Jodh Sinha (1970). Abu to Udaipur: (Celestial Simla to City of Sunrise). Motilal Banarsidass Publisher. p. 20. ISBN 9788185066172. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  4. ^ a b Cort, John E. (2001). Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India. Oxford University Press. p. 110. ISBN 9780195132342. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  5. ^ a b Lal, Kanwar (1961). Holy cities of India. Asia Press. p. 59. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  6. ^ Eberhard Fischer, Jyotindra Jain (1978). Jaina Iconography, Volume 1. BRILL. pp. 4–13. ISBN 9789004052598. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  7. ^ a b "Garbh Kalyanak". www.herenow4u.net. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  8. ^ https://www.jainkosh.org/wiki/%E0%A4%9C%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AD%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%95
  9. ^ a b c d e Wiley, Kristi L. (2009). The A to Z of Jainism. Scarecrow Press. pp. 200, 246. ISBN 9780810868212. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  10. ^ "Diksha Kalyanak". www.herenow4u.net. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  11. ^ "Kevaljnana Kalyanak". www.herenow4u.net. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  12. ^ "Nirvana Kalyanak". www.herenow4u.net. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  13. ^ a b c Dalal, Roshen (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books India. p. 369. ISBN 9780143415176. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  14. ^ "PANCH KALYANAK of 24 TIRTHANKAR". jainuniversity.org. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  15. ^ "Kalyanak Year 2012-13". www.jain24.org. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  16. ^ "Jain Panchang 2010-Page 2" (PDF). jaindial.com/Jain_Panchang.asp. www.jaindial.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  17. ^ "Activity / Tithi Calendar showing Feb-2011/Posh-Maha month Kalyanaka". www.melbournejainsangh.org. Melbourne Jain Sangh. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  18. ^ "kalyanak-bhumi". jainuniversity.org. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  19. ^ Uttar Pradesh Tourism. "Ahicchatra" (PDF). Uttar Pradesh Tourism.
  20. ^ Krishnachandra Ghosh, Puran Chand Nahar (1988). Jainism, precepts and practice, Volume 2. Caxton. p. 689. ISBN 9788185066172. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  21. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998). The Jaina Path Of Purification. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 196–199. ISBN 9788120815780. Retrieved 10 December 2012.