Moto Hagio
Hagio in 2008
Born (1949-05-12) May 12, 1949 (age 74)
OccupationManga artist
Years active1969–present
Notable work
TitlePerson of Cultural Merit

Moto Hagio (萩尾 望都, Hagio Moto, born May 12, 1949) is a Japanese manga artist. Regarded for her contributions to shōjo manga (manga aimed at young and adolescent women), Hagio is considered the most significant artist in the demographic and among the most influential manga artists of all time, being referred to as the "god of shōjo manga" (少女漫画の神様, shōjo manga no kami-sama) by critics.

Hagio made her debut as a manga artist in 1969 at the publishing company Kodansha before moving to Shogakukan in 1971, where she was able to publish her more radical and unconventional works that had been rejected by other publishers. Her first serializations at Shogakukan – the vampire fantasy The Poe Clan, the shōnen-ai (male-male romance) drama The Heart of Thomas, and the science fiction thriller They Were Eleven – were among the first works of shōjo manga to achieve mainstream critical and commercial success. Hagio subsequently emerged as a central figure in the Year 24 Group, a grouping of female manga artists who significantly influenced shōjo manga in the 1970s by introducing new aesthetic styles and expanding the category to incorporate new genres. Since the 1980s, Hagio has drawn primarily adult-oriented manga in the manga magazine Petit Flower and its successor publication Flowers, notably Marginal, A Cruel God Reigns, and Nanohana.

While Hagio primarily authors works in the science fiction, fantasy, and shōnen-ai genres, her manga explores a wide range of themes and subjects, including comedy, historical drama, and social and environmental issues. She has been recognized with numerous awards both in Japan and internationally, including the Order of the Rising Sun, a Medal of Honor, and commendation as a Person of Cultural Merit.


Early life and career

Moto Hagio was born on May 12, 1949, in Ōmuta, Fukuoka.[1] The second of four siblings, Hagio's father worked as dockworker, while her mother was a homemaker. Because of her father's job, the Hagio family moved frequently between Omuta and Suita in Osaka Prefecture.[2] Hagio began to draw at an early age in her spare time, and attended private art lessons with her older sister.[3] In her third year of elementary school, she began reading manga that she acquired at kashi-hon (book rental stores) and her school library.[1][4] Her parents discouraged her interest in illustration and manga, which Hagio states they viewed as "something for children not old enough to read" and "an impediment to studying"; this would be a major contributing factor to what would become a lifelong strained relationship with her parents.[3]

During her childhood, Hagio read and became influenced by the works of manga artists Osamu Tezuka, Shōtarō Ishinomori, Hideko Mizuno, and Masako Watanabe, as well as literary fiction by Japanese authors such as Kenji Miyazawa and western science fiction and fantasy authors such as Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke, and Robert A. Heinlein.[3][4] She began to seriously consider a professional career in manga after reading Tezuka's manga series Shinsengumi in 1965,[5] and in 1967 began submitting manga manuscripts to various publishers, including Kodansha, Shueisha, and Tezuka's own manga magazine COM.[2]

In her senior year of high school Hagio met manga artist Makiko Hirata [ja], who also lived in Ōmuta and was pursuing a professional career at Kodansha while still in high school. After graduating, Hirata moved to Tokyo and offered to introduce Hagio to her editor, which Hagio accepted.[3] Hagio made her professional debut as a manga artist in Kodansha's Nakayoshi manga magazine, with the short stories Lulu to Mimi in August 1969 and Suteki na Mahō in September 1969.[3] Hagio began working for Nakayoshi under a new editor, but struggled under the editorial constraints of the magazine: Nakayoshi published primarily sports manga for children, while Hagio preferred to write science fiction and fantasy stories focused on mature themes and subject material. Her next four manuscripts submitted to Nakayoshi were consequently rejected, with her editors instructing her to write stories that were "more interesting and cheerful".[6] In 1970, Hagio published the one-shot (single-chapter) manga stories Cool Cat and Bakuhatsu Gaisha in Nakayoshi.[7]

Breakthrough and the Year 24 Group

Main article: Year 24 Group

Shortly after her debut, Hagio began pen pal correspondence with Norie Masuyama [ja], a fan of Hagio's who discovered her work through Nakayoshi. Masuyama gifted Hagio a copy of the novel Demian by Hermann Hesse, an author whose novels came to greatly affect Hagio and significantly influenced her manga.[6] Contemporaneously, Hagio's editor assigned her to assist manga artist Keiko Takemiya, whose work had been published in Nakayoshi, COM, and Margaret. The two artists became friends, and Takemiya suggested that they move to an apartment in Tokyo together; Hagio, who was still living with her parents in Ōmuta and unsure of her future as a manga artist, initially refused her invitation.[7] Shortly thereafter, Takemiya introduced Hagio to Junya Yamamoto [ja], an editor at Shogakukan and editor-in-chief of the manga magazine Bessatsu Shōjo Comic. Yamamoto agreed to publish Hagio's previously rejected manuscripts, and Hagio accepted Takemiya's offer to move to Tokyo.[7]

In 1971, Hagio and Takemiya moved to a rented house in Ōizumigakuenchō, Nerima, Tokyo located near the home of Norie Masuyama. Together, the three women decided to create a living space modeled off of 19th French literary salons, nicknamed the "Ōizumi Salon". The Ōizumi Salon aimed to improve the quality and reputation of shōjo manga, a demographic which at the time was dismissed by critics as publishing frivolous stories for young children.[8][9] Numerous shōjo artists visited the Ōizumi Salon, including Shio Satō, Yasuko Sakata, Yukiko Kai, Akiko Hatsu, Nanae Sasaya, Mineko Yamada [ja], Aiko Ito [ja], Michi Tarasawa [ja], and Misako Nachi [ja].[10] This grouping of artists would come to be referred to as the Year 24 Group.[a] The Year 24 Group contributed significantly to the development of shōjo manga by introducing new aesthetic styles and expanding the demographic to incorporate elements of science fiction, historical fiction, adventure fiction, and same-sex romance: both male-male (shōnen-ai and yaoi) and female-female (yuri).[12] During this period, Hagio published the shōnen-ai one-shot The November Gymnasium in 1971, followed by the vampire fantasy The Poe Clan in 1972, [13] with the latter series becoming Hagio's first major critical and commercial success. The Poe Clan was also the first series that Shogakukan published as a tankōbon (collected edition);[1] the first tankōbon edition of The Poe Clan sold out its initial print run of 30,000 copies in three days, an unprecedented sales volume at the time for a shōjo manga series that had not been adapted into an anime.[14]

Following a 1973 trip to Europe by Hagio, Masuyama, and Yamagishi, Takemiya announced that the Ōizumi Salon would cease, as she preferred to continue her career alone.[15] Decades later, both Hagio and Takemiya would disclose that the pair had a falling out in 1973 that remains unreconciled; Takemiya has written in her memoirs about feelings of jealously and an inferiority complex towards Hagio, while Hagio has written that their relationship was strained by accusations from critics that she plagiarized her shōnen-ai works from Takemiya.[16] Nonetheless, the innovation introduced to shōjo manga by the Year 24 Group significantly contributed to the development of the demographic, bringing it to what critics have described as its "golden age".[8][9]

Career as a manga artist

In the wake of the critical and commercial success of The Rose of Versailles by Year 24 Group member Riyoko Ikeda, Hagio's editor Junya Yamamoto [ja] asked her to create a series of similar length and complexity for publication in the manga magazine Shūkan Shōjo Comic. The resulting series was The Heart of Thomas, a long-form serialized version of Hagio's earlier The November Gymnasium, which began serialization in the magazine in 1974.[17] Though initially poorly received by readers, by the end of its serialization The Heart of Thomas was among the most popular series in Shūkan Shōjo Comic.[17] The critical and commercial success of both The Poe Clan and The Heart of Thomas freed Hagio from most editorial constraints and allowed her to publish her previously rejected works of science fiction, a genre which at the time was perceived as inappropriate for female audiences and thus was effectively non-existent in shōjo manga.[7][18]

They Were Eleven, Hagio's first published science fiction manga series, began serialization in Bessatsu Shōjo Comic in 1975.[19] Hagio began to establish herself as a science fiction writer and moved away from the constraints of shōjo magazines, publishing a manga adaptation of science fiction writer Ryu Mitsuse's novel Hyakuoku no Hiru to Sen'oku no Yoru in the shōnen manga (boys' manga) magazine Weekly Shōnen Champion in 1977.[19] This was followed by several manga adaptations of the works of Ray Bradbury published as the one-shot anthology U wa Uchuusen no U beginning in 1977,[18] Gin no Sankaku in 1980, and various one-shots in the science-fiction focused S-F Magazine. Hagio did create science fiction works for shōjo magazines during this period, notably Star Red for Shūkan Shōjo Comic from 1978 to 1979.[19]

In 1980 Yamamoto became the founding editor of Petit Flower, a new magazine at Shogakukan that published manga aimed at an adult female audience. Hagio moved to the magazine, where she was given full editorial control over the manga she produced.[1] In the subsequent decades Hagio would publish many works in Petit Flower and its successor publication Flowers that are distinguished by their mature themes and subject material. Notable works include the crime thriller Mesh in 1980, the post-apocalyptic science fiction series Marginal from 1985 to 1987, the semi-autobiographical Iguana Girl in 1992, and A Cruel God Reigns from 1993 to 2001. Hagio's works during this period were generally not influenced by developments in contemporary shōjo manga, such as the erotic manga of artists like Kyoko Okazaki and the josei manga or artists like Erica Sakurazawa.[1]

Hagio began teaching manga studies as a visiting professor at the Joshibi University of Art and Design in 2011.[20] That same year, the Fukushima nuclear disaster occurred; with the publication of her manga series Nanohana, Hagio became one of the first manga artists following Kotobuki Shiriagari to address the disaster directly in her work; Hagio's prominence as an artist is credited with influencing other manga artists to address the disaster in their works.[13][21] To mark the fifteenth anniversary of Flowers in 2016, Hagio launched a revival of The Poe Clan in the magazine, publishing new chapters nearly forty years after the conclusion of the original series.[22]

Style and influences

A page from Hagio's The Poe Clan (1972–1976), exhibiting the artist's characteristic use of symbolic decorative motifs, superimposed close-ups of characters, and mise-en-scène distinguished by a strong contrast of shadow and light

When asked about her visual influences, Hagio responded that she was influenced by Shotaro Ishinomori's page layouts, Hideko Mizuno's clothing, and Masako Yashiro's eyes.[3]

In the early 1970s, Hagio and her fellow Year 24 Group members contributed significantly to the establishment of shōjo manga as a distinct category of manga,[23] iterating on contributions made to the category in the 1950s and 1960s by artists such as Macoto Takahashi to establish a "visual grammar of shōjo manga".[24] Chief among these developments was the use of interior monologue, which was written outside of speech balloons and scattered across the page. These monologues allow the exploration of the characters' interiority and emotions, and serve to compensate for the absence of third-person narration in manga.[24]

In Hagio's manga specifically, interior monologues are often accompanied by symbolic motifs that extend beyond panel borders and overlap in a manner resembling a montage or a collage, creating a three-dimensional effect.[24] These motifs are often composed of decorative elements (flowers, clouds, screentones, etc.)[25] but are also often lines, sparkles, and onomatopoeia which serve to reinforce the "exploration of the interiority" of the characters.[26] Hagio also makes use of full-body portraits of main characters, a technique originated Macoto Takahashi, as well as superimposed close-ups of these characters, to mark the character as important in the narrative.[25] Hagio also uses mise-en-scène and lighting marked a strong contrast of shadow and light, giving a theatrical effect to her works.[26][27]

When Hagio began to create manga for an adult audience beginning with Mesh in 1980, she adopted a more realist style. In particular, she changed the body shape of her characters, who until then exhibited the typical shōjo style of heads that were proportionally larger than the rest of their bodies.[28] She also gradually altered her page layouts, especially during the 2000s, to make her style more accessible to a new readership.[21]

Themes and motifs

Hagio primarily authors works in the science fiction, fantasy, and boys' love genres, though her works explore a wide variety of themes and subjects. This is especially true of her short stories, which have depicted a variety of topics and genres including comedy, historical drama, and social and environmental issues. Though her works are primarily aimed at a female audience, she does also attract a male readership.[1]

Dysfunctional families

A documentary about marine iguanas (pictured) inspired Hagio to write Iguana Girl (1992), a semi-autobiographical manga about her relationship with her mother.[29]

Hagio has long had a difficult relationship with her parents, who disapproved of her career as a manga artist even after she achieved mainstream critical and commercial success; it was not until 2010, when Hagio was 61 years old, that her mother accepted her profession.[27] This strained relationship, combined with Hagio's own interest in family psychology, has had a significant impact on her manga.[1] Families and familial drama recur as common motifs in Hagio's manga, especially twins, which are inspired by Hagio's childhood fantasy of having a twin sister so that her mother would pay more attention to her,[1] and mothers, who are typically portrayed as incapable of loving their children and frequently die.[30]

Initially, Hagio approached manga as an opportunity to depict "something beautiful", rather than an "ugly" reality. Consequently, she avoided contemporary Japanese settings for her early works, instead preferring European or otherworldly sci-fi settings.[29] These early works nevertheless address dysfunctional family relationships, such as her one-shot Bianca (1970), a "gothic revenge plot" by a child against their parents and older authority figures.[31] Her 1992 one-shot Iguana Girl became a turning point in both her life and career. In this semi-autobiographical story, a mother perceives her daughter as an iguana and rejects her; the daughter internalizes this rejection, and is in turn convinced that she is an iguana. Hagio has described the process of writing the story as a means of making peace with her family, and following its publication, she became more comfortable writing works set in contemporary Japan.[29] Familial drama nevertheless remains a common theme in her works, as expressed in stories that address topics of child abandonment, incestual rape, and abortion.[1]

Bishōnen and shōnen-ai

Hagio's bishōnen are inspired in part by films featuring young men in homoerotic scenarios, such as Death in Venice (star Björn Andrésen pictured).[32]

Further information: Bishōnen and Yaoi

Hagio's works typically feature male rather than female protagonists, especially bishōnen (lit. "beautiful boys", a term for handsome and androgynous young men). She has described a "sense of liberation"[33] that comes from writing male characters, as they allow her to express thoughts and concepts freely, in contrast to female protagonists who face the restrictions of a patriarchal society.[33][34] Hagio first introduced bishōnen protagonists to her works with The November Gymnasium in 1971. The series is set in an all-boys boarding school, though an early draft of the story had a girls boarding school as its setting in order to conform to the conventions of the shōjo manga of the time, resulting in a story of the Class S genre. Dissatisfied with the draft, Hagio changed the protagonists to bishōnen; this aligned the story with the then-nascent genre of shōnen-ai, the precursor to modern boys' love (male-male romance manga).[34]

The bishōnen of Hagio's works are both non-sexual and androgynous: socially masculine, physically androgynous, and psychologically feminine.[35] The meaning of gender ambiguity has been variously considered by critics: from a queer perspective by manga scholar James Welker as an expression of sublimated lesbian identity,[33] and from a feminist perspective by sociologist Chizuko Ueno it as an attempt to break out of the patriarchal dichotomy by creating a "third sex".[34]

Feminist science fiction

Hagio's science fiction works depict themes and subjects typical of the genre, such as human cloning and time travel, but also take advantage of the genre's ability to depict worlds in which gender-based differences and power imbalances differ from that of the real word. Hagio's science fiction manga frequently explores topics relating to the place women in society, motherhood, and gender fluidity, taking particular inspiration from the works of Ursula K. Le Guin.[36]

Notable examples include They Were Eleven, which depicts characters who belong to a race where individuals are asexual at birth and whose sex is determined at adulthood;[37] Star Red, which depicts a protagonist who is birthed by a male character,[38] and Marginal, which is set in a society that has become majority male through the use of sexual biological engineering.[39] This feminist science fiction, where characters that blur distinctions of sex and gender, challenges notions of dualism and sexual dimorphism[39] and has been argued by sociologist Chizuko Ueno as representing an evolution of the feminist use of the boys' love genre to explore these themes.[34] It has also inspired the works of other shōjo science fiction manga artists, such as Reiko Shimizu and Saki Hiwatari.[1]



The following is a list of Hagio's serialized and one-shot manga works. Serializations refer to multi-chapter works that are typically later published as collected editions (tankōbon), while one-shots refer to single-chapter works that are sometimes later collected in anthologies. Titles for works that have not received an official English-language translation or do not have an English title are listed using Hepburn romanization. All dates and publishers are sourced from The 50th Anniversary of The Poe Clan and the World of Moto Hagio unless otherwise noted.[40]


Start End English/Hepburn title Original title Publisher
1971 1974 Seirei Kari [ja] 精霊狩り ('Spirit Hunting') Shogakukan
1972 present[b] The Poe Clan ポーの一族 Shogakukan
1972 1976 Totemo Shiawase Moto-chan とってもしあわせモトちゃん ('Very Happy Moto-chan') Shogakukan
1974 1974 The Heart of Thomas トーマの心臓 Shogakukan
1975 1975 Kono ko Urimasu! [ja] この娘うります! ('I'll Sell You This Girl!') Shogakukan
1975 1975 Aroisu アロイス ('Alois') Hakusensha
1975 1975 They Were Eleven 11人いる! Shogakukan
1975 1976 Akagge no Itoko 赤ッ毛のいとこ ('Red Haired Cousin') Shueisha
1976 1976 American Pie [ja] アメリカン・パイ Akita Shoten
1976 1976 Europe Migihidari ヨーロッパみぎひだり ('Europe Right and Left') Akita Shoten
1977 1977 Shoujo Roman 少女ろまん (Shōjo Roman) Akita Shoten
1977 1978 Bradbury Kessaku-sen Gensaku Bradbury傑作選 原作 ('Bradbury Masterpiece Original Selection') Shueisha
1977 1978 Ten Billion Days and One Hundred Billion Nights [ja] 百億の昼と千億の夜 Shogakukan
1978 1979 Star Red スター・レッド Shogakukan
1979 1979 Les Enfants Terribles 恐るべき子どもたち Shogakukan
1980 1983 Mesh [ja] メッシュ Shogakukan
1980 1982 Gin no Sankaku 銀の三角 ('Silver Triangle') Hayakawa
1981 1984 A, A Prime A-A' Akita Shoten, Shogakukan
1982 1982 Mozaiku Rasen [ja] モザイク・ラセン ('Mosaic Rasen') Akita Shoten
1985 1985 Bara no Kabin ばらの花びん ('Vase of Roses') Shogakukan
1985 1987 Marginal マージナル Shogakukan
1988 1988 Kanzen Hanzai Fearī 完全犯罪 フェアリー ('Perfect Crime Fairy') Shogakukan
1988 1989 Furawā Fesutibaru フラワーフェスティバル ('Flower Festival') Shogakukan
1988 1991 Umi no Aria 海のアリア ('Aria of the Sea') Kadokawa Shoten
1980 1990 Rōma e no Michi ローマへの道 ('Road to Rome') Shogakukan
1991 1992 Kanshashira Zunootoko 感謝知らずの男 ('Thankless Man') Shogakukan
1992 2001 A Cruel God Reigns 残酷な神が支配する Shogakukan
1992 1994 Abunai Oka no Ie あぶない丘の家 ('The House on the Dangerous Hill') Kadokawa Shoten
2002 2005 Otherworld Barbara バルバラ異界 Shogakukan
2006 2007 Abunazaka Hotel あぶな坂HOTEL Shueisha
2006 2012 Anywhere but Here [ja] ここではない★どこか Shogakukan
2008 2012 Lil' Leo レオくん Shogakukan
2009 2010 Hishikawa-san to Neko 菱川さんと猫 ('Mr. Hishikawa and His Cat') Kodansha
2011 2012 Nanohana なのはな Shogakukan
2013 2020 Queen Margot [ja] 王妃マルゴ Shueisha
2013 2015 Away アウェイ Shogakukan


Year English/Hepburn title Japanese title Published in
1969 Lulu to Mimi ルルとミミ ('Lulu and Mimi') Nakayoshi
Suteki na Mahō すてきな魔法 ('Wonderful Magic') Nakayoshi
1970 Kūru Kyatto クールキャット ('Cool Cat') Nakayoshi
Bakuhatsu Gaisha 爆発会社 ('Dummy Company') Nakayoshi
Bianca ビアンカ (Bianka) Shōjo Friend
Kēki Kēki Kēki ケーキケーキケーキ ('Cake Cake Cake') Nakayoshi
1971 Girl on Porch with Puppy ポーチで少女が小犬と (Pōchi de Shōjo ga Koinu to) COM
Belle to Mike no Ohanashi ベルとマイクのお話し ('The Story of Belle and Mike') Shōjo Comic
Yuki no Ko 雪の子 ('Snow Child') Shōjo Comic
Tō no Aru Ie 塔のある家 ('House with a Tower') Shōjo Comic
Jenifer no Koi no Oaite Wa ジェニファの恋のお相手は ('Who Is Jennifer's Boyfriend?') Nakayoshi
Hanayome o Hirotta Otoko 花嫁をひろった男 ('The Man Who Fetched the Bride') Shōjo Comic
Katappo no Furu Gutsu かたっぽのふるぐつ ('Worn Out Shoes') Nakayoshi
Kawaisō na Mama かわいそうなママ ('Poor Mama') Shōjo Comic
Seirei-gari 精霊狩り ('Spirit Hunting') Shōjo Comic
Mōdorin モードリン ('Maudlin') Shōjo Comic
Sayo no nū Yukata 小夜の縫うゆかた ('Yukata Sewn by Sayo') Shōjo Comic
Kenneth Ojisan to Futago ケネスおじさんとふたご ('Uncle Kenneth and the Twins') Shōjo Comic
Mō Hitotsu no Koi もうひとつの恋 ('Another Love') Shōjo Comic
Jū-gatsu no Shōjo-tachi 10月の少女たち ('Girls in October') COM
Autumn Journey 秋の旅 (Aki no Tabi) Shōjo Comic
The November Gymnasium 11月のギムナジウム (Jūichigatsu no Gimunajiumu) Shōjo Comic
Shiroki Mori Shiroi Shōnen no Fue 白き森白い少年の笛 ('White Forest White Boy Flute') Shōjo Comic
Shiroi Tori ni Natta Shōjo 白い鳥になった少女 ('The Girl Who Became a White Bird') Shōjo Comic
Sara-hill no Seiya セーラ・ヒルの聖夜 ('Sacred Night on Sailor Hill') Shōjo Comic
1972 Asobi-dama あそび玉 ('Toy Ball') Shōjo Comic
Keito-dama ni Jarenaide 毛糸玉にじゃれないで ('Don't Play with the Ball of Yarn') Shōjo Comic
Mitsukuni no Musume みつくにの娘 ('Mitsukuni's Daughter') Shōjo Comic
Gomen Asobase! ごめんあそばせ! ('I'm Sorry!') Shōjo Comic
San-gatsu Usagi ga Shūdan De 3月ウサギが集団で ('March Hares in a Group') Shōjo Comic
Yōsei no Komori 妖精の子もり ('Fairy Slipper') Shōjo Comic
Roku-gatsu no Koe 6月の声り ('Voice of June') Shōjo Comic
Mamarēdo-chan ママレードちゃん ('Marmalade-chan') Shōjo Comic
Mia ミーア Shōjo Comic
1973 Senbon-me no Pin 千本めのピン ('The Thousandth Pin') Shōjo Comic
Kyabetsu-batake no Isan Sōzokunin キャベツ畑の遺産相続人 ('Heir to the Cabbage Field') Shōjo Comic
Ō mai Keseira Sera オーマイ ケセィラ セラ ('Oh My, Que Sera, Sera') Shōjo Comic
1974 Hawādo-san no Shinbun Kōkoku ハワードさんの新聞広告 ('Howard's Newspaper Advertisement') Shōjo Comic
Unicorn no Yume ユニコーンの夢 ('Unicorn's Dream') Shōjo Comic
Manga ABC まんがABC Shōjo Comic
Pushikyatto Pushikyatto プシキャット・プシキャット ('Pussycat Pussycat') Shōjo Comic
1975 Onshitsu 温室 ('Greenhouse') Seventeen
Supēsu Sutorīto スペース ストリート ('Space Street') Shōjo Comic
Violita ヴィオリータ Jotomo
1976 Hana to Hikari no Naka 花と光の中 ('In Flowers and Light') Shōjo Comic
By the Lake 湖畔にて Strawberry Fields
1977 Onshitsu 影のない森 ('Shadowless Forest') Big Comic Original
Marié, Ten Years Later 十年目の毬絵 Big Comic Original
Marine マリーン Seventeen
1978 Gōruden Rairakku ゴールデン ライラック ('Golden Lilac') Shōjo Comic
Hidarikiki no Izan 左ききのイザン ('Left-Handed Izan') SF Fantasia
1979 Hanabana ni Sumu Kodomo 花々に住む子供 ('Children Living in Flowers') Princess
Chrysalis さなぎ Seven Comic
1980 Gesshoku 月蝕 ('Lunar Eclipse') Vampirella
Rāginī ラーギニー S-F Magazine
The Visitor 訪問者 Petit Flower
A Drunken Dream 酔夢 Kingin Sagan
Kin'yō no Yoru no Shūkai 金曜の夜の集会 ('Friday Night Gathering') S-F Magazine
1983 Shiro Petit Flower
4/4 (Quatre-Quarts) 4/4カトルカース Petit Flower
1984 Hanshin: Half-God 半神 Petit Flower
Egg Stand エッグ・スタンド Petit Flower
Nise ō 偽王 ('False King') Petit Flower
Herbal Beauty ハーバル・ビューティ Bouquet
Tenshi no Gitai 天使の擬態 ('Angel Mimic') Petit Flower
Fune Petit Flower
1985 Slow Down スロー・ダウン Petit Flower
Bara no Kabin ばらの花びん ('Ship') Petit Flower
Yūjin K 友人K Grapefruit
Kimi wa Utsukushii Hitomi きみは美しい瞳 ('You Have Beautiful Eyes') Asuka
1989 Kaizoku to Himegimi 海賊と姫君 ('Pirates and Princesses') Petit Flower
Aoi Tori 青い鳥 ('Bluebird') Petit Flower
1990 Manatsu no yo no Wakusei (Planet) 真夏のの惑星(プラネット ('Planet of Midsummer') Petit Flower
1991 Rotbarth ロットバルト Petit Flower
Juliette no Koibito ジュリエットの恋人 ('Juliette's Lover') Petit Flower
Catharsis カタルシス Petit Flower
1992 Iguana Girl イグアナの娘 Petit Flower
1994 Gogo no Hizashi 午後の日射し ('Afternoon Sunshine') Big Gold
Gakkō e Iku Kusuri 学校へ行くクスリ Big Gold
1998 The Child Who Comes Home 帰ってくる子 Child Igyō Collection 7
2006 Nagagutsu o Haita Shima Neko 長靴をはいたシマ猫 ('Puss in Boots') Neko Moto
2007 Birthday Cake バースディ・ケーキ SF Japan
The Willow Tree の木 Flowers
2008 Nekomoto Clinic 猫本クリニック Neko Moto 2
2016 Through Yura's Gate 由良の門を Monthly Afternoon
2018 Basutei Nite バス停にて ('At the Bus Stop') Morning
2020 Galileo no Uchū ガリレオの宇宙 ('Galileo's Universe') App Store[41]
2021 Kirin Kari 麒麟狩り ('Kirin Hunting') Daijiro Morohoshi 50th Anniversary Tribute[42]

English-translated works

Essays & memoirs




Hagio is regarded by critics as the most influential shōjo manga artist of all time and among the most influential manga artists in the entirety of the medium,[1][45][4] and is referred to as the "god of shōjo manga" (少女漫画の神様, shōjo manga no kami-sama) by the Japanese press and critics, as styled off of Osamu Tezuka's sobriquet "the god of manga".[46][47] She, along with the other artists associated with the Year 24 Group, is credited with "revolutionizing" shōjo manga[48][49] and bringing it into its "golden age", making shōjo manga central to manga production in the 1980s and attracting a male readership to the category for the first time.[50] Hagio and Keiko Takemiya originated the shōnen-ai genre, which was developed throughout the 1980s and 1990s to become yaoi, a major genre of manga.[51] She is further credited with establishing science fiction as a subgenre of shōjo manga,[21] though Hagio's impact on science fiction extends beyond manga to literature through her illustrations of science fiction and fantasy novels,[18][21] with science fiction novelists such as Azusa Noa and Baku Yumemakura citing Hagio as among their influences.[52]

Awards and nominations

Award Year Category Recipient(s) Result Ref.
Asahi Prize 2016 Asahi Prize Won [53]
Eisner Award 2011 Best U.S. Edition of International Material—Asia A Drunken Dream and Other Stories Nominated [54]
2014 The Heart of Thomas Nominated [55]
2018 Otherworld Barbara Nominated [56]
2020 The Poe Clan Nominated [57]
2022 Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame Won [58]
Harvey Awards 2020 Best Manga The Poe Clan Nominated [59]
Inkpot Award 2010 Inkpot Award Won [60]
Iwate Manga Awards 2018 Special Award Nanohana Won [61]
Japan Cartoonists Association Award 2011 Minister of Education, Science and Technology Award Won [62]
Medal of Honor 2012 Purple Ribbon Won [63]
Nihon SF Taisho Award 2006 Grand Prize Otherworld Barbara Won [64]
Order of the Rising Sun 2022 3rd Class, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon Won [65]
Person of Cultural Merit 2019 Person of Cultural Merit Won [66]
Seiun Award 1980 Best Comic Star Red Won [67]
1983 Gin no Sankaku Won [67]
1985 X + Y Won [67]
Sense of Gender Award 2012 Lifetime Achievement Award Nanohana Won [68]
Shogakukan Manga Award 1975 Shōnen (Boys' Manga) They Were Eleven and The Poe Clan Won [69]
Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize 1997 Award for Excellence A Cruel God Reigns Won [70]


  1. ^ The group was so named because its members were born in or around year 24 of the Shōwa era (or 1949 in the Gregorian calendar).[11]
  2. ^ Originally serialized from 1972 to 1976, revived from 2016 to present.



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  19. ^ a b c Nakagawa 2019d.
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  47. ^ "手塚治虫 人間の本音を描く 萩尾望都 100周年記念企画「100年の100人」". Bungei Shunjū (in Japanese). December 27, 2021. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
  48. ^ Chapuis 2014.
  49. ^ Croquet 2020.
  50. ^ Galbraith 2019.
  51. ^ McLelland et al. 2015, p. 303.
  52. ^ Harada 2015, p. 49.
  53. ^ Hodgkins, Crystalyn (January 2, 2017). "Heart of Thomas Manga Creator Moto Hagio Wins Asahi Prize". Anime News Network. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  54. ^ Cavna, Michael (April 7, 2011). "2011 EISNER AWARDS: Comic-Con announces the nominees..." Washington Post. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  55. ^ Wheeler, Andrew (July 26, 2014). "2014 Eisner Awards: Full List Of Winners And Nominees". ComicsAlliance. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  56. ^ Ridgeley, Charlie (April 26, 2018). "Complete List of 2018 Eisner Award Nominees Announced". Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  57. ^ McMillan, Graeme (June 4, 2020). "2020 Eisner Nominees: The Complete List". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  58. ^ Hodgkins, Crystalyn (July 23, 2022). "Moto Hagio Inducted into Eisner Hall of Fame". Anime News Network. Retrieved July 24, 2022.
  59. ^ Mateo, Alex (August 31, 2020). "Harvey Awards Nominates The Poe Clan, The Way of the Househusband, Witch Hat Atelier for Best Manga". Anime News Network. Retrieved January 3, 2022.
  60. ^ Loo, Egan (July 23, 2010). "Moto Hagio Receives Inkpot Award from Comic-Con Int'l". Anime News Network. Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  61. ^ "いわてマンガ大賞・マンガ郷いわて表彰式 特別賞受賞 萩尾さん 知事と記念トーク". Iwanichi OnLine. December 21, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
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  63. ^ Multiple Languages:
  64. ^ "Nihon SF Taisho Award Winners List". Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of Japan. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
  65. ^ Mateo, Alex (November 11, 2022). "Manga Creator Moto Hagio Inducted Into Order of the Rising Sun". Anime News Network. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  66. ^ Kim, Allen (October 29, 2019). "Mario Bros. creator Shigeru Miyamoto to be given one of Japan's highest honors". CNN. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  67. ^ a b c 日本SFファングループ連合会議:星雲賞リスト (in Japanese). Retrieved December 31, 2007.
  68. ^ "2012年度 第12回Sense of Gender賞 生涯功労賞". Sense of Gender Awards (in Japanese). Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  69. ^ 小学館漫画賞:歴代受賞者 (in Japanese). Shogakukan. Archived from the original on August 5, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
  70. ^ "Manga Award for Excellence: Hagio Moto Zankoku na kami ga shihai suru Exhibition". Archived from the original on April 25, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008.