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Washington Crossing the Delaware, an 1851 oil-on-canvas painting by artist Emanuel Leutze, dramatizing and symbolically representing George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River from Pennsylvania to New Jersey in December, 1776.
Washington Crossing the Delaware, an 1851 oil-on-canvas painting by artist Emanuel Leutze, dramatizing and symbolically representing George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River from Pennsylvania to New Jersey in December, 1776.

Pennsylvania was the site of key events and places related to the American Revolution. The state, and especially the city of Philadelphia, played a critical role in the American Revolution.

Founding Father Robert Morris said, "You will consider Philadelphia, from its centrical situation, the extent of its commerce, the number of its artificers, manufactures and other circumstances, to be to the United States what the heart is to the human body in circulating the blood."[1]

The American Revolution included both the political and social development of the Thirteen Colonies of British America, and the Revolutionary War. John Adams wrote to Thomas Jefferson in 1815: "What do We mean by the Revolution? The War? That was no part of the Revolution. It was only an Effect and Consequence of it. The Revolution was in the Minds of the People, and this was effected, from 1760 to 1775, in the course of fifteen Years before a drop of blood was drawn at Lexington. The Records of thirteen Legislatures, the Pamphlets, Newspapers in all the Colonies ought be consulted, during that Period, to ascertain the Steps by which the public opinion was enlightened and informed concerning the Authority of Parliament over the Colonies."[2]

Join, or Die by Benjamin Franklin, published in The Pennsylvania Gazette was the first political cartoon in America[3]
Join, or Die by Benjamin Franklin, published in The Pennsylvania Gazette was the first political cartoon in America[3]

Military

Government

Key events

Covert letter from Henry Clinton to John Burgoyne concerning the beginning of the Philadelphia Campaign. Clinton used the covert "mask" method to disguise the intended contents. August 10, 1777.
Covert letter from Henry Clinton to John Burgoyne concerning the beginning of the Philadelphia Campaign. Clinton used the covert "mask" method to disguise the intended contents. August 10, 1777.
"A Dreadful scene of havoc" depicting the Paoli Massacre. By Xavier della Gatta (1782), commissioned for a British officer who participated in the attack. Now in the collection of the Museum of the American Revolution.
"A Dreadful scene of havoc" depicting the Paoli Massacre. By Xavier della Gatta (1782), commissioned for a British officer who participated in the attack. Now in the collection of the Museum of the American Revolution.
The March to Valley Forge (1883), famous painting by William Trego - part of the collection of the Museum of the American Revolution in Philadelphia.
The March to Valley Forge (1883), famous painting by William Trego - part of the collection of the Museum of the American Revolution in Philadelphia.

That two battalions of Marines be raised consisting of one Colonel, two lieutenant-colonels, two majors and other officers, as usual in other regiments; that they consist of an equal number of privates as with other battalions, that particular care be taken that no persons be appointed to offices, or enlisted into said battalions, but such as are good seamen, or so acquainted with maritime affairs as to be able to serve for and during the present war with Great Britain and the Colonies; unless dismissed by Congress; that they be distinguished by the names of the First and Second Battalions of Marines.

Key historical sites, museums, and institutions

Washington's Headquarters at Valley Forge (Issac Potts House)
Museum of the American Revolution in Philadelphia.
The Liberty Bell and Independence Hall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Liberty Bell and Independence Hall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Battlefields

Museums, parks and other historic sites

Libraries, archives, and historical societies

Other

Significant documents originating in Pennsylvania during the Revolution

The Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence

Key people

See also: the categories People of Pennsylvania in the American Revolution, Continental Army officers from Pennsylvania, Continental Congressmen from Pennsylvania, and Pennsylvania militiamen in the American Revolution

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Peter Muhlenberg
Peter Muhlenberg
Gen. Anthony Wayne
Gen. Anthony Wayne

Legacy and influence: Colony to super-power

The American Revolution had wide-reaching, long-lasting impact around the world — not the least of which were the U.S. impact on republicanism internationally, numerous unilateral declarations of independence, and its eventual emergence as the world's only super-power following the Second World War and the Cold War. Unparalleled in wealth and power, the United States has remained the world's only super-power since the fall of the Soviet Union — for nearly three decades.[19][20][21]

The Revolutionary War entangled Great Britain in conflict with its rival empires of France and Spain; and also ignited open conflict between Great Britain and the United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic).

Ultimately, the Declaration of Independence would influence many similar declarations of independence for over two-hundred years. The U.S. Declaration of Independence was considered dangerous to imperial power by some, and the Spanish-American authorities banned the circulation of the Declaration (although it was widely transmitted and translated).[22] In the Russian Empire, the full text of the Declaration of Independence was outlawed until the reign and reform era of Tsar Alexander II (1855-1881).[23]

Preservation and memorialization

The Tomb of the Unknown Revolutionary War Soldier in Philadelphia
Common grave memorial stone on the Brandywine battlefield, in the graveyard of Birmingham Friends Meetinghouse.
Common grave memorial stone on the Brandywine battlefield, in the graveyard of Birmingham Friends Meetinghouse.

Nineteen Pennsylvania counties (almost a third of its 67 counties) are named for military and political figures from the American Revolution: Adams, Armstrong, Bradford, Butler, Crawford, Fayette, Franklin, Greene, Jefferson, Luzerne, McKean, Mercer, Mifflin, Monroe, Potter, Sullivan, Warren, Washington, and Wayne counties.[24]

A convention held in Independence Hall in 1915, presided over by former US president William Howard Taft, marked the formal announcement of the formation of the League to Enforce Peace, which led to the League of Nations and eventually the United Nations. The building is part of Independence National Historical Park and has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979.[25]

The site of the Valley Forge winter encampment has been a National Historical Park since it was given as a gift to the nation during the U.S. bicentennial, and transferred from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to the National Park Service in 1976.

The American Battlefield Trust is working with various organizations and governments in Pennsylvania to preserve battlefields of the American Revolution, including Brandywine battlefield.[26] As of the 2010s, Chester County's government is working with the local municipalities at the sites of the Battles of Brandywine, Paoli and the Clouds, to preserve key areas in the increasingly-dense suburban communities.[27]

Many monuments and memorials exist throughout Pennsylvania dedicated to revolutionary-era figures, events, and war dead. Examples include the Tomb of the Unknown Revolutionary War Soldier in Philadelphia; the National Memorial Arch, in Valley Forge National Historical Park, Chester County — a monument built to celebrate the arrival of the Continental Army at Valley Forge; various battle monuments at Brandywine, Paoli, Wyoming, and elsewhere; and numerous statues across the state.

Several lineage societies related to the revolution currently have an organized presence in Pennsylvania, including the Society of the Descendants of Washington's Army at Valley Forge, Sons of the Revolution, Sons of the American Revolution, Daughters of the American Revolution, Children of the American Revolution, and Society of the Cincinnati.

See also

References

  1. ^ Weigley, RF et al. (eds): (1982), Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-01610-2. page 134.
  2. ^ Adams, John. "John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 24 August 1815". National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). National Archives of the United States. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  3. ^ "Today in History: January 17". Library of Congress. Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  4. ^ Continental Congress (10 November 1775). "Resolution Establishing the Continental Marines". Journal of the Continental Congress. United States Marine Corps History Division. Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
  5. ^ "Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789, 8:464".
  6. ^ Furgurson, Ernest B. "The British Marksman Who Refused to Shoot George Washington". HistoryNet.com. World History Group. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  7. ^ Gaines, James (September 2007). "Washington & Lafayette". Smithsonian Magazine Online. Smithsonian. Archived from the original on April 3, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2008.
  8. ^ Leepson, p. 164
  9. ^ a b c Szczygielski, 1986, p. 392
  10. ^ a b Storozynski, 2010, p. 56
  11. ^ Appletons Cyclopaedia of American Biography: Pickering-Sumter, 1898, p. 133
  12. ^ Kazimierz Pulaski Granted U.S. Citizenship Posthumously, 2009
  13. ^ Storozynsky 2010, p. 57.
  14. ^ 111th Congress Public Law 94
  15. ^ Pub.L. 111–94 (text) (pdf) U.S. Government Printing Office
  16. ^ McGuire, Thomas J. (2006). Battle of Paoli. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 35. ISBN 9780811733373.
  17. ^ Harris, Michael C. (2014). Brandywine: A Military History of the Battle that Lost Philadelphia but Saved America, September 11, 1777. Savas Beatie LLC. p. 207. ISBN 9781611211627.
  18. ^ "Introducing the David Center for the American Revolution at the American Philosophical Society". David Library of the American Revolution. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  19. ^ Bremer, Ian (May 28, 2015). "These Are the 5 Reasons Why the U.S. Remains the World's Only Superpower". Time.
  20. ^ Kim Richard Nossal. Lonely Superpower or Unapologetic Hyperpower? Analyzing American Power in the post–Cold War Era. Biennial meeting, South African Political Studies Association, 29 June-2 July 1999. Archived from the original on 2019-05-26. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
  21. ^ From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776 (Published 2008), by Professor George C. Herring (Professor of History at Kentucky University)
  22. ^ The Contagion of Sovereignty: Declarations of Independence since 1776
  23. ^ Bolkhovitinov, "The Declaration of Independence," 1393.
  24. ^ "Pennsylvania Counties". Pennsylvania State Archives. Archived from the original on 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  25. ^ Independence Hall (at "Independence Hall's History"). World Heritage Sites official webpage. World Heritage Committee. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  26. ^ "Brandywine Battlefield, American Battlefield Trust". American Battlefield Trust. Retrieved 2019-07-30.
  27. ^ "Battle of the Clouds Technical Report". County of Chester, Pennsylvania. County of Chester, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2 August 2019.

Further reading

Bibliography

Maps