Prostaglandin D2
IUPAC name
9α,15S-Dihydroxy-11-oxo-prosta-5Z,13E-dien-1-oic acid
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.164.741 Edit this at Wikidata
MeSH Prostaglandin+D2
  • InChI=1S/C20H32O5/c1-2-3-6-9-15(21)12-13-17-16(18(22)14-19(17)23)10-7-4-5-8-11-20(24)25/h4,7,12-13,15-18,21-22H,2-3,5-6,8-11,14H2,1H3,(H,24,25)/b7-4-,13-12+/t15-,16+,17+,18-/m0/s1 ☒N
  • InChI=1/C20H32O5/c1-2-3-6-9-15(21)12-13-17-16(18(22)14-19(17)23)10-7-4-5-8-11-20(24)25/h4,7,12-13,15-18,21-22H,2-3,5-6,8-11,14H2,1H3,(H,24,25)/b7-4-,13-12+/t15-,16+,17+,18-/m0/s1
  • CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H]([C@H](CC1=O)O)C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)O
Molar mass 352.471 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Prostaglandin D2 (or PGD2) is a prostaglandin that binds to the receptor PTGDR (DP1), as well as CRTH2 (DP2).[1][2] It is a major prostaglandin produced by mast cells – recruits Th2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils. In mammalian organs, large amounts of PGD2 are found only in the brain and in mast cells. It is critical to development of allergic diseases such as asthma. Research carried out in 1989[3] found PGD2 is the primary mediator of vasodilation (the "niacin flush") after ingestion of niacin (nicotinic acid).

A 2012 research paper indicates a causal link between elevated levels of localized PGD2 and hair growth inhibition.[4] Applied topically, the researchers found PGD2 prevents hair growth, and mice that were genetically inclined to produce higher levels of PGD2 had inhibited hair growth. The researchers also found PGD2 levels were much higher in balding scalp tissue than nonbalding scalp tissue, through increased levels of prostaglandin D2 synthase. The paper suggested that inhibition of hair growth involved binding of PGD2 to a receptor called GPR44, and that GPR44 therefore would be a therapeutic target for androgenic alopecia in both men and women with hair loss and thinning.[5] Because PGD2's relation to asthma has been known for several years, several drugs that seek to reduce the effect of PGD2 through blocking the GPR44 are already in clinical trials.[5]




In silico simulations have predicted the following as potential inhibitors of PGD2 synthase:[12]

See also


  1. ^ Saito S, Tsuda H, Michimata T (May 2002). "Prostaglandin D2 and reproduction". American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 47 (5): 295–302. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0897.2002.01113.x. PMID 12148545. S2CID 9284645.
  2. ^ Pettipher R, Hansel TT (2008). "Antagonists of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2". Drug News & Perspectives. 21 (6): 317–22. doi:10.1358/dnp.2008.21.6.1246831. PMID 18836589. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  3. ^ Morrow, JD; Parsons Wg, 3rd; Roberts Lj, 2nd (August 1989). "Release of markedly increased quantities of prostaglandin D2 in vivo in humans following the administration of nicotinic acid". Prostaglandins. 38 (2): 263–74. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(89)90088-9. PMID 2475889.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Garza, Luis A.; et al. (21 March 2012). "Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia". Science Translational Medicine. 4 (126): 126ra34. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003122. ISSN 1946-6234. PMC 3319975. PMID 22440736.
  5. ^ a b Lee Phillips, Melissa (2012). "Clues to the cause of male pattern baldness". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.10277.
  6. ^ Onoe, H.; et al. (21 May 2012). "Prostaglandin D2, a cerebral sleep-inducing substance in monkeys". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 85 (11): 4082–4086. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.11.4082. PMC 280366. PMID 3163802.
  7. ^ Garza LA, Liu Y, Yang Z, Alagesan B, Lawson JA, Norberg SM; et al. (2012). "Prostaglandin D2 inhibits hair growth and is elevated in bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia". Sci Transl Med. 4 (126): 126ra34. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003122. PMC 3319975. PMID 22440736.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Moniot B, Declosmenil F, Barrionuevo F, Scherer G, Aritake K, Malki S; et al. (2009). "The PGD2 pathway, independently of FGF9, amplifies SOX9 activity in Sertoli cells during male sexual differentiation". Development. 136 (11): 1813–21. doi:10.1242/dev.032631. PMC 4075598. PMID 19429785.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Urade Y, Hayaishi O (2011). "Prostaglandin D2 and sleep/wake regulation". Sleep Med Rev. 15 (6): 411–8. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2011.08.003. PMID 22024172.
  10. ^ Nagata N, Urade Y (2012). "[Sleep-wake regulation by prostaglandin D2 and adenosine]". Brain Nerve. 64 (6): 621–8. PMID 22647469.
  11. ^ Ahmad AS, Ottallah H, Maciel CB, Strickland M, Doré S (2019). "Role of the L-PGDS-PGD2-DP1 receptor axis in sleep regulation and neurologic outcomes". Sleep. 42 (6). doi:10.1093/sleep/zsz073. PMC 6559173. PMID 30893431.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Fong, Pedro; Tong, Henry H. Y.; Ng, Kin H.; Lao, Cheng K.; Chong, Chon I.; Chao, Chi M. (4 December 2015). "In silico prediction of prostaglandin D2 synthase inhibitors from herbal constituents for the treatment of hair loss". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 175: 470–480. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2015.10.005. ISSN 1872-7573. PMID 26456343.
  13. ^ Kieronska-Rudek A, Kij A, Kaczara P, Tworzydlo A, Napiorkowski M, Sidoryk K; et al. (2021). "Exogenous Vitamins K Exert Anti-Inflammatory Effects Dissociated from Their Role as Substrates for Synthesis of Endogenous MK-4 in Murine Macrophages Cell Line". Cells. 10 (7): 1571. doi:10.3390/cells10071571. PMC 8303864. PMID 34206530.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Koshihara Y, Hoshi K, Shiraki M (1993). "Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) inhibits prostaglandin synthesis in cultured human osteoblast-like periosteal cells by inhibiting prostaglandin H synthase activity". Biochem Pharmacol. 46 (8): 1355–62. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(93)90099-i. PMID 8240383.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Krishnan AV, Srinivas S, Feldman D (2009). "Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and actions contributes to the beneficial effects of calcitriol in prostate cancer". Dermatoendocrinol. 1 (1): 7–11. doi:10.4161/derm.1.1.7106. PMC 2715203. PMID 20046582.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)