Raoul Bott
Raoul Bott in 1986
Born(1923-09-24)September 24, 1923
DiedDecember 20, 2005(2005-12-20) (aged 82)
NationalityHungarian American
Alma materMcGill University
Carnegie Mellon University
Known forBott cannibalistic class
Bott periodicity theorem
Bott residue formula
Bott–Duffin synthesis
Bott–Samelson resolution
Bott–Taubes polytope
Bott–Virasoro group
Atiyah–Bott formula
Atiyah–Bott fixed-point theorem
Borel–Weil–Bott theorem
Morse–Bott theory
AwardsVeblen Prize (1964)
Jeffery–Williams Prize (1983)
National Medal of Science (1987)
Steele Prize (1990)
Wolf Prize (2000)
ForMemRS (2005)
Scientific career
InstitutionsUniversity of Michigan in Ann Arbor
Harvard University
Doctoral advisorRichard Duffin
Doctoral students

Raoul Bott (September 24, 1923 – December 20, 2005)[1] was a Hungarian-American mathematician known for numerous foundational contributions to geometry in its broad sense. He is best known for his Bott periodicity theorem, the Morse–Bott functions which he used in this context, and the Borel–Bott–Weil theorem.

Early life

Bott was born in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Margit Kovács and Rudolph Bott.[2] His father was of Austrian descent, and his mother was of Hungarian Jewish descent; Bott was raised a Catholic by his mother and stepfather.[3][4] Bott grew up in Czechoslovakia and spent his working life in the United States. His family emigrated to Canada in 1938, and subsequently he served in the Canadian Army in Europe during World War II.


Bott later went to college at McGill University in Montreal, where he studied electrical engineering. He then earned a PhD in mathematics from Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh in 1949. His thesis, titled Electrical Network Theory, was written under the direction of Richard Duffin. Afterward, he began teaching at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Bott continued his study at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.[5] He was a professor at Harvard University from 1959 to 1999. In 2005 Bott died of cancer in San Diego.

With Richard Duffin at Carnegie Mellon, Bott studied existence of electronic filters corresponding to given positive-real functions. In 1949 they proved[6] a fundamental theorem of filter synthesis. Duffin and Bott extended earlier work by Otto Brune that requisite functions of complex frequency s could be realized by a passive network of inductors and capacitors. The proof relied on induction on the sum of the degrees of the polynomials in the numerator and denominator of the rational function.[7] In his 2000 interview[8] with Allyn Jackson of the American Mathematical Society, he explained that he sees "networks as discrete versions of harmonic theory", so his experience with network synthesis and electronic filter topology introduced him to algebraic topology.

Bott met Arnold S. Shapiro at the IAS and they worked together. He studied the homotopy theory of Lie groups, using methods from Morse theory, leading to the Bott periodicity theorem (1957). In the course of this work, he introduced Morse–Bott functions, an important generalization of Morse functions.

This led to his role as collaborator over many years with Michael Atiyah, initially via the part played by periodicity in K-theory. Bott made important contributions towards the index theorem, especially in formulating related fixed-point theorems, in particular the so-called 'Woods Hole fixed-point theorem', a combination of the Riemann–Roch theorem and Lefschetz fixed-point theorem (it is named after Woods Hole, Massachusetts, the site of a conference at which collective discussion formulated it).[9][citation needed] The major Atiyah–Bott papers on what is now the Atiyah–Bott fixed-point theorem were written in the years up to 1968; they collaborated further in recovering in contemporary language Ivan Petrovsky on Petrovsky lacunas of hyperbolic partial differential equations, prompted by Lars Gårding. In the 1980s, Atiyah and Bott investigated gauge theory, using the Yang–Mills equations on a Riemann surface to obtain topological information about the moduli spaces of stable bundles on Riemann surfaces. In 1983 he spoke to the Canadian Mathematical Society in a talk he called "A topologist marvels at Physics".[10]

He is also well known in connection with the Borel–Bott–Weil theorem on representation theory of Lie groups via holomorphic sheaves and their cohomology groups; and for work on foliations. With Chern he worked on Nevanlinna theory, studied holomorphic vector bundles over complex analytic manifolds and introduced the Bott-Chern classes, useful in the theory of Arakelov geometry and also to algebraic number theory.

He introduced Bott–Samelson varieties and the Bott residue formula for complex manifolds and the Bott cannibalistic class.


In 1964, he was awarded the Oswald Veblen Prize in Geometry by the American Mathematical Society. In 1983, he was awarded the Jeffery–Williams Prize by the Canadian Mathematical Society. In 1987, he was awarded the National Medal of Science.[11]

In 2000, he received the Wolf Prize. In 2005, he was elected an Overseas Fellow of the Royal Society of London.


Bott had 35 PhD students, including Stephen Smale, Lawrence Conlon, Daniel Quillen, Peter Landweber, Robert MacPherson, Robert W. Brooks, Robin Forman, Rama Kocherlakota, Susan Tolman, András Szenes, Kevin Corlette,[12] and Eric Weinstein.[13][14][15] Smale and Quillen won Fields Medals in 1966 and 1978 respectively.


See also


  1. ^ Atiyah, Michael (2007). "Raoul Harry Bott. 24 September 1923 -- 20 December 2005: Elected ForMemRS 2005". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 53: 63. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2007.0006. S2CID 70531812.
  2. ^ McMurray, Emily J.; Kosek, Jane Kelly; Valade, Roger M. (1 January 1995). Notable Twentieth-century Scientists: A-E. Gale Research. ISBN 9780810391826. Retrieved 28 October 2016 – via Internet Archive. Raoul Bott Margit Kovacs.
  3. ^ "Raoul Bott". MacTutor History of Mathematics. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  4. ^ Tu, Loring W. (May 2006). "The Life and Works of Raoul Bott" (PDF). Notices of the American Mathematical Society. 53 (5): 554–570. ISSN 0002-9920.
  5. ^ "Community of Scholars". ias.edu. Institute for Advanced Study. Archived from the original on 2013-03-10. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  6. ^ John H. Hubbard (2010) "The Bott-Duffin Synthesis of Electrical Circuits", pp 33 to 40 in A Celebration of the Mathematical Legacy of Raoul Bott, P. Robert Kotiuga editor, CRM Proceedings and Lecture Notes #50, American Mathematical Society
  7. ^ Bott, R.; Duffin, R. J. (1949-08-01). "Impedance Synthesis without Use of Transformers". Journal of Applied Physics. 20 (8): 816–816. doi:10.1063/1.1698532. ISSN 0021-8979.
  8. ^ Jackson, Allyn, "Interview with Raoul Bott", Notices of the American Mathematical Society 48 (2001), no. 4, 374–382.
  9. ^ "Marine Policy Center - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution". Archived from the original on 2005-08-27. Retrieved 2005-12-23.
  10. ^ R. Bott (1985). "On some recent interactions between mathematics and physics". Canadian Mathematical Bulletin. 28 (2): 129–164. doi:10.4153/CMB-1985-016-3. S2CID 120399958.
  11. ^ "The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details - NSF - National Science Foundation". Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  12. ^ Raoul H. Bott at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  13. ^ Eric Weinstein at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  14. ^ Tu, Loring W., ed. (2018). "Raoul Bott: Collected Papers, Volume 5". Notices of the American Mathematical Society. Contemporary Mathematicians. Birkhäuser: 47. ISBN 9783319517810. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  15. ^ "PhD Dissertations Archival Listing". Harvard Mathematics Department. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
  16. ^ Stasheff, James D. "Review: Differential forms in algebraic topology, by Raoul Bott and Loring W. Tu". Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. New Seriesyear=1984. 10 (1): 117–121. doi:10.1090/S0273-0979-1984-15208-X.