John Craig Venter
Venter in 2007
Born (1946-10-14) October 14, 1946 (age 77)
Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.
Alma materUniversity of California, San Diego
AwardsGairdner Award (2002)
Nierenberg Prize (2007)
Kistler Prize (2008)
ENI award (2008)
Medal of Science (2008)
Dickson Prize (2011)
Leeuwenhoek Medal
Edogawa NICHE Prize (2020)
Scientific career

John Craig Venter (born October 14, 1946) is an American biotechnologist and businessman. He is known for leading one of the first draft sequences of the human genome[1][2] and assembled the first team to transfect a cell with a synthetic chromosome.[3][4] Venter founded Celera Genomics, the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). He was the co-founder of Human Longevity Inc. and Synthetic Genomics. He was listed on Time magazine's 2007 and 2008 Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. In 2010, the British magazine New Statesman listed Craig Venter at 14th in the list of "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures 2010".[5] In 2012, Venter was honored with Dan David Prize for his contribution to genome research.[6] He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2013.[7] He is a member of the USA Science and Engineering Festival's advisory board.[8]

Early life and education

Venter was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, the son of Elisabeth and John Venter.[9][10]: 14  In his youth, he did not take his education seriously, preferring to spend his time on the water in boats or surfing. [10]: 1–20  According to his biography, A Life Decoded, he was said never to be a terribly engaged student, having Cs and Ds on his eighth-grade report cards.[10]: 1–20  Venter considered that his behavior in his adolescence was indicative of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and later found ADHD-linked genetic variants in his own DNA.[11] He graduated from Mills High School in Millbrae, California. His father died suddenly at age 59 from cardiac arrest, giving him a lifelong awareness of his own mortality. He quotes a saying: "If you want immortality, do something meaningful with your life."[12]

Although he opposed the Vietnam War,[13] Venter was drafted and enlisted in the United States Navy where he worked as a hospital corpsman in the intensive-care ward of a field hospital.[14] He served from 1967 to 1968 at the Naval Support Activity Danang in Vietnam. While in Vietnam, he attempted suicide by swimming out to sea, but changed his mind more than a mile out.[15] Being confronted with severely injured and dying marines on a daily basis instilled in him a desire to study medicine,[16] although he later switched to biomedical research.

Venter began his college education in 1969 at a community college, College of San Mateo in California, and later transferred to the University of California, San Diego, where he studied under biochemist Nathan O. Kaplan. He received a Bachelor of Science in biochemistry in 1972 and a Doctor of Philosophy in physiology and pharmacology in 1975 from UCSD.[17][18]


After working as an associate professor, and later as full professor, at the State University of New York at Buffalo, he joined the National Institutes of Health in 1984.

EST controversy

While an employee of the NIH, Venter learned how to identify mRNA and began to learn more about those expressed in the human brain. The short cDNA sequence fragments he was interested in are called expressed sequence tags, or ESTs. The NIH Office of Technology Transfer and Venter decided to take the ESTs discovered by others in an attempt to patent the genes identified based on studies of mRNA expression in the human brain. When Venter disclosed this strategy during a Congressional hearing, a firestorm of controversy erupted.[19] The NIH later stopped the effort and abandoned the patent applications it had filed, following public outcry.[20]

Human Genome Project

Main article: Human Genome Project

Venter was passionate about the power of genomics to transform healthcare radically. Venter believed that shotgun sequencing was the fastest and most effective way to get useful human genome data.[21] The method was rejected by the Human Genome Project however, since some geneticists felt it would not be accurate enough for a genome as complicated as that of humans, that it would be logistically more difficult, and that it would cost significantly more.[22][23]

Venter viewed the slow pace of progress in the Human Genome project as an opportunity to continue his interest in patenting genes, so he sought funding from the private sector to start Celera Genomics.[24] The company planned to profit from their work by creating genomic data to which users could subscribe for a fee. The goal consequently put pressure on the public genome program and spurred several groups to redouble their efforts to produce the full sequence. Venter's effort won him renown as he and his team at Celera Corporation shared credit for sequencing the first draft human genome with the publicly funded Human Genome Project.[25]

In 2000, Venter and Francis Collins of the National Institutes of Health and U.S. Public Genome Project jointly made the announcement of the mapping of the human genome, a full three years ahead of the expected end of the Public Genome Program. The announcement was made along with U.S. President Bill Clinton, and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair.[26] Venter and Collins thus shared an award for "Biography of the Year" from A&E Network.[27] On February 15, 2001, the Human Genome Project consortium published the first Human Genome in the journal Nature, followed one day later by a Celera publication in Science.[28][29] Despite some claims that shotgun sequencing was in some ways less accurate than the clone-by-clone method chosen by the Human Genome Project,[30] the technique became widely accepted by the scientific community.

Venter was fired by Celera in early 2002.[31] According to his biography, Venter was fired because of a conflict with the main investor, Tony White, specifically barring him from attending the White House ceremony celebrating the achievement of sequencing the human genome.

Global Ocean Sampling Expedition

The Global Ocean Sampling Expedition (GOS) is an ocean exploration genome project with the goal of assessing the genetic diversity in marine microbial communities and to understand their role in nature's fundamental processes. Begun as a Sargasso Sea pilot sampling project in August 2003, the full Expedition was announced by Venter on March 4, 2004. The project, which used Venter's personal yacht, Sorcerer II, started in Halifax, Canada, circumnavigated the globe and returned to the U.S. in January 2006.[32]

Synthetic Genomics

J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, location

In June 2005, Venter co-founded Synthetic Genomics, a firm dedicated to using modified microorganisms to produce clean fuels and biochemicals. In July 2009, ExxonMobil announced a $600 million collaboration with Synthetic Genomics to research and develop next-generation biofuels.[33] Venter continues to work on the creation of engineered diatomic microalgae for the production of biofuels.[34][35][36]

Venter is seeking to patent the first partially synthetic species possibly to be named Mycoplasma laboratorium.[37] There is speculation that this line of research could lead to producing bacteria that have been engineered to perform specific reactions, for example, produce fuels, make medicines, combat global warming, and so on.[38]

In May 2010, a team of scientists led by Venter became the first to create successfully what was described as "synthetic life".[39][40] This was done by synthesizing a very long DNA molecule containing an entire bacterium genome, and introducing this into another cell, analogous to the accomplishment of Eckard Wimmer's group, who synthesized and ligated an RNA virus genome and "booted" it in cell lysate.[41] The single-celled organism contains four "watermarks"[42] written into its DNA to identify it as synthetic and to help trace its descendants. The watermarks include

  1. Code table for entire alphabet with punctuations
  2. Names of 46 contributing scientists
  3. Three quotations
  4. The secret email address for the cell.[43]

On March 25, 2016, Venter reported the creation of Syn 3.0, a synthetic genome having the fewest genes of any freely living organism (473 genes). Their aim was to strip away all nonessential genes, leaving only the minimal set necessary to support life. This stripped-down, fast reproducing cell is expected to be a valuable tool for researchers in the field.[44]

In August 2018, Venter retired as chairman of the board, saying he wanted to focus on his work at the J. Craig Venter Institute. He will remain as a scientific advisor to the board.[45]

J. Craig Venter Institute

In 2006 Venter founded the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI), a nonprofit which conducts research in synthetic biology. It has facilities in La Jolla and in Rockville, Maryland and employs over 200 people.

In April 2022 Venter sold the La Jolla JCVI facility to the University of California, San Diego for $25 million. The university, which already has a very strong genomics program, hopes to absorb most of the Institute's faculty and its current research grants. Venter will continue to lead a separate nonprofit research group, also known as the J. Craig Venter Institute, and stressed that he is not retiring.[12]

Individual human genome

On September 4, 2007, a team led by Sam Levy published one of the first genomes of an individual human—Venter's own DNA sequence.[46] Some of the sequences in Venter's genome are associated with wet earwax,[47] increased risk of antisocial behavior, Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases.[10] This publication was especially interesting because it attempted to separate the two haplotypes (the two copies of each chromosome), although it only accomplished this in a limited way.[original research?] The genome as published only had 3 billion bases, rather than the full 6 billion that would compose a fully diploid sequence. Another 10 years passed before the first haplotype-resolved human genomes began to appear.

The Human Reference Genome Browser is a web application for the navigation and analysis of Venter's recently published genome. The HuRef database consists of approximately 32 million DNA reads sequenced using microfluidic Sanger sequencing, assembled into 4,528 scaffolds and 4.1 million DNA variations identified by genome analysis. These variants include single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), block substitutions, short and large indels, and structural variations like insertions, deletions, inversions and copy number changes.

The browser enables scientists to navigate the HuRef genome assembly and sequence variations, and to compare it with the NCBI human build 36 assembly in the context of the NCBI and Ensembl annotations. The browser provides a comparative view between NCBI and HuRef consensus sequences, the sequence multi-alignment of the HuRef assembly, Ensembl and dbSNP annotations, HuRef variants, and the underlying variant evidence and functional analysis. The interface also represents the haplotype blocks from which diploid genome sequence can be inferred and the relation of variants to gene annotations. The display of variants and gene annotations are linked to external public resources including dbSNP, Ensembl, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and Gene Ontology (GO).

Users can search the HuRef genome using HUGO gene names, Ensembl and dbSNP identifiers, HuRef contig or scaffold locations, or NCBI chromosome locations. Users can then easily and quickly browse any genomic region via the simple and intuitive pan and zoom controls; furthermore, data relevant to specific loci can be exported for further analysis.

Human Longevity, Inc.

On March 4, 2014, Venter and co-founders Peter Diamandis and Robert Hariri announced the formation of Human Longevity, Inc., a company focused on extending the healthy, "high performance" human lifespan.[48][49] At the time of the announcement the company had already raised $70 million in venture financing, which was expected to last 18 months.[48][49] Venter served as the chairman and chief executive officer (CEO) until May 2018, when he retired. The company said that it plans to sequence 40,000 genomes per year, with an initial focus on cancer genomes and the genomes of cancer patients.[48]

Human Longevity filed a lawsuit in 2018 against Venter, accusing him of stealing trade secrets. Allegations were made stating that Venter had departed with his company computer that contained valuable information that could be used to start a competing business.[50] The lawsuit was ultimately dismissed by a California judge on the basis that Human Longevity were unable to present a case that met the legal threshold required for a company, or individual, to sue when its trade secrets have been stolen.[51]

Human Longevity's mission is to extend healthy human lifespan by the use of high-resolution big data diagnostics from genomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, and proteomics, and the use of stem cell therapy.[52]

Published books

Venter is the author of three books, the first of which is an autobiography titled A Life Decoded.[10] In Venter's second book, Life at the Speed of Light, he announced his theory that this is the generation in which there appears to be a dovetailing of the two previously diverse fields of science represented by computer programming and the genetic programming of life by DNA sequencing.[53] He was applauded for his position on this by futurist Ray Kurzweil. Venter's most recent book, co-authored by David Ewing Duncan, The Voyage of Sorcerer II: The Expedition that Unlocked the Secrets of the Ocean’s Microbiome,[54] details the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition, spanning a 15-year period during which microbes from the world’s oceans were collected and their DNA sequenced.

Personal life

After a brief marriage to Barbara Rae-Venter,[55][56] with whom he had a son, Christopher, he married Claire M. Fraser[57][18] remaining married to her until 2005.[58] In late 2008 he married Heather Kowalski.[59] They live in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, CA.[59] Venter is an atheist.[60]

Venter was 75 when he sold his main research facility, the J. Craig Venter Institute, to UCSD in 2022. He said he has no intention of retiring and would continue to lead a separate nonprofit research group, but he was recovering from a difficult bout with COVID-19 and was tired of management responsibilities.[12] He has a home in La Jolla and a ranch in Borrego Springs, California, as well as homes in two small towns in Maine. He indulges in two passions: sailing and flying small planes, which he calls "the ultimate freedom".[12]

In popular culture

Venter has been the subject of articles in several magazines, including Wired,[61] The Economist,[62] Australian science magazine Cosmos,[63][64] and The Atlantic.[65]

Venter appears in the two-hour 2001 NOVA special, "Cracking the code of life".[66][67]

On May 16, 2004, Venter gave the commencement speech at Boston University.[68]

On December 4, 2007, Venter gave the Dimbleby lecture for the BBC in London.[69]

Venter delivered the 2008 convocation speech for Faculty of Science honours and specialization students at the University of Alberta.[70]

In February 2008, he gave a speech about his current work at the TED conference.[71]

Venter was featured in Time magazine's "The Top 10 Everything of 2008" article. Number three in 2008's Top 10 Scientific Discoveries was a piece outlining his work stitching together the 582,000 base pairs necessary to invent the genetic information for a whole new bacterium.[72]

On May 20, 2010, Venter announced the creation of first self-replicating semi-synthetic bacterial cell.[73]

In the June 2011 issue of Men's Journal, Venter was featured as the "Survival Skills" celebrity of the month. He shared various anecdotes and advice, including stories of his time in Vietnam, as well as mentioning a bout with melanoma on his back, which subsequently resulted in his "giving a pound of flesh" to surgery.[74]

In May 2011, Venter was the commencement speaker at the 157th commencement of Syracuse University.[75][76]

In May 2017, Venter was the guest of honor and keynote speaker at the inauguration ceremony of the Center for Systems Biology Dresden.[77]

Awards and nominations

Dr. Craig Venter, being awarded the 2020 Edogawa NICHE Prize in Toronto


Venter has authored over 200 publications in scientific journals.[94]

See also


  1. ^ Shreeve, Jamie (October 31, 2005). "The Blueprint Of Life". U.S. News & World Report. 139 (16): 70. PMID 16296659. Archived from the original on November 30, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
  2. ^ Lemonick, Michael (December 25, 2000). "J. Craig Venter: Gene Mapper". Time. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  3. ^ Fox, Stuart (May 21, 2010). "J. Craig Venter Institute creates first synthetic life form". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
  4. ^ "JCVI: Research / Projects / First Self-Replicating Synthetic Bacterial Cell / Overview". Archived from the original on June 29, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  5. ^ "14. Craig Venter – 50 People Who Matter 2010". New Statesman. September 21, 2010. Archived from the original on October 24, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  6. ^ Prize, Dan David. "J. Craig Venter". Retrieved November 3, 2020.
  7. ^ "APS Member History". Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  8. ^ "Advisors". Archived from the original on April 21, 2010. Retrieved July 27, 2010. retrieved July 5, 2010
  9. ^ "John Craig Venter (1946–)". DNA from the beginning. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e J. Craig Venter (2007). A Life Decoded: My Genome: My Life. Penguin Group US. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-101-20256-2.
  11. ^ Venter, Craig (October 16, 2007). "Craig Venter: Creating life in a lab using DNA". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009.
  12. ^ a b c d Robbins, Gary (April 27, 2022). "Geneticist Craig Venter sells his La Jolla research center to UC San Diego for $25 million". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  13. ^ J. Craig Venter (2007). "Introduction". A Life Decoded. Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-06358-1. OCLC 165048736. For many years I have been trying to make sense and meaning out of the lives I saw destroyed or maimed due to the government policies that involved us in the war in Vietnam.
  14. ^ Ward, Logan (November 2010). "Breakthrough Awards 2010: Pioneering New Life". Popular Mechanics (Print). 187 (11): 62–65.
  15. ^ Ross Douthat (January–February 2007). "The God of Small Things". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
  16. ^ 'Artificial life' breakthrough announced by scientists, BBC, May 21, 2010.
  17. ^ "Craig Venter Takes Aim at the Big Questions". ScienceWatch. 8 (5). September–October 1997. Archived from the original on October 18, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
  18. ^ a b "The god of small things". The Sydney Morning Herald. January 26, 2007.
  19. ^ Roberts, Leslie (October 11, 1991). "Genome patent fight erupts: an NIH plan to patent thousands of random DNA sequences will discourage industrial investment and undercut the Genome Project itself, the plan's critics charge". Science. 254 (5029): 184–186. Bibcode:1991Sci...254..184R. doi:10.1126/science.1925568. PMID 1925568. S2CID 32742062.
  20. ^ "Patent Law – Utility – Federal Circuit holds that expressed sequence tags lack substantial and specific utility unless underlying gene function is identified. In re Fisher, 421 F.3d 1365 (Fed. Cir. 2005)" (PDF). Harvard Law Review. 119 (8): 2604–2611. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2008.
  21. ^ Weber, James L.; Myers, Eugene W. (1997). "Human Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing". Genome Research. 7 (5): 401–409. CiteSeerX doi:10.1101/gr.7.5.401. PMID 9149936.
  22. ^ Gannett, Lisa, The Human Genome Project Entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
  23. ^ Green, Philip (1997). "Against a Whole-Genome Shotgun". Genome Research. 7 (5): 410–417. doi:10.1101/gr.7.5.410. PMID 9149937.
  24. ^ Victor K. McElheny (2010). Drawing the Map of Life: Inside the Human Genome Project. Basic Books (AZ). ISBN 978-0-465-04333-0.
  25. ^ Singer, Emily (September 4, 2007). "Craig Venter's Genome". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved October 12, 2014. The genome we published at Celera was a composite of five people. ... After leaving Celera in 2002, Venter announced that much of the genome that had been sequenced there was his own.
  26. ^ Shreeve, Jamie (October 31, 2005). "The Blueprint of Life". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2007.
  27. ^ ""Time Magazine Dubs Montgomery County "DNA Alley"" (Press release). Montgomery County, Maryland Government. December 19, 2000. Archived from the original on October 13, 2006. Retrieved January 30, 2007.
  28. ^ Venter, J. C.; Adams, M.; Myers, E.; Li, P.; Mural, R.; Sutton, G.; Smith, H.; Yandell, M.; Evans, C.; Holt, R. A.; Gocayne, J. D.; Amanatides, P.; Ballew, R. M.; Huson, D. H.; Wortman, J. R.; Zhang, Q.; Kodira, C. D.; Zheng, X. H.; Chen, L.; Skupski, M.; Subramanian, G.; Thomas, P. D.; Zhang, J.; Gabor Miklos, G. L.; Nelson, C.; Broder, S.; Clark, A. G.; Nadeau, J.; McKusick, V. A.; et al. (2001). "The Sequence of the Human Genome". Science. 291 (5507): 1304–1351. Bibcode:2001Sci...291.1304V. doi:10.1126/science.1058040. PMID 11181995.
  29. ^ Lander, E. S.; Linton, M.; Birren, B.; Nusbaum, C.; Zody, C.; Baldwin, J.; Devon, K.; Dewar, K.; Doyle, M.; Fitzhugh, W.; Funke, R.; Gage, D.; Harris, K.; Heaford, A.; Howland, J.; Kann, L.; Lehoczky, J.; Levine, R.; McEwan, P.; McKernan, K.; Meldrim, J.; Mesirov, J. P.; Miranda, C.; Morris, W.; Naylor, J.; Raymond, C.; Rosetti, M.; Santos, R.; Sheridan, A.; et al. (February 2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome" (PDF). Nature. 409 (6822): 860–921. Bibcode:2001Natur.409..860L. doi:10.1038/35057062. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 11237011.
  30. ^ Olson, M.V. (2002). "The Human Genome Project: A Player's Perspective". Journal of Molecular Biology. 319 (4): 931–942. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00333-9. PMID 12079320.
  31. ^ Regalo, Antonio (July 24, 2005). "Maverick biologist at work on next goal: creating life". Seattle Times.
  32. ^ Larkman, Kirell (September 7, 2007). "Yacht for Sale: Suited for Sailing, Surfing, and Seaborne Metagenomics". GenomeWeb News.
  33. ^ Howell, Katie (July 14, 2009). "Exxon Sinks $600M Into Algae-Based Biofuels in Major Strategy Shift". The New York Times.
  34. ^ Ball, Philip (2016). "Man Made: A History of Synthetic Life". Distillations. 2 (1): 15–23. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  35. ^ Karas, Bogumil J.; Diner, Rachel E.; Lefebvre, Stephane C.; McQuaid, Jeff; Phillips, Alex P.R.; Noddings, Chari M.; Brunson, John K.; Valas, Ruben E.; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Jablanovic, Jelena; Gillard, Jeroen T.F.; Beeri, Karen; Ellisman, Mark H.; Glass, John I.; Hutchison III, Clyde A.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Venter, J. Craig; Allen, Andrew E.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Weyman, Philip D. (April 21, 2015). "Designer diatom episomes delivered by bacterial conjugation". Nature Communications. 6: 6925. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.6925K. doi:10.1038/ncomms7925. PMC 4411287. PMID 25897682.
  36. ^ "Scientists at the J. Craig Venter Institute Publish Paper Outlining Efficient Synthetic Biology Methods to Genetically Engineer Microalgae". J. Craig Venter Institute. April 21, 2015. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  37. ^ Regalado, Antonio (June 29, 2005). "Biologist Venter aims to create life from scratch". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  38. ^ Highfield, Roger (June 8, 2007). "Man-made microbe 'to create endless biofuel'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
  39. ^ Gibson, D.; Glass, J.; Lartigue, C.; Noskov, V.; Chuang, R.; Algire, M.; Benders, G.; Montague, M.; Ma, L.; Moodie, M. M.; Merryman, C.; Vashee, S.; Krishnakumar, R.; Assad-Garcia, N.; Andrews-Pfannkoch, C.; Denisova, E. A.; Young, L.; Qi, Z. -Q.; Segall-Shapiro, T. H.; Calvey, C. H.; Parmar, P. P.; Hutchison Ca, C. A.; Smith, H. O.; Venter, J. C. (2010). "Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized Genome". Science. 329 (5987): 52–56. Bibcode:2010Sci...329...52G. doi:10.1126/science.1190719. PMID 20488990.
  40. ^ Swaby, Rachel (May 20, 2010). "Scientists Create First Self-Replicating Synthetic Life". Wired.
  41. ^ Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Tumpey, Terrence M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K (December 2009). "Synthetic viruses: a new opportunity to understand and prevent viral disease". Nature Biotechnology. 27 (12): 1163–72. doi:10.1038/nbt.1593. PMC 2819212. PMID 20010599.
  42. ^ "Using Arc to decode Venter's secret DNA watermark". Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  43. ^ Sample, Ian (May 20, 2010). "Craig Venter creates synthetic life form". The Guardian. London.
  44. ^ Service, Robert F. (March 25, 2016). "Synthetic microbe has fewest genes, but many mysteries". Science. 351 (6280): 1380–1381. Bibcode:2016Sci...351.1380S. doi:10.1126/science.351.6280.1380. PMID 27013708.
  45. ^ Whitlock, Jared (August 14, 2018). "Venter Retires as Chairman of Synthetic Genomics Board". San Diego Business Journal. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  46. ^ Levy S; Sutton G; Ng PC; Feuk L; Halpern AL; et al. (2007). "The Diploid Genome Sequence of an Individual Human". PLOS Biology. 5 (10): e254. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050254. PMC 1964779. PMID 17803354.
  47. ^ "Omim – Ear Wax, Wet/Dry". Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  48. ^ a b c "Human Longevity Inc. (HLI) Launched to Promote Healthy Aging Using Advances in Genomics and Stem Cell Therapies". PR Newswire. March 4, 2014. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  49. ^ a b Bigelow, Bruce V. (March 4, 2014). "Craig Venter's Latest Startup Gets $70M To Sequence Loads of Genomes". Xconomy. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  50. ^ "Genomics Company Human Longevity Sues J. Craig Venter Institute". The Scientist. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
  51. ^ "Judge dismisses lawsuit accusing Craig Venter of stealing trade secrets". STAT. December 19, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  52. ^ Smith, Robin L. (November 11, 2014). "The Regeneration Generation: A Conversation With Bob Hariri, Vice-Chairman and Co-Founder of Human Longevity Inc". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  53. ^ J. Craig Venter (2013). Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life. New York: Viking Adult. ISBN 978-0-670-02540-4. OCLC 834432832.
  54. ^ Venter, J. Craig (September 12, 2023). The Voyage of Sorcerer II: The Expedition that Unlocked the Secrets of the Ocean's Microbiome. United States and Canada: Belknap Press. p. 336. ISBN 9780674246478. Retrieved November 8, 2023.
  55. ^ Graham, Flora (August 30, 2018). "Thursday briefing: Barbara Rae-Venter is the hobbyist genealogical detective who tracked a serial killer". Nature. Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-06137-2. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
  56. ^ Murphy, Heather (August 29, 2018). "She Helped Crack the Golden State Killer Case. Here's What She's Going to Do Next". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
  57. ^ Okie, Susan (August 11, 2011). "Is Craig Venter going to save the planet? Or, is this more hype from one of America's most controversial scientists?". Washington Post. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  58. ^ Wadman, Meredith (May 2007). "High-profile departure ends genome institute's charmed run". Nature Medicine. 13 (5): 518. doi:10.1038/nm1594. PMID 17479082. S2CID 40959134.
  59. ^ a b Lin, Sara (March 12, 2010). "Craig Venter's Hangout". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  60. ^ Steve Kroft asked Venter on CBS' Sixty Minutes Archived January 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, November 21, 2010: "Do you believe in God?" Venter replied, "No. The universe is far more wonderful."
  61. ^ Shreeve, James. "Craig Venter's Epic Voyage to Redefine the Origin of the Species", Wired, August 2004. Accessed June 7, 2007.
  62. ^ "The Journey of the Sorcerer", The Economist, December 4, 2004.
  63. ^ First individual person's genome decoded Archived December 13, 2007, at the Wayback MachineCosmos. September 4, 2007.
  64. ^ Geneticists on verge of creating artificial life Archived December 13, 2007, at the Wayback MachineCosmos. October 8, 2007.
  65. ^ Douthat, Ross. "The God of Small Things", The Atlantic, Jan/Feb 2007.
  66. ^ "Cracking the Code of Life: Meet the Decoders". NOVA. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  67. ^ "Cracking the Code of Life: The Race to Decode Human DNA (2001)". Bioethics Research Library. Retrieved February 1, 2017.[permanent dead link]
  68. ^ Warren, Jessica. April 30: Genome scientist to speak at Commencement[permanent dead link], The Daily Free Press, April 28, 2004. Accessed August 2, 2008.
  69. ^ "Press Releases The Richard Dimbleby Lecture 2007: Dr J Craig Venter – A DNA-Driven World". BBC. December 5, 2007. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  70. ^ Brown, M.: "Genomics leader accepts U of A honorary degree"[permanent dead link], "UofA ExpressNews"; retrieved on June 7, 2009.
  71. ^ Venter, Craig (March 6, 2008). "On the verge of creating synthetic life". Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  72. ^ "The Top 10 Everything Of 2008". Time. November 3, 2008. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
  73. ^ Venter, Craig (May 21, 2010). "Watch me unveil "synthetic life"". Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  74. ^ Will Cockrell (May 20, 2011). "Survival Skills: Craig Venter". Men's Journal. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011.
  75. ^ "Commencement 2011". Syracuse University Magazine. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  76. ^ "Remarks by J. Craig Venter at Syracuse University's 157th Commencement and the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry's 114th Commencement". SU News. May 15, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  77. ^ "Official Inauguration – the Center is officially open". Archived from the original on November 7, 2022. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  78. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement.
  79. ^ "AAAS Awards: Newcomb Cleveland Prize Recipients". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
  80. ^ "Past Winners – Gabbay Award – Rosenstiel Basic Medical Sciences Research Center – Brandeis University". Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  81. ^ "Biotechnology Heritage Award". Science History Institute. May 31, 2016. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  82. ^ Strickland, Debbie (June 13, 2001). "Genomic Leaders Receive 2001 Biotechnology Heritage Award". BIO. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  83. ^ "Past Recipients". Association for Molecular Pathology. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  84. ^ Aufrett, Sarah. "ASU Celebrates Spring Graduates", ASU Insight, May 11, 2007. Accessed June 7, 2007.
  85. ^ "Honorary degrees awarded to Browne, Venter and Rausing", Imperial College, October 24, 2007. Accessed May 21, 2010.
  86. ^ "J. Craig Venter, Ph.D. Receives Double Helix Medal from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory". PR Newswire. November 12, 2008. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  87. ^ "Bellevue-based foundation awards $100,000 prize for genome research". Bellevue Reporter. September 9, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  88. ^ "Eni Award 2008: the Winners are Announced". ENI. February 18, 2008. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  89. ^ Piercey, Judy (October 12, 2009). "Alumnus J. Craig Venter Awarded National Medal of Science". This Week at UCSD. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  90. ^ "Clarkson University: Template Title". Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
  91. ^ Welch-Donahue, Jaime. "Benjamin Rush Scholars to Honor Dr. J. Craig Venter on April 21". Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
  92. ^ "2011 Dickson Prize Winner". University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  93. ^ "Edogawa-Niche Prize". Archived from the original on October 26, 2018.
  94. ^ "Venter, J. Craig". August 19, 2003. Retrieved October 17, 2009.

Further reading