Russell Group
Formation1994; 30 years ago (1994)
TypeAssociation of United Kingdom-based universities
Headquarters50/60 Station Road
Cambridge
CB1 2JH[1]
Region served
United Kingdom
Membership
24:
Key people
  • Tim Bradshaw
    (chief executive)
  • Chris Day[2]
    (chair 2023–2026)
Websiterussellgroup.ac.uk Edit this at Wikidata

The Russell Group is a self-selected association of twenty-four public research universities in the United Kingdom. The group is headquartered in Cambridge and was established in 1994 to represent its members' interests, principally to government and Parliament. It was incorporated in 2007.[3] Its members are often perceived as being the UK's best universities, but this has been disputed.[4]

As of 2017, Russell Group members receive over three-quarters of all university research grant and contract income in the United Kingdom.[5] Russell Group members award 60% of all doctorates gained in the United Kingdom.[5] In the 2021 Research Excellence Framework, Russell Group universities accounted for 65% of all world-leading (4*) research conducted in the UK, and 91% of the Russell Group's research was judged to be world-leading (4*) or internationally excellent (3*).[6] In the 2023 Teaching Excellence and Student Outcomes Framework (TEF), of the 20 English Russell Group universities which were assessed, 7 hold gold awards (35%) and 13 silver (65%). This compares to proportions across 128 higher education institutions of which 29% hold gold, 62% silver, and 9% bronze.[7] Their graduates hold 61% of all UK jobs that require a university degree, despite being only 17% of all higher education graduates.[8][9]

The Russell Group is named after the location of the first informal meetings of the Group, which took place at the Hotel Russell in Russell Square, London.[10]

History

The Russell Group of universities was formed in 1994 by 17 British research universities – Birmingham, Bristol, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Imperial College London, Leeds, Liverpool, London School of Economics, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, Oxford, Sheffield, Southampton, University College London and Warwick, who originally met at Hotel Russell shortly before meetings of the Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals (now Universities UK) in nearby Tavistock Square, close to the University of London buildings and, particularly, Senate House.[10][11] With the exception of Warwick (established in the 1960s), the founder members of the group were all universities or university colleges prior to World War I, including most of Britain's ancient universities and "redbrick universities". In 1998, Cardiff University and King's College London joined the group.[12]

In March 2001, the Russell Group decided against selecting a preferred option for the future funding of higher education, stating that endowments, a graduate contribution, increased public funding and top-up fees should all remain options.[13] In December 2005, it was announced that the Russell Group would be appointing its first full-time director-general as a result of a planned expansion of its operations, including commissioning and conducting its own policy research.[14] In November 2006, Queen's University Belfast was admitted as the twentieth member of the group.[15] In the same month Wendy Piatt, the then deputy director in the Prime Minister's strategy unit, was announced as the group's new Director General and chief executive.[15]

In March 2012, it was announced that four universities – Durham, Exeter, Queen Mary University of London; and York – would become members of the Russell Group in August of the same year.[10] All of the new members had previously been members of the 1994 Group of British universities.[10]

In January 2013, it was announced that the Russell Group would establish an academic board to advise the English exams watchdog Ofqual on the content of A-Levels.[16] In 2019 the group launched a website "Informed Choices" to advise school children on which A-level subject choices were useful for various degree courses, replacing an earlier teachers' guide of the same name from 2011 that had identified a list of "facilitating subjects'.[17][18]

Organisation

Objectives

The Russell Group states that "its aim is to help ensure that our universities have the optimum conditions in which to flourish and continue to make social, economic and cultural impacts through their world-leading research and teaching."[3]

It works towards this by lobbying the UK government and parliament; commissioning reports and research; creating a forum in which its member institutions can discuss issues of common concern; and identify opportunities for them to work together.

Leadership

The Russell Group is led by Chief Executive Tim Bradshaw and chaired by Chris Day, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Newcastle.[2]

Russell Group chairs 2000–2026
Name Dates Institution
Sir Colin Lucas 2000–2003 Oxford
Professor Sir Michael Sterling 2003–2006 Birmingham
Professor Sir Malcolm Grant 2006–2009 UCL
Professor Sir Michael Arthur 2009–2012 Leeds
Professor Sir David Eastwood 2012–2015 Birmingham
Professor Sir David Greenaway 2015–2017 Nottingham
Professor Sir Anton Muscatelli 2017–2020 Glasgow
Professor Dame Nancy Rothwell 2020–2023 Manchester
Professor Chris Day 2023–2026 Newcastle

Members

The Russell Group currently has twenty-four members,[11] of which twenty are from England, two from Scotland, and one from each of Wales and Northern Ireland. Of the English members, five are from Greater London; three from the Yorkshire and the Humber region; two from each of the North East, North West, West Midlands, South West and South East regions; and one from each of the East Midlands and East regions. Four Russell Group members are constituent colleges of the University of London and a fifth London institution, Imperial College London, was part of the University of London until 2007.

The table below gives the members of the group, along with when they joined, their student and staff numbers, and their latest Teaching Excellence Framework overall rating (non-English universities were not assessed).

University[19] Year of joining Undergraduate students (2021/22)[20] Postgraduate students (2021/22)[20] Total students (2021/22)[20] Total academic staff (2021/22)[21] TEF award[22]
University of Birmingham 1994 25,150 12,840 37,990 4,100 Silver†
University of Bristol 1994 23,055 8,425 31,485 3,595 Silver
University of Cambridge 1994 13,645 8,960 22,610 6,130 Gold*
Cardiff University 1998 23,765 10,220 33,985 3,400
Durham University 2012 17,395 4,835 22,230 2,310 Silver
University of Edinburgh 1994 26,000 15,245 41,250 7,725
University of Exeter 2012 23,755 8,710 32,465 3,585 Gold*
University of Glasgow 1994 23,460 19,520 42,980 5,255
Imperial College London 1994 11,740 9,730 21,470 4,440 Gold
King's College London 1998 23,225 18,270 41,490 5,715 Silver
University of Leeds 1994 27,015 10,175 37,190 3,760 Silver†
University of Liverpool 1994 22,265 6,415 28,680 3,110 Gold
London School of Economics 1994 5,575 7,400 12,975 1,830 Silver
University of Manchester 1994 30,900 15,505 46,410 5,280 Silver
Newcastle University 1994 20,760 6,520 27,280 3,030 Silver†
University of Nottingham 1994 28,690 8,570 37,260 3,540 Silver
University of Oxford 1994 15,685 11,610 27,290 6,945 Gold*
 Queen Mary University of London 2012 17,430 8,615 26,045 3,300 Silver†
Queen's University Belfast 2006 17,970 7,325 25,295 2,045
University of Sheffield 1994 20,040 10,820 30,860 3,610 Silver
University of Southampton 1994 15,110 8,685 23,795 2,600 Silver
University College London 1994 23,800 23,030 46,830 9,585 Silver
University of Warwick 1994 18,955 9,870 28,825 3,160 Gold*
University of York 2012 15,350 8,070 23,420 2,295 Gold

Notes:
Member institution of the University of London, awarding its own degrees
* Achieved 'Gold' rating in all three categories of the assessment
Achieved overall 'Silver' rating with one category rated 'Bronze'

Status

Research

In 2022/23, following the 2021 Research Excellence Framework (REF), the English universities of the Russell Group saw their share of recurring research funding from Research England drop by 2.71 percentage points from the 2021/22 funding (based on the previous 2014 REF) to 68.21 per cent, although most institutions saw a rise in actual funding levels due to an overall increase in funding. The top 19 English institutions in terms of funding continued to all be from the Russell Group, with the top 20 being rounded off, as before, by Lancaster. The LSE was, as in previous REF rounds, the exception, ranking 31st in terms of funding (down from 23rd in 2021/11) and seeing a nine per cent fall (£1.7 million) in its allocation.[23]

In 2015/16, following the 2014 REF, the 19 English universities with HEFCE research funding allocations (excluding transitional funding) in excess of £20 million were all members of the Russell Group. The only English Russell Group institution to receive an allocation below £20 million was the LSE (£18.6 million), which ranked 22nd behind the Universities of Leicester and Lancaster (both on £19 million).[24]

In 2010/11, 19 of the 20 UK universities with the highest income from research grants and contracts were members of the Russell Group.[25] In terms of total research funding allocations from the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in 2007/8, the top 15 universities were all Russell Group institutions.[26] LSE was 21st, due to its focus on less costly social sciences research. Queen's University Belfast, Cardiff, Glasgow and Edinburgh, were not included in this table, as they are not English institutions. The Russell Group institutions received 82% of the total HEFCE research funding allocation.[26]

The research funding figures depend on factors other than the quality of research, in particular there are variations due to institutional size and subject spread (e.g. science, technology and medicine tend to attract more money).

In 2008, 18 of the then 20 members were positioned in the top 20 of Research Fortnight's Research Assessment Exercise 'Power' Table. The other two places were occupied by Durham University and Queen Mary University of London, which were not then Russell Group members but have since joined. The two Russell Group institutions outside the top 20 were QUB (21st) and the LSE (27th), while the other two universities to have since joined were York (22nd) and Exeter (25th).[27] In the equivalent table for the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the 24 Russell Group members occupied the top 24 positions, with the University of Lancaster in 25th being the highest-ranked non-Russell Group university.[28]

Rankings

See also: Rankings of universities in the United Kingdom

In 2023, all eight UK universities in the ARWU top 100, seventeen of the eighteen in the QS top 100 (the other place being occupied by the University of St Andrews), and all ten in the THE top 100 are members of the Russell Group. The Russell Group provides seven of the top ten in the Complete, Guardian, and Times/Sunday Times.

University ARWU 2023 (Global)[29] QS 2024 (Global)[30] THE 2024 (Global)[31] Complete 2024 (National)[32] Guardian 2024 (National)[33] Times/Sunday Times 2024 (National)[34]
University of Birmingham 151–200 84 101 14 37 22
University of Bristol 88 55 81 15 17 16
University of Cambridge 4 2 5 1 3 3
Cardiff University 151–200 154= 190 21 29 25
Durham University 301–400 78 174 8 7 7
University of Edinburgh 38 22 30= 12 14 13
University of Exeter 151–200 153 177= 18 18 11
University of Glasgow 101–150 76= 87= 26 13 12
Imperial College London 23 6 8 6 5 5
King's College London 59 40 38= 24= 23 27
University of Leeds 151–200 75 129 22 27 24
University of Liverpool 101–150 176= 168= 24= 36 29=
London School of Economics 151–200 45 46 3 4 4
University of Manchester 41 32 51 19 24 23
Newcastle University 201–300 110 168= 30 67 37
University of Nottingham 101–150 100= 130= 28 59 32
University of Oxford 7 3 1 2 2 2
Queen Mary University of London 201–300 145= 135 53 73 46
Queen's University Belfast 301–400 202 201–250 27 50 31
University of Sheffield 151–200 104 105 20 21 18
University of Southampton 151–200 81= 97= 16= 20 17
University College London 17 9 22 9 8 6
University of Warwick 101–150 67 106= 11 9 9
University of York 301–400 167 147 16= 19 15

Selectivity

All but two of the universities in the Russell Group are part of the Sutton Trust's group of 30 highly selective universities, the Sutton 30 (the absent members being Queen Mary University of London and Queen's University Belfast).[35] The Sutton 13 group of the 13 most highly selective universities only includes one non-Russell Group member, the University of St Andrews.[36] The top 10 by average UCAS points of new undergraduate students in 2021–22 included three non-Russell Group universities: St Andrews (1st: 212 points), Strathclyde (2nd: 210 points), and Aberdeen (joint 10th with Durham: 185 points).[37] The top 10 by lowest offer rate to new undergraduate students in 2022-23 included three non-Russell Group universities: St Andrews (3rd; 24.7%), St George's (9th; 40.0%) and University of the Arts London (10th; 43.2%). The average offer rate, including conditional and unconditional offers, across 'higher tariff' UK institutions (as defined by UCAS) was 55.5% in 2022.[38]

University Average Entry Tariffa[37] Offer Rate (%)b[38]
University of Birmingham 158 61.3
University of Bristol 174 52.2
University of Cambridge 209 21.8
Cardiff University 153 68.2
Durham University 185 48.0
University of Edinburgh 197 29.7
University of Exeter 164 63.3
University of Glasgow 209 61.0
Imperial College London 206 30.1
King's College London 171 39.3
University of Leeds 162 47.3
University of Liverpool 147 69.2
London School of Economics 195 26.1
University of Manchester 167 51.5
Newcastle University 151 78.1
University of Nottingham 154 67.7
University of Oxford 205 19.2
Queen Mary University of London 151 61.4
Queen's University Belfast 156 68.5
University of Sheffield 157 74.7
University of Southampton 156 69.2
University College London 190 29.5
University of Warwick 173 62.0
University of York 157 78.7

Notes:
a The average UCAS tariff achieved by new undergraduate students entering the university in 2021–22. This is based on qualifications achieved, for example A-levels: A* = 56, A = 48, B = 40 UCAS points; IBO Certificate in Higher Level: H7 = 56, H6 = 48, H5 = 32.[39]
b The average offer rate for June deadline undergraduate applicants (all ages) in 2022.

Finances

The Russell Group accounted for 49.1% of the income of the higher education sector in the UK in 2013–14, having risen from 44.7% of the total in 2001–02. Over the same period the total income of Russell Group universities rose by 69.9% in real terms, compared to a sector average of 54.4%.[40] Russell Group universities are also seen as "particularly creditworthy" due to their membership of the group, allowing them to borrow money at low interest rates.[41]

The total annual income for Russell Group members for 2020–21 was £20.30 billion of which £4.77 billion was from research grants and contracts, with an operating surplus of £1.15 billion. Russell Group universities hold a total endowment value of £6.18 billion (exclusive of colleges) and net assets of £31.52 billion. The table below is a record of each Russell Group member's financial data for the 2020–21 financial year.

University Government funding body grants (£m) Teaching income (£m) Teaching income as % of total income Research income (£m) Research income as % of total income Total income (£m) Operating surplus (£m) Surplus as % of total income Endowment value (£m) Total net assets (£m)
University of Birmingham[42] 93.1 389.6 50.3% 168.3 21.7% 774.1 35.6 4.60% 134.5 1,252.2
University of Bristol[43] 119.9 349.8 46.5% 176.4 22.6% 752.0 85.3 11.34% 91.3 1,190.1
University of Cambridge[44] 212.9 332.1 16.5% 580.4 28.8% 2,019.1 119.8 5.93% 2,031.0 5,283.0
Cardiff University[45] 109.5 306.9 50.9% 112.6 18.7% 603.4 31.3 5.19% 45.5 678.7
Durham University[46] 43.0 241.3 61.4% 51.2 13.0% 393.2 19.8 5.04% 98.2 476.6
University of Edinburgh[47] 236.3 435.0 37.0% 324.0 27.6% 1,175.6 130.0 11.0% 565.2 2,406.2
University of Exeter[48] 59.4 287.5 57.2% 94.6 18.8% 503.1 —9.7 —1.93% 49.5 513.5
University of Glasgow[49] 198.4 288.9 35.7% 173.3 21.4% 809.4 116.3 14.4% 225.2 1,008.0
Imperial College London[50] 156.0 383.5 35.8% 363.0 33.9% 1,072.0 23.1 2.15% 202.1 1,878.8
King's College London[51] 145.5 505.5 50.5% 187.9 18.8% 1,002.0 36.4 3.63% 300.6 1,489.2
University of Leeds[52] 96.2 405.7 54.0% 130.1 17.3% 751.7 —8.1 —1.08% 90.5 737.5
University of Liverpool[53] 78.7 303.7 50.8% 112.5 18.8% 597.4 29.0 4.85% 190.2 801.5
London School of Economics[54] 37.0 250.7 64.1% 32.8 8.4% 391.1 56.9 14.6% 240.8 757.2
University of Manchester[55] 138.1 577.9 52.5% 237.0 21.5% 1,101.6 63.6 5.77% 242.2 1,857.3
Newcastle University[56] 81.2 276.3 52.8% 99.6 19.0% 523.6 4.7 0.90% 101.8 503.2
University of Nottingham[57] 102.0 387.7 55.9% 114.9 16.6% 694.0 14.0 2.02% 72.3 524.4
University of Oxford[58] 203.8 418.5 18.6% 647.8 28.8% 2,249.8 95.0 4.22% 1,149.0 5,071.8
Queen Mary University of London[59] 76.0 272.9 53.3% 114.7 22.4% 512.5 71.3 13.9% 41.3 533.5
Queen's University Belfast[60] 109.9 143.4 36.2% 88.6 22.4% 395.8 22.3 5.63% 70.0 536.4
University of Sheffield[61] 96.1 370 49.9% 163.0 22.0% 741.0 32.4 4.37% 46.7 1,229.8
University of Southampton[62] 84.2 237.0 43.3% 119.7 21.9% 547.7 5.0 0.91% 14.9 499.4
University College London[63] 221.4 732.9 46.1% 475.7 29.9% 1,591.7 109.8 6.90% 163.3 1,613.7
University of Warwick[64] 66.8 389.7 55.8% 139.8 20.0% 698.2 76.7 11.0% 7.0 384.1
University of York[65] 47.5 229.1 56.8% 69.8 17.3% 403.6 —6.3 —1.56% 8.0 289.5

Notes:
exclusive of colleges

Criticisms

'Elite' status questioned

In a statement made in 2014 to the Higher Education Policy Institute, David Watson of the University of Oxford suggested that the Russell Group's claim to represent 24 'leading universities' was "a real stretch". In the context of the Russell Group's reputation in the sector, he continued: "particularly dangerous, I think, is the bottom half of the Russell Group…The problem with the Russell Group is that it represents neither the sector as a whole [nor], in many cases, the best of the sector". Performance in research intensity showed that there were dozens of other UK universities "above the bottom Russellers".[66]

A Durham University academic, Vikki Boliver, published a report in 2015 claiming that the prestigious position of the Russell Group was not based on evidence, but rather successful marketing. Only the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were significantly more elite than the majority of "old" universities when a grouping analysis was performed using data on academic selectivity, research activity, teaching quality, socio-economic exclusivity and economic resources. The other 22 members of the Russell Group sit in a second tier of universities along with 17 other "old" universities (Aberdeen, Bath*, Dundee, East Anglia*, Goldsmiths*, Heriot-Watt, Kent, Lancaster*, Leicester*, Loughborough*, Reading*, Royal Holloway*, St Andrews*, SOAS*, Strathclyde, Surrey* and Sussex*), mostly comprising former members of the defunct 1994 Group (shown by asterisks). Another 13 "old" universities and 54 "new" universities made up a third tier, with a fourth tier of 19 "new" universities. Within each tier, the differences between the institutions were less significant than the differences between the tiers.[67][68] This reflected an earlier result from 2010 that, when the "Golden Triangle" universities (defined in the study as Oxford, Cambridge, Imperial, LSE, and UCL) were omitted, the remaining (then) members of the Russell Group were outperformed by the (then) members of the 1994 Group.[69]

Ant Bagshaw from the Wonkhe think-tank has criticised the use of Russell Group membership as a proxy for selectivity in official Department for Education reports and statistics, as better measures of selectivity are available from UCAS data. He states that the idea that "Russell Group membership is synonymous with 'best'" is "persistent, but unverified". He also notes that this may lead to less scrutiny of the performance of non-Russell Group selective universities with respect to widening participation and improving access.[70]

Protectionism

The Institute of Economic Affairs has argued that the Russell Group acts out of protectionist interests. It is claimed that this will "restrict competition, discourage innovation and encourage inefficiency, thereby depriving students of lower prices and/or greater choice".[71]

Tuition fees

The Russell Group was prominent in the debate over the introduction of tuition fees, a measure which it strongly supported – much to the dismay of the universities' students' unions. Indeed, members of the group argued that even the fees proposed by the controversial Higher Education Bill would not be sufficient to cover the rising cost of undergraduate teaching, and successfully argued for the right to charge variable fees at much higher rates, so-called top-up fees.[citation needed]

Sustainability

The twenty-four universities in the Russell Group are responsible for around half of the Scope 1 and 2 carbon emissions of the UK university sector.[72][better source needed] The Group as a whole has been criticised for an inconsistent and inadequate response to the need to identify emissions and take reduction measures.[73] An Environmental Sustainability Network was announced by the Russell Group in December 2019;[74] as of November 2021 no outcomes from this had been announced.

Widening access

Analysis by the Labour Party in 2018 found that the number of students from disadvantaged areas has only increased by one percentage point since 2010.[75]

In 2015, Durham academic Vikki Bolívar published a paper, Lies, damned lies, and statistics on widening access to Russell Group universities, criticising the statistical analysis in the Russell Group publication Opening Doors. This had said that "real progress has been made over the last few years" in widening access, but Bolívar highlighted four areas where the statistics used to justify this claim were misleading. She also pointed out that there was "a growing body of statistical research evidence which indicates that one important barrier to widening access at Russell Group universities is that applicants from less advantaged social backgrounds are less likely to be offered places at these universities than comparably qualified applicants from more advantaged social groups" that had not been mentioned in the Russell Group report.[76]

UCAS statistics on offers to applicants from low/high participation neighbourhoods (2022)[77]
POLAR4 Q1 (lowest participation 20% neighbourhoods) POLAR4 Q5 (highest participation 20% neighbourhoods)
University Offer rate differencea Flagb % of all offers Offer rate differencea Flagb % of all offers
Birmingham +2.3 + 9.2 +0.9 + 39.8
Bristol +5.6 + 7.3 -1.9 - 48.3
Cambridge +1.2 5.4 -0.2 50.2
Cardiff -1.6 9.4 +0.6 + 37.4
Durham +37.4 + 12.3 -12.7 - 38.4
Edinburgh +6.8 + 6.1 -1.4 - 49.9
Exeter +7.9 + 6.9 -3.2 - 46.3
Glasgow +3.2 + 5.8 +0.3 47.6
Imperial +6.8 + 7.4 -2.1 - 44.0
King's +6.6 + 7.1 -1.4 - 41.3
Leeds +8.9 + 10.4 -2.2 - 42.1
Liverpool +1.0 10.9 +0.7 + 37.9
LSE +21.6 + 9.0 -4.3 - 44.0
Manchester +4.9 + 10.3 -0.4 40.2
Newcastle -0.2 9.3 +0.4 41.5
Nottingham +1.0 8.6 +0.6 + 42.8
Oxford +8.3 8.2 -2.2 - 47.2
Queen Mary +1.0 5.0 -0.2 37.5
Queen's Belfast -3.5 - 9.4 +0.8 38.5
Sheffield -1.6 - 10.8 +0.9 + 37.7
Southampton -0.4 7.9 +0.9 + 41.3
UCL +4.9 + 6.3 -0.2 48.9
Warwick +2.0 + 7.0 +0.5 43.8
York +0.8 10.3 +0.1 37.9
All higher tariff providers +4.4 + 8.6 -1.0 - 42.1
All UK providers 0.6 11.6 -0.2 32.0

a – difference between the actual offer rate and the offer rate expected if predicted grades and subject choice were the only factors
b – indicates significantly higher (+), significantly lower (-) or no significant difference from expected rate (blank)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Disclaimer". Russell Group. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  2. ^ a b Emily Twinch (4 September 2023). "Newcastle vice-chancellor becomes Russell Group chair". Research Professional News.
  3. ^ a b "About". Russell Group. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  4. ^ Blackmore, Paul (29 March 2016). "Universities vie for the metric that cannot be measured: prestige". The Guardian. The Russell Group has successfully stage-managed the position that it is seen as comprising the best universities. Some are and some aren't, but by and large this is nonsense. However, parents increasingly say they want their child to go to one.
    Pre-92 head.
  5. ^ a b "Profile" (PDF). Russell Group. June 2017. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  6. ^ "Russell Group universities produce more world-leading research than ever before". Russell Group. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  7. ^ McCabe, Grace (18 December 2023). "What is the TEF? Results of the Teaching Excellence Framework 2023". Times Higher Education.
  8. ^ "Graduates in the UK Labour Market – 2017" (Press release). Office for National Statistics. 24 November 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  9. ^ "Government publishes destination data for the first time". Department for Education. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d "Four universities join elite Russell Group". BBC News. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  11. ^ a b "Russell Group extends membership to four more universities". The Guardian. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  12. ^ "Do you want to be in my gang?". Times Higher Education. 19 November 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  13. ^ "Russell Group keeps funding options open". Times Higher Education. 23 March 2001. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  14. ^ "Russell Group seeks leader to oversee its expanded role". Times Higher Education. 9 December 2005. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  15. ^ a b "Queen's gets key to Russell club door". Times Higher Education. 9 November 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  16. ^ "Russell Group to advise on A-level content in post-16 shake-up". Times Higher Education. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  17. ^ Camilla Turner (23 May 2019). "Bright teenagers risk having university plans 'scuppered' by bad A-levels advice, Russell Group warns". Daily Telegraph.
  18. ^ "Informed choices" (PDF). Russell Group. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  19. ^ "Russell Group: Our Universities". Russellgroup.ac.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  20. ^ a b c "Where do HE students study? | HESA". www.hesa.ac.uk.
  21. ^ "Who's working in HE?". www.hesa.ac.uk.
  22. ^ "Teaching Excellence Framework 2023 Outcomes". Office for Students. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  23. ^ Tom Williams (4 August 2022). "Post-92s gain research funding at expense of 'golden triangle'". Times Higher Education.
  24. ^ Paul Jump (26 March 2015). "Winners and losers in Hefce funding allocations". Times Higher Education.
  25. ^ "University financial health check 2014-5" (PDF). Times Higher Education. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  26. ^ a b "Hefce funding allocations 2007–08: All institutions". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  27. ^ "剁䔰㠠偯睥爠呡扬". Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  28. ^ "University Research Excellence Framework 2014 – the full rankings". The Guardian. 17 December 2014.
  29. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2023". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 15 August 2023.
  30. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2024". Quacquarelli Symonds Ltd. 27 June 2023.
  31. ^ "THE World University Rankings 2024". Times Higher Education. 28 September 2023. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  32. ^ "Complete University Guide 2024". The Complete University Guide. 8 June 2022. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  33. ^ "Guardian University Guide 2024". The Guardian. 9 September 2023. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
  34. ^ "Good University Guide 2024". The Times. 15 September 2023. Retrieved 15 September 2023.
  35. ^ Degree of Success: University Chances by Individual School (Report). The Sutton Trust. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  36. ^ Earnings by Degrees (PDF) (Report). Sutton Trust. 18 December 2014. pp. 16–17. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  37. ^ a b "Complete University Guide 2024 – Entry Standards". Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  38. ^ a b "2022 entry UCAS Undergraduate reports by sex, area background, and ethnic group". UCAS. 2 February 2023. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  39. ^ "UCAS Tariff tables". UCAS. May 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  40. ^ Chris Havergal (9 December 2015). "Russell Group 'pulls further away' in funding race". Times Higher Education.
  41. ^ John Morgan (11 February 2016). "Russell Group membership a 'badge of quality' for bond investors". Times Higher Education.
  42. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). University of Birmingham. p. 42. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  43. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). University of Bristol. p. 42. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  44. ^ "Reports and Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). University of Cambridge. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  45. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). Cardiff University. p. 14. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  46. ^ "Financial Statements 2020–2021". Durham University. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  47. ^ "The University of Edinburgh Reports & Financial Statements for the year to July 2021" (PDF). University of Edinburgh. 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  48. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). University of Exeter. p. 29. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  49. ^ "Reports and Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). University of Glasgow. 31 July 2022. p. 5. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  50. ^ "Annual Report and Accounts 2020–21" (PDF). Imperial College London.
  51. ^ "Financial Statements for the year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). King's College London. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  52. ^ "Annual report and accounts 2020–21" (PDF). University of Leeds. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  53. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). University of Liverpool. p. 20. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  54. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). London School of Economics. p. 30. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  55. ^ "Financial statements for the year ended 31 July 2021". University of Manchester. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  56. ^ "Integrated Annual Report 2020–21" (PDF). Newcastle University. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  57. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). University of Nottingham. p. 34. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  58. ^ "Financial Statements 2020/21" (PDF). University of Oxford. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  59. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). Queen Mary, University of London. p. 28. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  60. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021" (PDF). Queen's University Belfast. p. 35. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  61. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2021". University of Sheffield. p. 54. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  62. ^ "Southampton Financial Statement 2021" (PDF). University of Southampton. p. 27.
  63. ^ "Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 July 2021" (PDF). UCL. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  64. ^ "Statement of accounts for the year ended 31 July 2021" (PDF). University of Warwick. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  65. ^ "Annual Report and Financial Statements" (PDF). University of York. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  66. ^ Morgan, John (3 April 2014). "Sir David Watson: Russell Group is not all it's cracked up to be". Times Higher Education. Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  67. ^ Chris Havergal (19 November 2015). "Most Russell Group universities 'little different to other pre-92s'". Times Higher Education.
  68. ^ V. Bolivar (30 September 2015). "Are there distinctive clusters of higher and lower status universities in the UK?". Oxford Review of Education. Taylor & Francis. 41 (5): 608–627. doi:10.1080/03054985.2015.1082905. S2CID 143154842.
  69. ^ Zoë Corbyn (25 March 2010). "Data disprove case for distributing research funds on historical basis". Times Higher Education. The analysis, due to be published on 25 March, uses citation data to show that when the five "golden-triangle" institutions – the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, Imperial College London, University College London and the London School of Economics – are removed from the Russell Group of large research-intensive universities, the 1994 Group of smaller research-led universities outperforms it.
  70. ^ Ant Bagshaw (14 July 2017). "It's time to stop conflating the Russell Group with the 'best'". Wonkhe. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  71. ^ Institute of Economic Affairs: James Stanfield
  72. ^ UK Higher Education Statistics Agency. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/estates
  73. ^ Bill Spence (19 April 2021). "Elite universities are falling short on their green promises" Times Higher Education.
  74. ^ Russell Group December 2019, Joint statement on environmental sustainability.
  75. ^ Jessica Elgot (14 August 2018). "Government accused of 'total failure' to widen elite university access". The Guardian.
  76. ^ Boliver, V. (2015). "Lies, damned lies, and statistics on widening access to Russell Group universities". Radical Statistics. 113: 29–38.
  77. ^ "2022 entry UCAS undergraduate reports by sex, area background, and ethnic group". UCAS. 2023. Retrieved 29 January 2023.