The Seventh Circuit Act of 1807 (formally, "An Act establishing Circuit Courts, and abridging the jurisdiction of the district courts in the districts of Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio", 2 Stat. 420; 9th Congress, ch. 16; enacted February 24, 1807) was a federal statute which increased the size of the Supreme Court of the United States from six Justices to seven, and which also reorganized the circuit courts of the federal judiciary. The Act became law on February 24, 1807, during the Jefferson administration.
SEC. 5. Be it further enacted, That the supreme court of the United States shall hereafter consist of a chief justice, and six associate justices, any law to (the) contrary notwithstanding. And for this purpose there shall be appointed a sixth associate justice, to reside in the seventh circuit, whose duty it shall be, until he is otherwise allotted, to attend the circuit courts of the said seventh circuit, and the supreme court of the United States, and who shall take the same oath, and be entitled to the same salary as are required of, and provided for the other associate justices of the United States.— Seventh Circuit Act of 1807, section 5.
The Act created a new seat on the U.S. Supreme Court and required the new Associate Justice to reside in the seventh circuit.
Under the Act, the new seventh circuit consisted of Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee.
In early 1807, the Act became law, and the justice first appointed to the new seat was Thomas Todd.