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Slovene literature is the literature written in Slovene. It spans across all literary genres with historically the Slovene historical fiction as the most widespread Slovene fiction genre. The Romantic 19th-century epic poetry written by the leading name of the Slovene literary canon, France Prešeren, inspired virtually all subsequent Slovene literature.

Literature played an important role in the development and preservation of the Slovene identity because the Slovene nation did not have its own state until 1991 after the Republic of Slovenia emerged from the breakup of Yugoslavia.[1] Poetry, narrative prose, drama, essay, and criticism kept the Slovene language and culture alive, allowing - in the words of Anton Slodnjak - the Slovenes to become a real nation, particularly in the absence of masculine attributes such as political power and authority.[1]

Early literature

The Freising Manuscripts, dating from the 10th century, most probably written in upper Carinthia, are the oldest surviving documents in Slovene.
The Freising Manuscripts, dating from the 10th century, most probably written in upper Carinthia, are the oldest surviving documents in Slovene.
Protestant preacher Primož Trubar, author of the first printed book in Slovene
Protestant preacher Primož Trubar, author of the first printed book in Slovene
The Sower (1907) by the Impressionist painter Ivan Grohar is a metaphor for the Slovenes as a vigorous nation in front of an uncertain future[2] and a nation that sows in order that it could harvest.[3]
The Sower (1907) by the Impressionist painter Ivan Grohar is a metaphor for the Slovenes as a vigorous nation in front of an uncertain future[2] and a nation that sows in order that it could harvest.[3]

There are accounts that cite the existence of an oral literary tradition that preceded the Slovene written literature.[4] This was mostly composed of folk songs and also prose, which included tales of myths, fairy tales, and narrations.[5]

First written text

The earliest documents written in the Old Slovene are the Freising manuscripts (Brižinski spomeniki), dated between 972 and 1022, found in 1803 in Freising, Germany. This book was written for the purpose of spreading Christianity to the Alpine Slavs and contained terms concerned with the institutions of authority such as oblast (authority), gospod (lord), and rota (oath).[6]

First books

The first printed books in Slovene were Catechismus and Abecedarium, written by the Protestant reformer Primož Trubar in 1550 and printed in Schwäbisch Hall.[7] Based on the work by Trubar, who from 1555 until 1577 translated into Slovene and published the entire New Testament, Jurij Dalmatin translated the entire Bible into Slovene from c. 1569 until 1578 and published it in 1583. In the second half of the 16th century, Slovene became known to other European languages with the multilingual dictionary, compiled by Hieronymus Megiser. Since then each new generation of Slovene writers has contributed to the growing corpus of texts in Slovene. Particularly, Adam Bohorič's Arcticae horulae, the first Slovene grammar, and Sebastjan Krelj's Postilla Slovenska, became the bases of the development of Slovene literature.[5]

Historical periods

Middle Ages

Main articles: Freising Manuscripts, Klagenfurt Manuscript, Stična Manuscript, and Castelmonte Manuscript

Folk poetry

Main articles: Kralj Matjaž, Pegam and Lambergar, Peter Klepec, Rošlin and Verjanko, and The Fair Vida

Protestant reformation

Main articles: Adam Bohorič, Jurij Dalmatin, Sebastijan Krelj, and Primož Trubar

Counter-reformation

Main article: Thomas Chrön

Baroque

Main articles: Lovrenc Marušič, Tobia Lionelli, and Johann Weikhard von Valvasor

Age of Enlightenment

Main articles: Marko Pohlin, Jurij Japelj, Valentin Vodnik, and Anton Tomaž Linhart

1830–1849

Main articles: Matija Čop, Janez Vesel, France Prešeren, Anton Martin Slomšek, Stanko Vraz, Fanny Hausmann, Josipina Turnograjska, Luiza Pesjak, and Janez Nepomuk Primic

1849–1899

Main articles: Janez Trdina, Fran Levstik, Simon Jenko, Josip Jurčič, Josip Stritar, Janko Kersnik, Simon Gregorčič, Anton Aškerc, Ivan Tavčar, Zofka Kveder, Pavlina Pajk, Fran Govekar, and Fran Erjavec

Fin-de-siecle

Main articles: Impressionism, Neo-romanticism, Symbolism (arts), Decadence, Ivan Cankar, Josip Murn Aleksandrov, Dragotin Kette, Oton Župančič, Alojz Gradnik, and Izidor Cankar

This period encompasses 1899–1918.

Late realism

Main articles: Fran Milčinski, Janez Jalen, and Fran Saleški Finžgar

1918–1941

Main articles: Edvard Kocbek, Pavel Golia, Vladimir Bartol, Louis Adamic, Alma Karlin, Bogomir Magajna, Ivan Mrak, Anton Novačan, Lili Novy, Julius Kugy, Vladimir Kralj, and Marica Gregorič Stepančič

1918–1926

Main articles: Srečko Kosovel and Anton Podbevšek

1918–1930

Main articles: Joža Lovrenčič, Miran Jarc, Anton Vodnik, France Vodnik, Božo Vodušek, Ivan Pregelj, Slavko Grum, Stanko Majcen, France Bevk, Jože Udovič, Stanko Vuk, Danilo Lokar, and Cene Vipotnik

1930–1941

Main articles: Mile Klopčič, Fran Albreht, Vera Albreht, Tone Čufar, Igo Gruden, Prežihov Voranc, Miško Kranjec, Bratko Kreft, Ivan Potrč, Ludvik Mrzel, Juš Kozak, Lojz Kraigher, Ferdo Kozak, and Fran Albreht

1941–1945

Main articles: Karel Destovnik Kajuh, Edvard Kocbek, Matej Bor, France Balantič, and Ivan Hribovšek

1945–1990

Main articles: Žarko Petan, Boris Pahor, Alojz Rebula, Florjan Lipuš, Janko Messner, Mimi Malenšek, Miha Remec, Miloš Mikeln, Saša Vuga, Feri Lainšček, Marjan Tomšič, Tone Partljič, Vladimir Kavčič, Igor Torkar, and Matej Bor

Neo-realism

Main articles: Ciril Kosmač, Tone Seliškar, Anton Ingolič, Branka Jurca, Berta Golob, Ela Peroci, Kristina Brenkova, and Leopold Suhodolčan

Intimism

Main article: Intimism (Slovene poetry)

Intimism (Slovene: intimizem) was a poetic movement, the main themes of which were love, disappointment and suffering and the projection of poet's inner feelings onto nature.[8] Its beginner is Ivan Minatti, who was followed by Lojze Krakar. The climax of Intimism was achieved in 1953 with a collection of poetry titled Poems of the Four (Pesmi štirih), written by Janez Menart, Ciril Zlobec, Kajetan Kovič and Tone Pavček.[9] An often neglected female counterpart to the four was Ada Škerl, whose subjective and pessimistic poetic sentiment was contrary to the post-war revolutionary demands in the People's Republic of Slovenia.[10]

Modernism

Main articles: Edvard Kocbek, Vitomil Zupan, Borut Kardelj, Rudi Šeligo, Gustav Januš, Svetlana Makarovič, Andrej Capuder, Jože Snoj, Jože Javoršek, Dominik Smole, Gregor Strniša, Dane Zajc, Marjan Rožanc, Lojze Kovačič, Niko Grafenauer, Miroslav Košuta, and Peter Božič

Postmodernism

Main articles: Boris A. Novak, Marko Kravos, Drago Jančar, Evald Flisar, Tomaž Šalamun, Brina Svit, Janko Ferk, and Cvetka Lipuš

Post 1990

Main articles: Iztok Osojnik, Aleš Debeljak, Josip Osti, Miha Mazzini, Sebastijan Pregelj, Drago Jančar, Rudi Šeligo, Boris A. Novak, Igor Škamperle, Alojz Ihan, Taja Kramberger, Aleš Šteger, Uroš Zupan, Nejc Gazvoda, Andrej Blatnik, Jani Virk, Brane Mozetič, Goran Vojnović, Dušan Jelinčič, Vinko Ošlak, Janko Ferk, and Benka Pulko

References

  1. ^ a b Daskalova, Krassimira (2008). Aspasia: The International Yearbook of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern European Women's and Gender History. New Milford, CT: Berghahn Books. p. 31. ISBN 9781845456344.
  2. ^ Smrekar, Andrej. "Slovenska moderna" [Slovene Early Modernism] (in Slovenian). National Gallery of Slovenia. Archived from the original on 2013-10-26.
  3. ^ Naglič, Miha (6 June 2008). "Je človek še Sejalec" [Is a Man Still a Sower]. Gorenjski glas (in Slovenian). Archived from the original on 8 February 2013.
  4. ^ McKelvie, Robin; McKelvie, Jenny (2008). Slovenia. Guilford, CT: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 38. ISBN 9781841622118.
  5. ^ a b Klemencic, Matjaz; Žagar, Mitja (2004). The Former Yugoslavia's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 31. ISBN 1576072940.
  6. ^ Škrubej, Katja (2002). Ritus gentis Slovanov v vzhodnih Alpah: Model rekonstrukcije pravnih razmerij na podlagi najstarejšega jezikovnega gradiva. Ljubljana: Zalozba ZRC. p. 208.
  7. ^ Ahačič, Kozma (2013). "Nova odkritja o slovenski protestantiki" [New Discoveries About the Slovene Protestant Literature] (PDF). Slavistična revija (in Slovenian and English). 61 (4): 543–555.
  8. ^ Pavlič, Darja (May 2008). "Contextualizing contemporary Slovenian lyric poetry within literary history" (DOC). Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (in Slovenian). Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-02-07.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Umrla Ada Škerl" [Ada Škerl Deceased]. Delo.si (in Slovenian). 1 June 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
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