Turned A (capital: , lowercase: ɐ, math symbol ) is a letter and symbol based upon the letter A.

Modern usage

Historical usage

It was used in the 18th century by Edward Lhuyd and William Pryce as a phonetic character for the Cornish language. In their books, both and ɐ have been used.[3] It was used in the 19th century by Charles Sanders Peirce as a logical symbol for 'un-American' ("unamerican").[4]

According to the principle of acrophony, the letter A originated from the Proto-Sinatic alphabet as a symbol representing the head of an ox or cow (aleph), its orientation and original meaning having been lost over time. The turned A symbol restores the letter to a more easily recognizable logographic representation of an ox's head.[5]

U+1D44 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL TURNED A is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet.[6]

Encodings

Character information
Preview ɐ
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER TURNED A LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED A FOR ALL
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 11375 U+2C6F 592 U+0250 8704 U+2200
UTF-8 226 177 175 E2 B1 AF 201 144 C9 90 226 136 128 E2 88 80
Numeric character reference Ɐ Ɐ ɐ ɐ ∀ ∀
Named character reference ∀, ∀
Symbol font 34 22
TeX \forall

See also

References

  1. ^ Gibbon, Dafydd; Richard Winski, Roger Moore (1997). "Table A.19: IPA Table (ordered by number) (continued)". Handbook of Standards and Resources for Spoken Language Systems. Walter de Gruyter. p. 679. ISBN 9783110153668.
  2. ^ Miller, Jeff. "Earliest Uses of Symbols of Set Theory and Logic". Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols.
  3. ^ Michael Everson, Proposal to add Latin letters and a Greek symbol to the UCS, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N3122 L2/06-266 (2006)
  4. ^ Page 320 in Randall Dipert, "Peirce's deductive logic". In Cheryl Misak, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Peirce. 2004
  5. ^ Jensen, Hans (1969). Sign, Symbol, and Script. New York: G.P. Putman's Sons. p. 262. ISBN 9780044000211.
  6. ^ Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).