University of Madras
Other name
Cheṉṉai palkalaikalhagam
MottoDoctrina Vim Promovet Insitam (Latin)
Motto in English
"Learning Promotes Natural Talent"
TypeState university
Established5 September 1857; 166 years ago (5 September 1857)
ChancellorGovernor of Tamil Nadu
Vice-ChancellorS. Gowri
Academic staff
Location, ,
13°3′58″N 80°16′58″E / 13.06611°N 80.28278°E / 13.06611; 80.28278
Colours  Cardinal
NicknameMadras Tigers
AffiliationsUGC, NAAC, AIU, ACU

The University of Madras (also known as Madras University) is a public state university in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.[2] Established in 1857, it is one of the oldest and among the most prominent universities in India, incorporated by an act of the Legislative Council of India under the British government.[3]

The University is the alma mater of five Presidents of India, including A. P. J. Abdul Kalam; three Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of India; two Indian physics Nobel laureates, CV Raman and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar; several notable mathematicians including Srinivasa Ramanujan and Abel Prize winner S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan; and Turing Award winner Raj Reddy among others.[4]

The University of Madras is a collegiate research university and has six campuses in the city: Chepauk, Marina, Guindy, Taramani, Maduravoyal and Chetpet. It offers more than 230 courses under 87 academic departments of post-graduate teaching and research grouped under 18 schools, covering diverse areas such as sciences, social sciences, humanities, management and medicine along with 121 affiliated colleges and 53 approved research institutions. The university houses national centres for advanced research in nanotechnology,[5] photonics[6] and neurotoxicity.[7] In addition, it has three Centres of Advanced Study in biophysics,[8] botany[9] and the Ramanujan Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics.[10]

The National Assessment and Accreditation Council has conferred 'five star' accreditation to the university in the first cycle, and subsequently with its highest A++ grade.[11] The University of Madras has been given the status of 'university with potential for excellence (UPE)' by the University Grants Commission.[12] Madras University is also recognized among the 18 universities in India having the 'Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area (CPEPA)' with a focus on drug development and climate change.[13]


Further information: Category:Academic institutions formerly affiliated with the University of Madras

The Madras University Senate House and Marina Beach, 1905
Legislative Assembly session of Madras Presidency in Senate House, 1937
A 1957 postal stamp dedicated to the centenary of Madras University

The first-ever demand for higher education in Madras Presidency was given in a public address to Lord John Elphinstone, governor of Madras, signed by 70,000 residents when the Governor-in-Council was contemplating "some effective and liberal measures for the establishment of an improved system of national education." This public petition, which was presented by the Advocate General Mr George Norton on 11 November 1839, pressed the need for an English college in the city of Madras. Pursuant to this, Lord Elphinstone evolved a plan for the establishment of a central collegiate institution or a ‘university.’ This university had twin departments – a high school for the cultivation of English literature, regional language, philosophy and science, and a college for instruction in the higher branches of literature, philosophy and science.[16][17]

The University Board was constituted in January 1840 with Mr George Norton as its president. This was the precursor of the present Presidency College, Chennai. A systematic educational policy for India was formulated 14 years later by Wood's despatch, which pointed out the rationale for "creating a properly articulated system of education from the primary school to the University." The dispatch recommended the establishment in the universities of professorships "for the purposes of the delivery of lectures in various branches of learning including vernacular as well as classical languages." As a result, the University of Madras, organised on the model of the University of London, was incorporated on 5 September 1857 by an act of the Legislative Council of India.[18]

The university progressed and expanded through the 19th century to span the whole of South India, giving birth to universities like Mysore University (1916), Osmania University (1918), Andhra University (1926), Annamalai University (1929), Travancore University (1937) presently University of Kerala, Sri Venkateswara University (1954), Madurai Kamaraj University (1966), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (1971), Anna University (1978), Tamil University (1981), Bharathidasan University (1982), Bharathiar University (1982), Mother Teresa Women's University (1984), Alagappa University (1985), Dr. M.G.R. Medical University (1989), Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (1989), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University (1990), Periyar University (1997), Dr. Ambedkar Law University (1996) and Thiruvalluvar University (2002).[19]

In 1912 endowments were made to the university to establish departments of Indian History, Archaeology, Comparative Philology and Indian Economics. In that year the university had 17 departments, 30 teachers, and 69 research scholars. Later the research and teaching functions of the university were encouraged by the Sadler Commission and the gains of the university were consolidated by the enactment of the Madras University Act of 1923. About this time, the territorial ambit of the Madras University encompassed from Berhampur of Odisha in the North East, Trivandrum of Kerala in the South West, Bangalore and Mangalore of Karnataka in the West and Hyderabad of Andhra Pradesh in the North.[20]

Between 1926 and 1939, the university published the comprehensive Tamil Lexicon dictionary, which is the first among the dictionaries published in any Indian language.[21]

Coat of arms

University of Madras Entrance Arch at Chepauk Campus

The description of the coat of arms of the university, designed in 1857, is:

"Argent (silver or white) on a Mount issuant from the basement a Tiger passant proper (walking and coloured naturally), on a Chief Sable (black across the top), a Pale Or (a gold or yellow vertical strip down the centre 1/3 of the top or chief), thereon, between two Elephants heads couped of the field, a lotus flower leaved and slipped of the third, together with this motto Doctrina Vim Promovet Insitam".

The coat of arms colours are: the base is light green, the tiger is yellow on a white background, the elephant is grey on a black background, the lotus is a white flower with olive green leaves, on a gold background. The motto scroll is edged red, with black lettering. The English translation of the motto of the University of Madras is: "Learning promotes natural talent."[22]


The university has six campuses: Chepauk, Marina, Guindy, Taramani, Chetpet and Maduravoyal. The Chepauk campus of the university houses the administrative buildings, the historic Senate House, central library, clock tower, centenary auditorium, and several departments under arts, humanities and social science streams. The schools of oriental and Indian are located at the Marina campus. The Guindy campus incorporates the natural sciences departments while the campus at Taramani houses the school of basic medical sciences. The sports union and the botanical garden are based on Chetpet and Maduravoyal campuses respectively. The Department of Mathematics of the university is operated as the Ramanujan Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics located close to the Chepauk campus.[23] The university has two constituent college, in Nemmeli and Thiruvottiyur, offerings courses in arts and science.[24] Since 1981, the university has also developed an Institute of Distance Education, offering various academic and professional programmes approved by University Grants Commission under the choice-based credit system (CBCS) pattern.[25]

Senate House

The Senate House
University auditorium
Queen Victoria Statue in Chepauk campus

See also: Senate House (University of Madras)

The University of Madras has a historical monument – Senate House – which is one of the landmarks of the city of Chennai.[26] The Senate House, the university's first building, inaugurated in the year 1879, is considered a masterpiece of Robert Fellowes Chisholm, an architect of the 19th century, who blended the Indo-Saracenic style with Byzantine and European architectural features.[27] The university renovated the Senate House in 2006.[28]

Organisation and Faculties


The organisational structure of Madras University consists of the Senate, the Syndicate, the Academic Council, the faculties, the Finance Committee, and the boards of studies. The Governor of Tamil Nadu is the chancellor of the university. The vice-chancellor is the executive head of the university. The registrar of the university, who is the secretary of the Syndicate, is the custodian of all the records and chief administrator of the university. The examinations of the university is managed by Office of the Controller of Examinations.[29]

Faculties and Institutes

University of Madras is organized into eighteen main schools, each of which comprises multiple departments and centres as below:[30]

Faculties Departments / Institutes / Chairs Campus Location
Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science Chepauk and Guindy
  • Department of Analytical Chemistry
  • Department of Energy
  • Department of Inorganic Chemistry
  • Department of Organic Chemistry
  • Department of Physical Chemistry
  • Department of Polymer Science
  • Central Instrumentation and Service Laboratory
  • Centre for Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics
  • Department of Nuclear Physics
  • Department of Theoretical Physics
  • Department of Network Systems and Information Technology
  • Department of Material Science
Nano Science and Photonics
  • National Centre for Nanosciences and Nanotechnology
  • National Centre for Ultrafast Process
Guindy and Taramani
Earth and Atmospheric Science
  • Department of Applied Geology
  • Department of Geography
  • Department of Geology
  • Centre for Environmental Sciences
  • Centre for Natural Hazards and Disaster Studies
  • Centre for Water Resource Management
Life Sciences
  • Department of Biochemistry
  • Department of Biotechnology
  • Centre for Advanced Study in Botany
  • Centre for Ocean and Coastal Studies
  • Centre for Stem Cell Research
  • Centre for Herbal Sciences
  • Department of Zoology
  • Department of Bio-informatics
Basic Medical Sciences
  • Department of Anatomy
  • Department of Endocrinology
  • Department of Genetics
  • Department of Medical Biochemistry
  • Department of Microbiology
  • Department of Pathology
  • Department of Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology
  • Department of Physiology
  • National Centre for Neurotoxicity Research to Assist Drug Development
  • Cancer Institute (WIA)
  • Madras Diabetes Research Foundation
  • Centre for Population Studies
  • Dr. Ambedkar Centre for Economic Studies
  • Department of Econometrics
  • Department of Economics
  • Agro Economic Research Centre
  • Madras School of Economics
Philosophy and Religious Studies
  • Department of Christian Studies
  • JBAS Centre for Islamic Studies
  • Department of Jainology
  • Department of Philosophy
  • Department of Saiva Siddhanta
  • Department of Vaishnavism
Chepauk and Marina
Historical Studies
  • Department of Ancient History and Archaeology
  • Department of Indian History
Social Sciences
  • Department of Adult and Continuing Education
  • Department of Anthropology
  • Department of Criminology
  • Department of Education
  • Department of Psychology
  • Department of Sociology
  • Department of Women's Studies
  • Department of Social Work
  • Department of Counselling Psychology
  • Centre for Cyber Forensics and Information Security
Political and International Studies
  • Anna Centre for Public Affairs
  • UGC - Centre for South and Southeast Asian Studies
  • Department of Defence and Strategic Studies
  • Department of Legal Studies
  • Department of Politics and Public Administration
  • Rajiv Gandhi Chair in Contemporary Studies
Information and Communication Studies
  • Department of Journalism and Communication
  • Department of Library and Information Science
Fine and Performing Arts
  • Department of Indian Music
English and Foreign Languages
  • Department of English
  • Department of French and other Foreign Languages
Tamil and other Dravidian Languages
  • Department of Kannada
  • Department of Malayalam
  • Department of Tamil Language
  • Department of Tamil Literature
  • Department of Telugu
  • Department of Sangapalagai for Tamil Development
  • Centre for Thirukkural Research
  • Chair on Tamil Christian Literature
  • Centre for Endangered Languages
  • Centre for Research on Dravidian Movement
Sanskrit and other Indian Languages
  • Department of Arabic, Persian and Urdu
  • Department of Hindi
  • Department of Sanskrit
Business and Management
  • Department of Commerce
  • Department of Management Studies
  • Centre for Infrastructural Management Studies
Physical Education and Sports
  • Department of Physical Education and Sports

Affiliated colleges and research institutions

The university currently has 121 affiliated colleges, with 3 approved institutions, 5 institutions for diploma and certificate courses, 15 stand alone institutions for professional education, and 53 approved research Institutions as of 2019.[31]

Further information: Category:Colleges affiliated to University of Madras

Notable colleges

The Chapel at Loyola College

Research institutions



University rankings
Global – Overall
QS World[32]526 (2024)
Regional – Overall
QS Asia[33]251-269 (2023)
University rankings
General – India
NIRF (Universities) (2023)[34]50
Outlook India (Universities) (2020)[35]20
Business/Management – India
Government colleges: 
Outlook India (2022)[36]20

Internationally, Madras University is ranked 526 overall and 51st global research institution in the QS World University Rankings for the year 2024.[37][38] In India, the National Institutional Ranking Framework ranked it 50th among universities in 2023.[39] It was ranked 20th in the Outlook-ICARE university ranking of 2020.[40]

Madras University Library System

The library system of the university consists of four central libraries located at its Chepauk, Marina, Guindy and Taramani campus.[41] Besides, many of the departments and centres have their own library collections. The main university library located at Chepauk was started in 1907 in the Connemara Public Library, later shifted to the existing building in 1936. S. R. Ranganathan (a mathematician) was appointed as the first librarian of the university, whose contribution in the development of the field of library sciences is noteworthy.[42] The library collection includes textbooks, reference books, journals, theses, archives of government gazettes, newsprints, magazines, photographs, rare manuscripts, with a total collection of approximately 1 million volumes, which is among the largest collection of a university library in India.[43][44] The library system also maintains a database of e-books, digital multimedia resources and subscribed to over four thousand e-journals under the UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium.[45] The Government of Tamil Nadu oriental manuscripts library and research centre is located within the main library building at Chepauk.[46] The library is considered as the treasure house for ancient Indian knowledge. Comprises over 25,373 reference books and 72,714 Sanskrit and Tamil manuscripts written on palm leaf, copper plates, tree barks, leather etc. on subjects, like mathematics, astronomy, ayurveda, architecture, fine arts, grammar and literature.[47] The Library of the Indian Mathematical Society, started in 1907 in Pune, is now housed in the campus of the Ramanujan Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics.[48]


In 2007, the university was given a special grant of ₹100 crores by the Ministry of Human Resource Development to establish a nanotechnology research centre in commemoration of its sesqui-centenary (150th year) celebration. In 2011, University Grants Commission (UGC) selected the university for its third phase of University with Potential for Excellence (UPE) scheme, under which ₹25 crores were sanctioned for a period of five years.[49] Earlier, the university was selected for the inaugural phase of the scheme in 2001-02 along with JNU, Hyderabad University, Jadavpur University and Pune University.[50] The National Centre for Ultrafast Process (NCUFP) of the university has mobilized research grants to the tune ₹7 crores through several funded projects including the DST, CSIR, DRDO and UGC.[51]

The Department of Crystallography and Biophysics was upgraded as a Centre of Advanced Study in 2007 and a grant of ₹2.53 crores was given for modernising research laboratories. The School of Life Sciences of the university received a grant of ₹5.24 crores by the Department of Biotechnology, under BUILDER (Boost to University of Interdisciplinary Life Science Departments for Education and Research) for strengthening teaching and research programmes during 2014–2019.[24] A study performed by the NISTADS on the research performance of universities in India during 1998–2008 ranked Madras University at No. 5 based on publication for that period.[52]

In addition, UGC has identified the School of Earth Sciences and Department of Zoology as the Centres of Excellence and has allotted ₹3.25 crores each for their development.[49] In 2019, Ministry of Human Resource Development of Government of India granted ₹50 crores to the university for upgrading its research capabilities under Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) scheme.[53]

Notable alumni

Further information: List of Madras University alumni and Category:University of Madras alumni

The University of Madras has a strong alumni network, with its alumni taking over many prestigious positions across the world. Some of the prominent alumni include Nobel laureates C. V. Raman[54] and S. Chandrasekhar,[55] mathematicians Srinivasa Ramanujan[56] K. S. Chandrasekharan, and S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan,[57] leading scientists, Raja Ramanna,[58] Rajagopala Chidambaram,[59] M. Visvesvaraya, E. C. George Sudarshan,[60] G. N. Ramachandran,[61] V. S. Ramachandran[62] and Alladi Ramakrishnan[63] Former presidents Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, V. V. Giri, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, R. Venkataraman and A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, politicians Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari,[64] C Subramaniam,[65] CN Annadurai,[66] and V. K. Krishna Menon,[67] civil servants T. N. Seshan,[68] Benegal Rama Rau,[69] Y. Venugopal Reddy[70] and C. Sylendra Babu[71] Rhodes scholars Eric Prabhakar[72] and Tanjore R. Anantharaman,[73] pioneers Verghese Kurien,[74] Raj Reddy[75] and M. S. Swaminathan,[76] economist K. N. Raj[77] and C. Rangarajan,[78] business persons Indra Nooyi,[79] Ram Shriram[80] and Prathap C. Reddy,[81] artists and film personality M.G. Ramachandran,[82] K. C. S. Paniker,[83] Gemini Ganesan,[84] Mani Ratnam[85] and Mahesh Babu,[86] sports stars Viswanathan Anand, Vijay Amritraj,[87] Ramanathan Krishnan[88] and Srinivas 'Venkat' among others.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d "University Student Enrollment Details". Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  2. ^ Indian Universities in the 2014 QS University Rankings: BRICS. Top Universities (24 June 2014). Retrieved on 27 September 2015.
  3. ^ "University of Madras". Encyclopædia Britannica. n.d. Retrieved 26 October 2023.
  4. ^ "The President of India". Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  5. ^ "Welcome to University of Madras".
  6. ^ "Welcome to University of Madras".
  7. ^ "Home". National Centre for Neurotoxicity Research to Assist Drug Development.
  8. ^ "Welcome to University of Madras".
  9. ^ "Welcome to University of Madras".
  10. ^ "About". Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  11. ^ "Madras University is now a category 1 university in the country". The Hindu. 21 August 2023. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  12. ^ University Grants commission ::Universities (UPE). Retrieved on 27 September 2015.
  13. ^ "University Grants commission ::Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area".
  14. ^ "The Vice Chancellors". University of Madras. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  15. ^ India Office, Great Britain (1819). "The India List and India Office List for 1905". p. 634. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  16. ^ The Madras University Calendar. 1879.
  17. ^ "History and Heritage". University of Madras. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  18. ^ History of higher education in South India. Vol. I. Associated priters (Madras) Pvt Ltd, Madras. 1957.
  19. ^ R, Santha Kumar; K, Kaliyaperumal; S, Louies (26 May 2020). "Scientometric Profile of the University of Madras, The Mother of South Indian Universities". DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology. 40 (3): 185–191. doi:10.14429/djlit.40.03.14844. ISSN 0976-4658.
  20. ^ Slater, Gilbert (16 January 2018). Revival: Southern India (1936): Its Political and Economic Problems. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-34409-8.
  21. ^ "Tamil lexicon".
  22. ^ Pillay, Kolappa Pillay Kanakasabhapathi (1957). History of Higher Education in South India: University of Madras, 1857-1957. Associated Printers.
  23. ^ "Welcome to University of Madras".
  24. ^ a b "University of Madras - CBCS Handbook 2017-2018" (PDF). Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  25. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 13 February 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ Srinivasachari, p 341
  27. ^ Srinivasachari, Introduction, p xxxi
  28. ^ Alexander, Deepa (26 February 2019). "Chennai's Senate House opens its doors to the public". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  29. ^ "Welcome to University of Madras".
  30. ^ ""Schools"".
  31. ^ "University of Madras - CBCS Handbook 2019-2020" (PDF). Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  32. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2024: Top Global Universities". Top Universities. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  33. ^ "QS Asia University Rankings 2023". Top Universities. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  34. ^ "National Institutional Ranking Framework 2023 (Universities)". National Institutional Ranking Framework. Ministry of Education. 5 June 2023.
  35. ^ "Top 75 Universities In India In 2020". Outlook India. 8 October 2020. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  36. ^ "Outlook-ICARE India MBA Rankings 2022: Top Public MBA Institutions Outlook India Magazine". 13 November 2021.
  37. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2024: Top Global Universities". Top Universities. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  38. ^ "QS World University Rankings: IISc-Bengaluru is top research varsity - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  39. ^ "MoE, National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF)". Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  40. ^ "Top 75 Universities In India In 2020 | Outlook India Magazine". 10 September 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  41. ^ "Welcome to University of Madras".
  42. ^ Islam, Md. Nurul. "S. R. Ranganathan: library and documentation scientist" (PDF). Current Science. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  43. ^[dead link]
  44. ^[dead link]
  45. ^ "Guindy Campus Library | University of Madras".
  46. ^ "Goverment [sic] Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre | Department Of Archaeology".
  47. ^ Parthasarathy, Anusha (7 May 2013). "A leaf from the past". The Hindu – via
  48. ^ "ims library".
  49. ^ a b "UGC selects Madras univ as potential centre of excellence, grants Rs 25 cr". The Times of India. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  50. ^ "University with Potential for Excellence" (PDF). UGC. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  51. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  52. ^ "Measures of Performance of Universities in India: An Analysis of the Publication Output in Science and Technology (Study period 1998–2008)" (PDF). National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies. 2011.
  53. ^ "Madras University gets ₹50 crore MHRD grant". The Hindu. Chennai. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  54. ^ "After earning a master's degree in physics at Presidency College, University of Madras, in 1907, Raman became an accountant in the finance department of the Indian government."
  55. ^ "Chandra studied at Presidency College, University of Madras, and he wrote his first research paper",
  56. ^ "Srinivasa Ramanujan, a Mathematical Genius".
  57. ^ "S.R. Srinivasa Varadhan | Indian mathematician".
  58. ^ "Raja Ramanna, 79, Indian Nuclear Scientist, Dies". The New York Times. 26 September 2004.
  59. ^ "INSA :: Indian Fellow Detail".
  60. ^ Narayanan, Anand (24 January 2013). "All I know is how to do physics". The Hindu – via
  61. ^[bare URL]
  62. ^ "The Center for Brain and Cognition - Research".
  63. ^ Presidency College, Chennai Alumni: Alladi Ramakrishnan, a R Narayanan, Benegal Rama Rau, C. Natesa Mudaliar, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, C. R. Pattabhirama. General Books. 8 September 2013. ISBN 9781230757513 – via Google Books.
  64. ^ "The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31579. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  65. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (10 November 2000). "Chidambaram Subramaniam, India's 'Green' Rebel, 90, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  66. ^ "Life History and Literary Works of C.N. Annadurai".
  67. ^ "V K Krishna Menon; A Votary of Poorna Swaraj".
  68. ^ "Welcome to MCC".
  69. ^ "Contact Us – IndiaInfoline".
  70. ^ "Reserve Bank of India – Database".
  71. ^ "Sylendra Babu appointed Tamil Nadu's new DGP". 30 June 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  72. ^ "Eric Prabhakar passes away". Deccan Herald. 10 September 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  73. ^ "Brief Biographical Sketch of tra".
  74. ^ "Verghese Kurien | Biography & Facts".
  75. ^ "Raj Reddy".
  76. ^ "Detailed Profile - Prof. M.S. Swaminathan - Members of Parliament (Rajya Sabha) - Who's Who - Government: National Portal of India".
  77. ^ "Nehru's planner who saw tomorrow". Business Standard India. 11 February 2010.
  78. ^ "Chakravarthi Rangarajan | Ahmedabad University".
  79. ^ "Indra Nooyi Biography – life, family, children, parents, school, mother, born, college, house – Newsmakers Cumulation".
  80. ^ "Kavitark Ram Shriram". Forbes.
  81. ^ "Dr. Prathap C. Reddy – Creating Emerging Markets – Harvard Business School".
  82. ^ "About MGR – the Tamilnadu Dr.M.G.R. Medical University".
  83. ^ "K.C.S.Paniker Profile".
  84. ^ "Gemini Ganesan Biography – Gemini Ganesan Profile, Childhood & Filmography".
  85. ^ "Distinguished Alumni | RKMVC".
  86. ^ Subramanian, Anupama (6 August 2015). "Chennai has special place in my heart: Mahesh Babu". Deccan Chronicle.
  87. ^ "Vijay Amritraj".
  88. ^ "A sportsman nonpareil". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 26 September 2002.