The Earl of Onslow
Lord Onslows.jpg
11th Governor of New Zealand
In office
2 May 1889 – 24 February 1892
MonarchVictoria
PremierHarry Atkinson
John Ballance
Preceded bySir William Jervois
Succeeded byThe Earl of Glasgow
President of the Board of Agriculture
In office
19 May 1903 – 12 March 1905
MonarchEdward VII
Prime MinisterArthur Balfour
Preceded byRobert William Hanbury
Succeeded byHon. Ailwyn Fellowes
Personal details
Born7 March 1853 (1853-03-07)
Old Alresford, Hampshire
Died23 October 1911 (1911-10-24) (aged 58)
Hendon, Middlesex
NationalityBritish
Political partyConservative
Spouse(s)Hon. Florence Gardner (d. 1934)
Children
Alma materExeter College, Oxford
The Earl of Onslow in front of a map of New Zealand
The Earl of Onslow in front of a map of New Zealand

William Hillier Onslow, 4th Earl of Onslow, GCMG, PC, DL (7 March 1853 – 23 October 1911), was a British Conservative politician. He held several governmental positions between 1880 and 1905 and was also Governor of New Zealand between 1889 and 1892.

Background and education

Born at Old Alresford, Hampshire, Onslow was the only son of George Augustus Cranley Onslow, son of the Hon. Thomas Cranley Onslow, second son of Thomas Onslow, 2nd Earl of Onslow. His mother was Mary Harriet Anne Loftus. In 1870, at the age of 17, he succeeded his great-uncle in the earldom of Onslow. He was educated at Eton and Exeter College, Oxford.[citation needed]

Political career, 1880–1889

Onslow briefly served as a Lord-in-waiting (government whip in the House of Lords) under the Earl of Beaconsfield (Benjamin Disraeli) between February and April 1880 and held the same position under Lord Salisbury between 1886 and 1887, and later served under Salisbury as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies between 1887 and 1888 (in which post he was vice president of the first Colonial Conference in April 1887) and as Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade between 1888 and 1889.[1]

Governor of New Zealand, 1889–1892

In November 1888 Onslow was appointed Governor of New Zealand.[2] As a result of the economic downturn in the late 1880s, he had sought a salaried position as a colonial governor. At 35, he was the youngest governor of New Zealand since George Grey was appointed in 1845 and the first since Robert FitzRoy in 1843 to have no previous experience in a vice-regal position. The New Zealand government had recently cut allowances for the governor, and Onslow was able to obtain the position mainly as it was no longer attractive to more senior colonial administrators.[1]

He assumed the office on 2 May 1889. Shortly after his arrival in Wellington, there was an outbreak of typhoid fever in the town. Onslow's twelve-year-old son and heir, Viscount Cranley, caught the disease and was at one time seen to be in danger of his life. After this Onslow and his family avoided the capital as much as they could - which did not endear them to the New Zealand people. According to the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Onslow did not "have the flair or flamboyance which helped some later governors win popular support".[1]

In 1890 Onslow became embroiled in controversy over appointments to the Legislative Council (the upper house of the New Zealand parliament), which were made by the governor on the advice of his ministers. Up until then Prime Minister Harry Atkinson had not made any recommendations on appointments. However, this year Atkinson's conservative supporters became more and more concerned that the Liberals under John Ballance would gain power. Atkinson was put under pressure to assure that there was a conservative majority in the Council. Onslow, as a Conservative, is considered to have been sympathetic to the idea, especially as he was used to the system in Britain, where it was acceptable practice for an outgoing British government to nominate new members of the House of Lords. He informed Atkinson that a "little list" of nominations for the Legislative Council could be agreed upon and used "if things go wrong with you in the House or Country".[1]

Atkinson lost ground in the election of December 1890, although it was unclear if the Liberals under Ballance would get enough support to form an administration. Rumours of the "little list" began to spread and Onslow was made aware that, even if it was common practice for an outgoing government in Britain to nominate members for the House of Lords, this was not the case in New Zealand. However, despite public opposition Onslow followed Atkinson's recommendations and nominated six people to the council (although the number was reduced from eleven). He justified his decision to the Colonial Office in London on the basis that he could find no Royal instruction or colonial precedent for refusing Atkinson's nomination and referred to "the constant practice in England". Onslow's actions even further damaged the reputation of the council. Several independent members were pressed to support Ballance, who was able to form an administration.[1]

In 1891 Ballance asked Onslow to nominate 18 representatives to the council in order to counterbalance Atkinson's nominations of the previous year. Onslow said he was unwilling to alter the composition of the council and replace the conservative majority with a liberal one, stating that in his view an upper house of parliament should always be conservative in its nature. He agreed to nominate eight representatives, a compromise Ballance declined. The matter was finally deferred to Onslow's successor, the Earl of Glasgow. Onslow resigned in February 1892 and returned to England.[1]

Political career, 1892–1911

When the Conservatives returned to power in 1895 under Lord Salisbury, Onslow was made Under-Secretary of State for India, a post he retained until 1900, and was then once again Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies between 1900 and 1903 (from 1902 to 1903 under the premiership of Arthur Balfour).[citation needed] In 1903 he entered Balfour's cabinet as President of the Board of Agriculture and was sworn of the Privy Council the same year.[3] He remained at the Board of Agriculture until the government fell in 1905. From 1905 to 1911 he was Lord Chairman of Committees of the House of Lords. He was also President of the Royal Statistical Society from 1905 to 1906.[4] His death was considered a loss to the [RSPB].

Family

Lord Onslow married the Hon. Florence Coulston Gardner, daughter of Alan Gardner, 3rd Baron Gardner, in 1875. They had two sons and two daughters:[citation needed]

Lord Onslow died at Hendon, Middlesex, in October 1911, aged 58. He was succeeded in the earldom by his elder son, Richard. The Dowager Countess of Onslow died in August 1934.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Galbreath, Ross. "Onslow, William Hillier 1853–1911". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  2. ^ "No. 25878". The London Gazette. 27 November 1888. p. 6740.
  3. ^ "No. 27555". The London Gazette. 22 May 1903. p. 3239.
  4. ^ "Royal Statistical Society Presidents". Royal Statistical Society. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
  5. ^ Onslow, Muriel (1924). Huia Onslow: A Memoir. London: Edward Arnold.
Political offices Preceded byThe Earl of DunmoreThe Earl of RodenThe Viscount HawardenThe Lord BagotThe Lord de RosThe Lord Elphinstone The Lord Henniker Lord-in-waiting with The Earl of DunmoreThe Viscount Hawarden The Lord Bagot The Lord de Ros The Lord Elphinstone The Lord Henniker 1880 Succeeded byThe Lord Methuen The Earl of ZetlandThe Earl of ListowelThe Lord RibblesdaleThe Lord SudeleyThe Lord WrottesleyViscount Enfield Preceded byThe Lord MethuenThe Lord ThurlowThe Lord CamoysThe Lord HoughtonThe Lord KensingtonThe Lord Hothfield Lord-in-waiting with The Earl of Limerick The Lord Henniker The Earl of Hopetoun The Lord Elphinstone The Lord de Ros The Earl Waldegrave 1886–1887 Succeeded byThe Earl of LimerickThe Lord HennikerThe Earl of HopetounThe Lord ElphinstoneThe Lord de RosThe Earl WaldegraveThe Lord Balfour of Burleigh Preceded byThe Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies 1887–1888 Succeeded byBaron Henry de Worms Preceded byBaron Henry de Worms Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade 1888–1889 Succeeded byThe Lord Balfour of Burleigh Preceded byThe Lord Reay Under-Secretary of State for India 1895–1900 Succeeded byThe Earl of Hardwicke Preceded byThe Earl of Selborne Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies 1900–1903 Succeeded byThe Duke of Marlborough Preceded byRobert William Hanbury President of the Board of Agriculture 1903–1905 Succeeded byHon. Ailwyn Fellowes Preceded byThe Earl of Morley Lord Chairman of Committees of the House of Lords 1905–1911 Succeeded byThe Earl of Donoughmore Government offices Preceded bySir William Jervois Governor of New Zealand 1889–1892 Succeeded byThe Earl of Glasgow Peerage of the United Kingdom Preceded byArthur Onslow Earl of Onslow 1870–1911 Succeeded byRichard William Alan Onslow