The Lord Avebury
Woodburytype print of
Lord Avebury in middle age
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
22 January 1900 – 28 May 1913
Preceded byPeerage created
Succeeded byJohn Lubbock
Chairman of the London County Council
In office
Preceded byThe Earl of Rosebery
Succeeded byThe Earl of Rosebery
Member of Parliament
for London University
In office
Preceded byRobert Lowe
Succeeded byMichael Foster
Member of Parliament
for Maidstone
In office
Preceded byWilliam Lee
Succeeded byAlexander Henry Ross
Personal details
Born30 April 1834
London, England
Died28 May 1913(1913-05-28) (aged 79)
Broadstairs, Kent, England
Political partyLiberal (until 1886)
Liberal Unionist (since 1886)
Other political
Progressive Party (County of London, 1889–1890)
Known forBank holidays and the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882

John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, PC, DL, FRS, FRAI (30 April 1834 – 28 May 1913), known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet, from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath. Lubbock worked in his family company as a banker but made significant contributions in archaeology, ethnography, and several branches of biology. He coined the terms "Paleolithic" and "Neolithic" to denote the Old and New Stone Ages, respectively. He helped establish archaeology as a scientific discipline, and was influential in debates concerning evolutionary theory.[1] He introduced the first law for the protection of the UK's archaeological and architectural heritage. He promoted the establishment of public libraries and was also a founding member of the X Club.

Early life


John Lubbock was born in 1834, the son of Sir John Lubbock, 3rd Baronet, a London banker, and his wife Harriet. He was brought up in the family home of High Elms Estate, near Downe in Kent. The family had two homes, one at 29 Eaton Place, Belgrave Square where John was born, and another in Mitcham Grove. Lubbock senior had studied mathematics at Cambridge University and had written on probability, and on astronomy. A Fellow of the Royal Society, he was keenly involved in the scientific debates of the time, as well as serving as the Vice Chancellor of London University. During 1842, his father brought home a "great piece of news": the young Lubbock said later that he initially thought that the news might be of a new pony, and was disappointed to learn it was only that Charles Darwin was moving to Down House in the village.[2] The youth was soon a frequent visitor to Down House, and became the closest of Darwin's younger friends.[3] Their relationship stimulated young Lubbock's passion for science and evolutionary theory.[1] John's mother, Harriet, was deeply religious.[4]

In 1845, Lubbock began studies at Eton College. After finishing school, he was employed by his father's bank, Lubbock & Co. (which later amalgamated with Coutts & Co.), of which he became a partner at the age of 22. Around 1852, he assisted Darwin's research by examining and illustrating barnacles. In 1865, he succeeded to the baronetcy.[5]

Business and politics


In the early 1870s, Lubbock became increasingly interested in politics. In 1870, and again in 1874, he was elected as a Liberal Party Member of Parliament (MP) for Maidstone. He lost the seat at the election of 1880, but was at once elected member for London University, of which he had been vice-chancellor since 1872.[5] As an MP, Lubbock had a distinguished political career, with four main political agendas: promotion of the study of science in primary and secondary schools; the national debt, free trade, and related economic issues; protection of ancient monuments; securing of additional holidays and shorter working hours for the working classes.[1] He was successful with numerous enactments in Parliament, including the Bank Holidays Act 1871 and the Ancient Monuments Act 1882, along with another 28 acts of Parliament. When the Liberals split in 1886 on the issue of Irish Home Rule, Lubbock joined the breakaway Liberal Unionist Party in opposition to Irish home rule. A prominent supporter of the Statistical Society, he took an active part in criticizing the encroachment of municipal trading and the increase of the municipal debt.[5]

Lubbock portrayed in Strand Magazine, 1891

Lubbock's thoughts about the nature and value of politics were deeply influenced by his scientific research, particularly his writings on early human society. He believed that the cognitive foundations of morality could be shaped through political economy, particularly through a national education system that implemented subjects mandated by the state. He held that the minds of children could be shaped in the direction of democracy, liberalism and morality through learning how to read and write. To this goal he was a strong supporter of the Elementary Education Act 1870 and he defended the introduction of the national curriculum during the 1870s and 1880s.[6]

In 1879, Lubbock was elected the first president of the Institute of Bankers. In 1881, he was president of the British Association, and from 1881 to 1886, president of the Linnean Society of London.[5] In March 1883, he founded the Bank Clerks Orphanage, which in 1986 became the Bankers' Benevolent Fund – a charity for bank employees, past and present, and their dependants. In January 1884, he founded the Proportional Representation Society, later to become the Electoral Reform Society. He authored the pamphlet Proportional Representation shortly after the founding of this organization.[7] He is credited with the now-common use of multi-member districts instead of country-wide districting proposed by Thomas Hare in his single transferable voting (STV) proposal.[8]

Caricature from Punch, 1882

In recognition of his contributions to the sciences, Lubbock received honorary degrees from the universities of Oxford, Cambridge (where he was Rede lecturer in 1886), Edinburgh, Dublin and Würzburg; and was appointed a trustee of the British Museum in 1878. He received the German Order Pour le Mérite for Science and Arts in August 1902.[9]

From 1888 to 1892, he was president of the London Chamber of Commerce, and he was later President of the Association of Chambers of Commerce of the United Kingdom. In local politics, he was from 1889 to 1890 vice-chairman and from 1890 to 1892 chairman of the London County Council.[5] In February 1890 he was appointed a privy councillor;[10] and was chairman of the committee of design for the new coinage in 1891. On 22 January 1900, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Avebury, of Avebury, in the county of Wiltshire,[11] his title commemorating the largest Stone Age site in Britain, which he had helped to preserve. He was President of the Royal Statistical Society from 1900 to 1902.[12]

In November 1905, together with Lord Courtney of Penwith, he founded the Anglo-German Friendship Committee which sought to counteract the influence of the British war party, whose anti-German propaganda was then at its zenith, and smooth the way towards more amicable relations between England and Germany.

Lubbock was a proponent of easy access for all to books and was deeply involved in the passing of the Public Libraries Act, 1892.[13] The quotation, "We may sit in our library and yet be in all quarters of the earth", is often attributed to Lubbock. This variation appears in his book The Pleasures of Life.[14]

Archaeology and biological science

Kingsgate Castle in Kent was rebuilt by Lord Avebury. He sought legal protection for heritage buildings.

In addition to his work at his father's bank, Lubbock took a keen interest in archaeology and evolutionary theory. In 1855, he and Charles Kingsley discovered the skull of a musk ox in a gravel pit, a discovery that was commended by Darwin.[15] A collection of Iron Age antiquities Lubbock and Sir John Evans excavated at the site of Hallstatt in Austria is now in the British Museum's collection.[16][17] He spoke in support of the evolutionist Thomas Henry Huxley at the famous 1860 Oxford evolution debate. During the 1860s, he published many articles in which he used archaeological evidence to support Darwin's theory.[1] In 1864, he became one of the founding members (along with Thomas Henry Huxley and others) of the elite X Club, a dining club composed of nine gentlemen to promote the theories of natural selection and academic liberalism. He held a number of influential academic positions, including President of the Ethnological Society from 1864 to 1865, vice-president of Linnean Society in 1865, and President of the International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology in 1868. In 1865 he published Pre-Historic Times, which became a standard archaeology textbook for the remainder of the century, with the seventh and final edition published in 1913.[1]

His second book, On the Origin of Civilization, was published in 1870. He held the position of President of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland from 1871 to 1872,[18] as well as the position of Vice President of the Royal Society in 1871. During this period he worked with John Evans, the other key figure in the establishment of the discipline of archaeology.[1] He invented the terms "Palaeolithic" and "Neolithic" to denote the Old and New Stone Ages, respectively.[19] He also introduced a Darwinian-type theory of human nature and development. "What was new was Lubbock's ... insistence that, as a result of natural selection, human groups had become different from each other, not only culturally, but also in their biological capacities to utilize culture."[20]

Pages from a book of obituary cuttings following the death of Sir John Lubbock in 1913

Lubbock complained in the preface to Pre-Historic Times about Charles Lyell:

Note.—In his celebrated work on the Antiquity of Man, he coined the term Neolithic in 1865. Sir Charles Lyell has made much use of my earlier articles in the Natural History Review, frequently, indeed, extracting whole sentences verbatim, or nearly so. But as he has in these cases omitted to mention the source from which his quotations were derived, my readers might naturally think that I had taken very unjustifiable liberties with the work of the eminent geologist. A reference to the respective dates will, however, protect me from any such inference. The statement made by Sir Charles Lyell, in a note to page 11 of his work, that my article on the Danish Shell-mounds was published after his sheets were written, is an inadvertence, regretted, I have reason to believe, as much by its author as it is by me."[21]

In the 1870s, he bought land at Avebury to prevent part of the ancient stone circle from being built on.[22] This, and other threats to the nation's heritage, persuaded him that some legal protection was needed. In 1874, he introduced a parliamentary bill that would identify a list of ancient sites that deserved legal protection. After several later attempts and against some opposition, it was not until 1882 that a much watered down version, The Ancient Monuments Act, came into being. Though restricted to 68 largely prehistoric monuments, it was the forerunner of all later laws governing the UK's archaeological and architectural heritage.[23]

Lubbock was also an amateur biologist of some distinction, writing books on hymenoptera (Ants, Bees and Wasps: a record of observations on the habits of the social hymenoptera. Kegan Paul, London; New York: Appleton, 1884), on insect sense organs and development, on the intelligence of animals, the first monograph on UK Springtails (Collembola) (Monograph on the Collembola and Thysanura, Ray Society, London), and on other natural history topics. He discovered that ants were sensitive to light in the near ultraviolet range of the electromagnetic spectrum.[24][25] He also noted that ants used the angle of the sun for orientation.[13] In 1874 he became the first President of the British Beekeepers Association.[26] A verse in Punch in 1882 described his activities:

Lord Avebury speaking during the presentation of the first replica of Diplodocus carnegii to the trustees of the British Museum of Natural History, 12 May 1905
How doth the Banking Busy Bee,
Improve his shining Hours?
By studying on Bank Holidays,
Strange insects and Wild Flowers!

He corresponded extensively with Charles Darwin, who lived nearby at Down House.[27] Lubbock stayed in Downe except for a brief period from 1861 to 1865, when he lived in Chislehurst. Both men were active advocates of English spelling reform, and members of the Spelling Reform Association, precursor to the Simplified Spelling Society. Darwin rented land, originally from Lubbock's father, in Sandwalk wood where he performed his daily exercise, and in 1874 agreed with Lubbock to exchange the land for a piece of pasture in Darwin's property.[28] When Darwin died in 1882, Lubbock suggested the honour of burial in Westminster Abbey, organising a letter to the dean to arrange this, and was one of the pallbearers.[3]

In May 1884, an article appeared in Scientific American describing experiments by Lubbock in the field of human-animal communication.[29]

In 1884, he was elected as a member to the American Philosophical Society[30] and in 1893, a member of the American Antiquarian Society.[31]

He received the 1903 Prestwich Medal from the Geological Society of London.[32]


Battersea Library plaque, 1899. Lubbock was a promoter of public libraries.

Lubbock was one of eight brothers and three sisters;[33] three brothers, Alfred,[34] Nevile[35] and Edgar,[36] played first-class cricket for Kent. Edgar and Alfred also played football and played together for Old Etonians in the 1875 FA Cup Final. His nephew, Percy Lubbock, was a prominent man of letters and another nephew was the writer and historian Basil Lubbock.

Lubbock married Ellen Frances Horden in April 1856. Five years after her death, on 17 May 1884 he married Alice Lane Fox, the daughter of Augustus Pitt Rivers .[37] He rebuilt Kingsgate Castle, near Broadstairs in Kent, as his family home, where he died in 1913. He was succeeded by his eldest son, John.

He was buried in St Giles the Abbott Church, in Farnborough, London. Three years later, his remains were disinterred and placed in a family burial ground a few hundred yards from the church, along with the original stone Celtic cross marking his grave. In 1986, Bromley Council, unknown to the Lubbock family, moved the cross back to the main church graveyard.[38]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Mithen, Steven (2006). After the Ice: A Global Human History, 20,000-5000 BC. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01570-8.
  2. ^ Howarth & Howarth 1933, pp. 72–73
  3. ^ a b Freeman 1978, p. 192
  4. ^ Patton (2007): 15.
  5. ^ a b c d e  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Avebury, John Lubbock, 1st Baron". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 51–52.
  6. ^ Eddy, Matthew Daniel (2017). "The politics of cognition: liberalism and the evolutionary origins of Victorian education" (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science. 50 (4): 677–699. doi:10.1017/S0007087417000863. PMID 29019300. S2CID 206212679.
  7. ^ Proportional representation.
  8. ^ Report of meeting on "Proportional representation," or effective voting, held at River House, Chelsea, on Tuesday, July 10th 1894. Addressed by Miss Spence... 1894. p. 12.
  9. ^ "Court Circular". The Times. No. 36850. London. 19 August 1902. p. 8.
  10. ^ London Gazette issue 26022 11 February 1890 Archived 29 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "No. 27156". The London Gazette. 23 January 1900. p. 427.
  12. ^ "Royal Statistical Society Presidents". Royal Statistical Society. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
  13. ^ a b Pumphrey, R. J. (1958). "The Forgotten Man: Sir John Lubbock, F.R.S." Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. 13 (1): 49–58. ISSN 0035-9149.
  14. ^ Lubbock, John (1922). The pleasures of life. New York: Macmillan. p. 68.
  15. ^ Clark, J. F. M. (20 March 2014). "The science of John Lubbock". Notes Rec. R. Soc. 68 (1): 3–6. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2013.0069. ISSN 0035-9149. PMC 3928876.
  16. ^ British Museum Collection
  17. ^ British Museum Collection
  18. ^ "Presidents". Royal Anthropological Institute. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  19. ^ Pettitt, Paul; White, Mark (20 March 2014). "John Lubbock, caves, and the development of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic archaeology". Notes and Records. 68 (1): 35–48. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2013.0050. ISSN 0035-9149. PMC 3928871.
  20. ^ Trigger, Bruce G. (1989) A History of Archaeological Thought, Cambridge, p. 173.
  21. ^ Lubbock J. (1865) Pre-Historic Times, Williams & Norgate, London.
  22. ^ Baggs, A. P.; Freeman, Jane; Stevenson, Janet H. (1983). Crowley, D. A. (ed.). "Victoria County History: Wiltshire: Vol 12 pp86-105 – Parishes: Avebury". British History Online. University of London. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  23. ^ Thurley, Simon."The Men from the Ministry", Yale University Press. 2013. ISBN 978-0-300-19572-9
  24. ^ Lubbock, J. (1881). "Observations on ants, bees, and wasps. IX. Color of flowers as an attraction to bees: Experiments and considerations thereon". J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.). 16 (90): 110–112. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1882.tb02275.x.
  25. ^ Kevan, Peter G.; Chittka, Lars; Dyer, Adrian G. (2001). "Limits to the Salience of Ultraviolet: Lessons from Colour Vision in Bees and Birds". J. Exp. Biol. 204 (14): 2571–2580. doi:10.1242/jeb.204.14.2571. PMID 11511673.
  26. ^ "Past Presidents of the BBKA". British Beekeepers Association. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  27. ^ "Darwin Correspondence Project", John Lubbock, 1834–1913". Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  28. ^ Freeman 1978, p. 125
  29. ^ Scientific American. Munn & Company. 24 May 1884. p. 326.
  30. ^ "APS Member History". Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  31. ^ American Antiquarian Society Members Directory
  32. ^ "The Geological Society of London". The Times. No. 36974. London. 10 January 1903. p. 6.
  33. ^ Hutchinson (1914): family tree chart
  34. ^ "Alfred Lubbock". Cricket Archive. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  35. ^ "Nevile Lubbock". Cricket Archive. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  36. ^ "Edgar Lubbock". Cricket Archive. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  37. ^ "The marriage of Sir John Lubbock ...". The Cornishman. No. 304. 15 May 1884. p. 6.
  38. ^ "LUBBOCK FAMILY AND FARNBOROUGH". Farnborough Village History. Retrieved 21 May 2022.



The following is a list of publications by Sir John Lubbock, arranged in chronological order by the dates of the first editions of each work.

Further reading

Parliament of the United Kingdom Preceded byCharles BuxtonJames Whatman Member of Parliament for Maidstone 18701880 With: James Whatman 1865–1874Sir Sydney Waterlow 1874–1880 Succeeded byAlexander Henry RossJohn Evans Freke-Aylmer Preceded byRobert Lowe Member of Parliament for London University 18801900 Succeeded bySir Michael Foster Political offices Preceded byThe Earl of Rosebery Chairman of the London County Council 1890–1892 Succeeded byThe Earl of Rosebery Academic offices Preceded byGeorge Grote Vice-Chancellor of University of London 1872–1880 Succeeded bySir George Jessel Preceded byAndrew Carnegie Rector of the University of St Andrews 1907–1910 Succeeded byThe Earl of Rosebery Peerage of the United Kingdom New creation Baron Avebury 1900–1913 Succeeded byJohn Lubbock Baronetage of the United Kingdom Preceded byJohn Lubbock Baronet of Lammas1865–1913 Succeeded byJohn Lubbock