A world constitution refers to a proposed framework or document aimed at establishing a system of global governance. It seeks to provide a set of principles, structures, and laws to govern the relationships between states and address global issues.[1] The concept of a world constitution reflects the aspiration for greater international cooperation, peace, and the resolution of global challenges.[1]

Overview

A world constitution serves as a blueprint for organizing and governing global affairs. It typically outlines the powers, functions, and responsibilities of global institutions and establishes mechanisms for decision-making, conflict resolution, and the protection of human rights. The aim is to create a framework that promotes unity, justice, and sustainability on a global scale.[1]

List of world constitutions

Efforts to formulate world constitutions have been present throughout history, often arising in response to global crises or conflicts. These initiatives have sought to address the limitations of the existing international order and propose more comprehensive systems of global governance.[2][3][4]

Prominent examples of world constitutions include:

Preliminary Draft of a World Constitution (University of Chicago, 1947)

The University of Chicago drafted a preliminary document, Preliminary Draft of a World Constitution, outlining a potential world constitution in 1948. Led by Robert Maynard Hutchins, the proposal aimed to stimulate discussions on global governance and provide a basis for further deliberations. The members of the Committee at the time of the publication of the Draft were Robert Hutchins, Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Mortimer J. Adler, Stringfellow Barr, Albert Léon Guérard, Harold Innis, Erich Kahler, Wilber G. Katz, Charles Howard McIlwain, Robert Redfield, and Rexford Tugwell.[5]

Constitution for the Federation of Earth (1960s onwards)

"Constitution for the Federation of Earth" redirects here. For national constitutions, see List of national constitutions.

Albert Einstein

Einstein, 1947 (aged 68)

Albert Einstein grew increasingly convinced that the world was veering off course. He arrived at the conclusion that the gravity of the situation demanded more profound actions and the establishment of a "world government" was the only logical solution.[6][7] In his "Open Letter to the General Assembly of the United Nations" of October 1947, Einstein emphasized the urgent need for international cooperation and the establishment of a world government.[8] In the year 1948, Einstein invited United World Federalists (UWF) president Cord Meyer to a meeting of ECAS[9][10] and joined UWF as a member of the Advisory Board.[11][12] Einstein and ECAS assisted UEF in fundraising[12] and provided supporting material.[13] [14] Einstein described United World Federalists as: "the group nearest to our aspirations".[15]

Einstein and other prominent figures sponsored the Peoples' World Convention (PWC), which took place in 1950-51[16][17] and later continued in the form of world constituent assemblies in 1968, 1977, 1979, and 1991.[18] This effort was successful in creating a world constitution and a provisional world parliament.[19]

World constituent assemblies

In 1960s the most comprehensive effort was made to draft a world constitution. Thane Read and Philip Isely drafted a form of agreement that aimed to admit delegates from both national governments and the people of all countries for a world constitutional convention.[20] A worldwide call for a World Constitutional Convention was sent, and many world figures and five national governments signed the call.[21][22] In result of that, the World Constitutional Convention and the Peoples World Parliament were held in Interlaken, Switzerland, and Wolfach, West Germany, in 1968.[23] Over 200 participants from 27 countries attended these sessions, where the drafting of a constitution for a global federal world government began.[20] The second session of the World Constituent Assembly took place in Innsbruck, Austria, in 1977.[20] After extensive discussions and amendments, the draft constitution was unanimously adopted as the Constitution for the Federation of Earth (also known as "Earth Constitution"). It was further amended in the 3rd Constituent Assembly, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1979 and the 4th World Constituent Assembly, Troia, Portugal, in 1991.[4]

Provisional World Parliament

This Earth Constitution is a framework of a world federalist government.[4] A Provisional World Parliament (PWP), a transitional international legislative body, operates today under the framework of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.[24] It convenes to work on global issues, gathering delegates from different countries.[25]

Key elements

World constitutions often encompass essential elements to ensure effective global governance:[1][26]

Criticisms and challenges

Proposals for a world constitution face several challenges and criticisms, including:[1][26]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Wynner, Edith; Lloyd, Georgia (1949). Searchlight on Peace Plans: Choose Your Road to World Government. E. P. Dutton.
  2. ^ Einstein, Albert; Nathan, Otto; Norden, Heinz (1968). Einstein on peace. Internet Archive. New York, Schocken Books. pp. 539, 670, 676.
  3. ^ "[Carta] 1950 oct. 12, Genève, [Suiza] [a] Gabriela Mistral, Santiago, Chile [manuscrito] Gerry Kraus". BND: Archivo del Escritor. Retrieved 2023-10-19.
  4. ^ a b c "Global Strategies & Solutions : Preparing earth constitution". The Encyclopedia of World Problems. Union of International Associations. Retrieved 2023-07-15 – via uia.org.
  5. ^ "Guide to the Committee to Frame a World Constitution Records 1945-1951". University of Chicago Library. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  6. ^ Feld, Bernard T. (March 1979) [1979-03]. "Einstein and the politics of nuclear weapons". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 35 (3): 11–15. Bibcode:1979BuAtS..35c...5F. doi:10.1080/00963402.1979.11458591. Retrieved 2023-08-24 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ "A policy for survival: A Statement by the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 2023-08-24.
  8. ^ Einstein, Albert; Nathan, Otto; Norden, Heinz (1968). Einstein on peace. Internet Archive. New York, Schocken Books. pp. 440–443.
  9. ^ "LIFE - Hosted by Google". images.google.com. 1948. Retrieved 2023-08-24.
  10. ^ "LIFE - Hosted by Google". images.google.com. 1948. Retrieved 2023-08-24.
  11. ^ Einstein, Albert; Nathan, Otto; Norden, Heinz (1968). Einstein on peace. Internet Archive. New York, Schocken Books. p. 405.
  12. ^ a b Meyer, Cord (1980). Facing reality : from world federalism to the CIA. Internet Archive. New York : Harper & Row. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-06-013032-9.
  13. ^ Meares, L.M., August 9, 1947., retrieved 2023-08-24
  14. ^ Kirstein, William A., July 11, 1947., retrieved 2023-08-24
  15. ^ Einstein, Albert; Nathan, Otto; Norden, Heinz (1968). Einstein on peace. Internet Archive. New York, Schocken Books. p. 558.
  16. ^ Einstein, Albert; Nathan, Otto; Norden, Heinz (1968). Einstein on peace. Internet Archive. New York, Schocken Books. pp. 539, 670, 676.
  17. ^ "[Carta] 1950 oct. 12, Genève, [Suiza] [a] Gabriela Mistral, Santiago, Chile [manuscrito] Gerry Kraus". BND: Archivo del Escritor. Retrieved 2023-10-19.
  18. ^ "Global Strategies & Solutions : Preparing earth constitution". The Encyclopedia of World Problems. Union of International Associations. Retrieved 2023-07-15 – via uia.org.
  19. ^ "Global Strategies & Solutions : Preparing earth constitution". The Encyclopedia of World Problems. Union of International Associations. Retrieved 2023-07-15 – via uia.org.
  20. ^ a b c Amerasinghe, Terence P. (2009). Emerging World Law, Volume 1. Institute for Economic Democracy. ISBN 978-1-933567-16-7.
  21. ^ "Letters from Thane Read asking Helen Keller to sign the World Constitution for world peace. 1961". Helen Keller Archive. American Foundation for the Blind. Retrieved 2023-07-01 – via afb.org.
  22. ^ "Letter from World Constitution Coordinating Committee to Helen, enclosing current materials". Helen Keller Archive. American Foundation for the Blind. Retrieved 2023-07-03 – via afb.org.
  23. ^ "Als Interlaken die heimliche Welthauptstadt war". Berner Zeitung (in German). 2018-08-29. Retrieved 2023-07-18.
  24. ^ "Provisional World Parliament". The Encyclopedia of World Problems. Union of International Associations. Retrieved 2023-07-18 – via uia.org.
  25. ^ "World Parliament a necessity: CM". The Times of India. 2004-08-15. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 2023-07-18.
  26. ^ a b Davis, Garry (1984). World Government, Ready Or Not!. World Government House. ISBN 978-0-931545-00-9.