Developer(s)Tamas Kocsis
Initial release2015
Stable release
0.7.1[1] / 4 September 2019; 3 years ago (4 September 2019)
Written inPython, JavaScript, CoffeeScript
Operating systemWindows, Linux, OS X, FreeBSD, Android
Available inDanish, German, English, Spanish, French, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Turkish, Ukrainian, Chinese, Persian.
TypePeer-to-peer web hosting

ZeroNet is a decentralized web-like network of peer-to-peer users, created by Tamas Kocsis in 2015, programming for the network was based in Budapest, Hungary; is built in Python; and is fully open source.[3] Instead of having an IP address, sites are identified by a public key (specifically a bitcoin address). The private key allows the owner of a site to sign and publish changes, which propagate through the network. Sites can be accessed through an ordinary web browser when using the ZeroNet application, which acts as a local webhost for such pages.[3] In addition to using Bitcoin cryptography, ZeroNet uses trackers from the BitTorrent network[4] to negotiate connections between peers.[3] ZeroNet is not anonymous by default, but it supports routing traffic through the Tor network.[5]

There is no way to take down a ZeroNet page which still has seeders,[3] thus making such pages immune to third-party methods of taking them down, including DMCA takedown notices.[6]

Development of the network

The feasibility of peer-to-peer online web-sites had been hypothesized for some time, with The Pirate Bay suggesting they would build a network, as well as BitTorrent Inc. which created the closed-source Project Maelstrom.[3] Another application, Beaker Browser, uses the P2P DAT files protocol to allow the creation, hosting and serving of websites without need of a server.[7]

ZeroNet supports HTML, CSS and JavaScript.

Server-side languages like PHP are not supported, although ZeroNet can achieve user signup/login on MySQL databases, that are also distributed via P2P.

By default, sites have a size limit of 10 megabytes, but users may grant a site permission to use more storage space if they wish.

With plugins and the ZeroFrame API, sites can communicate with ZeroNet calling Python by JavaScript.

See also


  1. ^; publication date: 4 September 2019.
  2. ^ "ZeroNet". GitHub. 19 May 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Play: A P2P Distributed Torrent Site That's Impossible to Shut Down – TorrentFreak". TorrentFreak. Archived from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
  4. ^ Kumar, Mohit (18 February 2015). "MegaNet — New Decentralized, Non-IP Based and Encrypted Network". The Hacker News. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  5. ^ "FAQ: Is Zero Net Anonymous". Archived from the original on 2019-01-02. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  6. ^ "Steal This Show S01E07: Did P2P Break the Law? - TorrentFreak". TorrentFreak. Event occurs at 17m39s. Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2016-03-08. and what's happened is [...] some forward-thinking person has created a site on ZeroNet called Play, a torrent site[...]. The difference is that you can't take it down. I think you literally can't take it down. [...] It sniffs at your DMCA.
  7. ^ "Inside Beaker". Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-07-14.