|Air Force Special Operations Command|
|Active||10 February 1983 – present |
(39 years, 11 months)
|Country||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Role||"Provide our Nation’s specialized airpower, capable across the spectrum of conflict … Any Place, Any Time, Anywhere"|
|Size||17,967 personnel authorized:
|Headquarters||Hurlburt Field, Florida, U.S.|
|Motto(s)||"Any place. Any time. Anywhere"|
Air Force Organizational Excellence Award
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
|Commander||Lt Gen Tony D. Bauernfeind|
|Deputy Commander||Maj Gen Matthew W. Davidson|
|Command Chief Master Sergeant||CCM Cory M. Olson|
|Twenty-Third Air Force shield (former) (approved May 1983)|
|Transport||C-145A, C-146A, CV-22B|
Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), headquartered at Hurlburt Field, Florida, is the special operations component of the United States Air Force. An Air Force major command (MAJCOM), AFSOC is also the U.S. Air Force component command to United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), a unified combatant command located at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. AFSOC provides all Air Force Special Operations Forces (SOF) for worldwide deployment and assignment to regional unified combatant commands.
Before 1983, Air Force special operations forces were primarily assigned to the Tactical Air Command (TAC) and were generally deployed under the control of U.S. Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) or, as had been the case during the Vietnam War, Pacific Air Forces (PACAF). Just as it had relinquished control of the C-130 theater airlift fleet to Military Airlift Command (MAC) in 1975, TAC relinquished control of Air Force SOF to MAC in December 1982.
AFSOC was initially established on 10 February 1983 as Twenty-Third Air Force (23 AF), a subordinate numbered air force of MAC, with 23 AF headquarters initially established at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. On 1 August 1987, 23 AF headquarters moved to Hurlburt Field, Florida. AFSOC elements include Combat Controllers (CCT), Pararescuemen (PJ), Special Reconnaissance (SR), and Tactical Air Control Party (TACP).
The following list contains the flying and Special Tactics squadrons of the Air Force Special Operations Command:
Additionally, the Air Force Special Operations Command would gain the following units from Air Mobility Command or Air Combat Command aligned Air National Guard wings:
The Air Force Reserve Command units of Air Force Special Operations Command are:
AFSOC has about 20,800 active-duty, Air Force Reserve, Air National Guard and civilian personnel.
The command's SOF units are composed of highly trained, rapidly deployable airmen who are equipped with specialized aircraft. These forces conduct global special operations missions ranging from precision application of firepower, to infiltration, aviation foreign internal defense, exfiltration, resupply and aerial refueling of SOF operational elements.
In addition to the pilots, combat systems officers, and enlisted aircrew who fly AFSOC's aircraft, there is a highly experienced support force of maintenance officers and enlisted aircraft maintenance personnel who maintain these complex aircraft and their support systems, a cadre of premier intelligence officers and enlisted intelligence specialists well versed in special operations, as well as logisticians, security forces and numerous other support officers and personnel.
Another aspect of AFSOC is Special Tactics, the U.S. Air Force's special operations ground force. Similar in ability and employment to Marine Special Operations Command (MARSOC), U.S. Army Special Forces and U.S. Navy SEALs, Air Force Special Tactics personnel are typically the first to enter combat and often find themselves deep behind enemy lines in demanding, austere conditions, usually with little or no support.
The command's Special Tactics Squadrons are led by Special Tactics Officers (STOs). Special Tactics Squadrons combine Combat Controllers, Tactical Air Control Party (TACP), Special Operations Weather Technicians, Pararescuemen (PJs) and Combat Rescue Officers (CROs) to form versatile SOF teams. AFSOC's unique capabilities include airborne radio and television broadcast for psychological operations, as well as combat aviation advisors to provide other governments military expertise for their internal development.
Due to the rigors of the career field, Special Tactics' year-long training is one of the most demanding in the military, with attrition rates between 80 and 90 percent. In an attempt to reduce the high attrition, Special Tactics is very selective when choosing their officers. Special Tactics Officers (STO) undergo a highly competitive process to gain entry into the Special Tactics career field, ensuring only the most promising and capable leaders are selected. STO leadership and role modeling during the difficult training reduces the attrition rate for enlisted trainees.
STO selection is a two-phase process. Beginning with Phase One, a board of veteran STOs reviews application packages consisting of letters of recommendation, fitness test scores, and narratives written by the applicants describing their career aspirations and reasons for applying. Based on Phase One performance, about eight to 10 applicants are invited to the next phase. Phase Two is a weeklong battery of evaluations, ranging from physical fitness and leadership to emotional intelligence and personality indicators. At the end of Phase Two, typically two to four applicants are selected to begin the year-plus Special Tactics training pipeline.
AFSOC regularly operates the following aircraft:
Additionally, AFSOC, through the 492nd Special Operations Wing (as of 2017, and the Air Force Special Operations Air Warfare Center previously), possess and operates a small number of the following aircraft for its special training mission and Aviation Foreign Internal Defense (FID) missions:
New AC-130J and MC-130J aircraft based on the Lockheed Martin KC-130J Super Hercules tanker variant are being acquired and sent to certain AFSOC units. MC-130J aircraft have already entered service while the AC-130J continues developmental testing in preparation for an Initial Operational Capability (IOC) with AFSOC projected for FY 2017
In December 1982, the Air Force transferred responsibility for Air Force special operations from Tactical Air Command (TAC) to Military Airlift Command (MAC). Consequently, in March 1983, MAC activated Twenty-Third Air Force (23 AF) at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. This new numbered air force's responsibilities included worldwide missions of special operations, combat rescue, weather reconnaissance and aerial sampling, security support for intercontinental ballistic missile sites, training of USAF helicopter and HC-130 crewmen, pararescue training, and medical evacuation.
In October 1983, 23 AF helped rescue Americans from the island nation of Grenada. During the seven-day operation, centered at Point Salines Airport, 23 AF furnished MC-130s, AC-130s, aircrews, maintenance, and support personnel. An EC-130 from the 193rd Special Operations Wing of the Air National Guard (ANG) also played a psy-war role. Lieutenant Colonel (later Major General) James L. Hobson Jr., an MC-130 pilot and commander of the 8th Special Operations Squadron, was later awarded the Mackay Trophy for his actions in leading the air drop on the Point Salines Airport.
In May 1986, the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act led to the formation of the United States Special Operations Command. Senators William Cohen and Sam Nunn introduced the Senate bill, and the following month Congressman Dan Daniel introduced a like measure in the House of Representatives. The key provisions of the legislation formed the basis to amend the 1986 Defense Authorizations Bill. This bill, signed into law in October 1986, in part directed the formation of a unified command responsible for special operations. In April 1987, the DoD established the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida, and Army GEN James J. Lindsay assumed command. Four months later, 23 AF moved its headquarters from Scott AFB to Hurlburt Field, Florida.
In August 1989, Gen Duane H. Cassidy, USAF, CINCMAC, divested 23 AF of its non-special operations units, e.g., search and rescue, weather reconnaissance, etc. Thus, 23 AF served a dual role: still reporting to MAC, but also functioning as the air component to USSOCOM.
From late December 1989 to early January 1990, 23 AF participated in the invasion of the Republic of Panama during Operation Just Cause. Special operations aircraft included both active duty AC-130H and Air Force Reserve AC-130A Spectre gunships, EC-130 Volant Solo psychological operations aircraft from the Air National Guard, HC-130P/N Combat Shadow tankers, MC-130E Combat Talons, and MH-53J Pave Low and MH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters. Special tactics Combat Controllers and Pararescuemen provided important support to combat units.
Spectre gunship crews of the 1 SOW earned the Mackay Trophy and Tunner Award for their efforts, with an Air Force Reserve AC-130A Spectre crew from the 919th Special Operations Group (919 SOG) earning the President's Award. An active duty 1st SOW MC-130 Combat Talon crew ferried the captured Panamanian President, Manuel Noriega, to prison in the United States. Likewise, the efforts of the 1 SOW maintenance people earned them the Daedalian Award.
On 22 May 1990, General Larry D. Welch, USAF, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, redesignated Twenty-Third Air Force as Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC). This new major command consisted of three wings: the 1st, 39th and 353rd Special Operations Wings as well as the 1720th Special Tactics Group (1720 STG), the U.S. Air Force Special Operations School, and the Special Missions Operational Test and Evaluation Center.
Currently, after major redesignations and reorganizations, AFSOC direct reporting units include the 16th Special Operations Wing, the 352nd Special Operations Group, the 353rd Special Operations Group, the 720th Special Tactics Group (720 STG), the USAF Special Operations School and the 18th Flight Test Squadron (18 FLTS). During the early 1990s a major reorganization occurred within AFSOC. The 1720 STG became the 720 STG in March 1992; the transfer of ownership of Hurlburt Field from Air Mobility Command (AMC, and formerly MAC) to AFSOC in October 1992, followed by the merger of the 834th Air Base Wing (834 ABW) into the 1 SOW, which assumed host unit responsibilities. A year later the 1 SOW became the 16 SOW in a move to preserve Air Force heritage.
Meanwhile, the Special Missions Operational Test and Evaluation Center (SMOTEC), which explored heavy lift frontiers in special operations capabilities, while pursuing better equipment and tactics development, was also reorganized. In April 1994, the Air Force, in an effort to standardize these types of organizations, redesignated SMOTEC as the 18th Flight Test Squadron (18 FLTS).
From early August 1990 to late February 1991, AFSOC participated in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, the protection of Saudi Arabia and liberation of Kuwait. Special tactics personnel operated throughout the theater on multiple combat control and combat rescue missions. Special operations forces performed direct action missions, combat search and rescue, infiltration, exfiltration, air base ground defense, air interdiction, special reconnaissance, close air support, psychological operations, and helicopter air refuelings. Pave Low crews led the helicopter assault on radars to blind Iraq at the onset of hostilities, and they also accomplished the deepest rescue for which they received the Mackay Trophy.
MC-130E/H Combat Talons dropped the BLU-82, the largest conventional bombs of the war and, along with MC-130P Combat Shadows, dropped the most psychological warfare leaflets, while AC-130A and AC-130H Spectre gunships provided valuable fire support and armed reconnaissance. However, the AC-130 community also suffered the single greatest combat loss of coalition air forces with the shoot down of an AC-130H, call sign Spirit 03, by an Iraqi SA-7 Grail surface-to-air missile. All fourteen crew members aboard Spirit 03 were killed.
In December 1992, AFSOC special tactics and intelligence personnel supported Operation Restore Hope in Somalia. In late 1994, AFSOC units spearheaded Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti, and in 1995 Operation Deliberate Force in the Balkans.
The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, and the Pentagon, Washington D.C., on 11 September 2001 pushed the United States special operations forces to the forefront of the war against terrorism. By the end of September 2001, AFSOC deployed forces to southwest Asia for Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan to help destroy the al Qaeda terrorist organization and remove the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. AFSOC airpower delivered special tactics forces to the battle ground and they in turn focused U.S. airpower and allowed Afghanistan's Northern Alliance ground forces to dispatch the Taliban and al Qaeda from Afghanistan. AFSOC personnel also deployed to the Philippines to help aid that country's efforts against terrorism.
US Air Force Special Operations had a long-term presence in the Philippines during Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines.
In March 2003, AFSOC again deployed forces to southwest Asia this time in support of what would become Operation Iraqi Freedom – the removal of Saddam Hussein and his Baathist government. The command's personnel and aircraft teamed with SOF and conventional forces to quickly bring down Saddam Hussein's government by May 2003. AFSOC forces continued to conduct operations in support of the new Iraqi government against insurgents and terrorists.
The USAFSOC takes part in the multinational trainings at the King Abdullah II Special Operations Training Centre in which it trains in multiple scenarios with partner nations in order to increase interoperability between partner forces. 
AFSOC has had eleven commanders since its inception in 1990.
|Portrait||Name||Took office||Left office||Duration|
Thomas E. Eggers
|22 May 1990||20 June 1991||1 year, 29 days|
Bruce L. Fister
|21 June 1991||21 July 1994||3 years, 30 days|
James L. Hobson Jr.
|22 July 1994||8 July 1997||2 years, 351 days|
Charles R. Holland
|9 July 1997||4 August 1999||2 years, 26 days|
Maxwell C. Bailey
|5 August 1999||15 January 2002||2 years, 163 days|
Paul V. Hester
|16 January 2002||30 June 2004||2 years, 166 days|
Michael W. Wooley
|1 July 2004||26 November 2007||3 years, 148 days|
Donald C. Wurster
|27 November 2007||24 June 2011||3 years, 209 days|
Eric E. Fiel
|24 June 2011||1 July 2014||3 years, 7 days|
Bradley A. Heithold
|1 July 2014||19 July 2016||2 years, 18 days|
Marshall B. Webb
|19 July 2016||28 June 2019||2 years, 344 days|
James C. Slife
|28 June 2019||9 December 2022||3 years, 164 days|
Tony D. Bauernfeind
|9 December 2022||Incumbent||35 days|
|1975||Mayaguez incident, Cambodia|
|1975||Operation Eagle Pull, Cambodia|
|1975||Operation Frequent Wind, Vietnam|
|1976||Operation Fluid Drive, Lebanon|
|1980||Operation Eagle Claw, Iran|
|1981||Kidnapping of U.S. Army Brigadier General James Dozier, Italy|
|1981||Gulf of Sidra incident, Libya|
|1983||Operation Urgent Fury, Grenada|
|1983||Operation Big Pine, Honduras|
|1983–1985||Operation Bat, Bahamas, Turks and Caicos|
|1983–1988||Operation Bield Kirk, Operation Blue Flame, Operation Blinking Light, El Salvador|
|1984||Salvadorean President José Napoleón Duarte's daughter kidnapping, El Salvador|
|1985||TWA Flight 847 plane hijacking, Algeria/Lebanon|
|1985||Achille Lauro hijacking, Mediterranean Sea|
|1986||Operation El Dorado Canyon, Libya|
|1986||Pan Am Flight 73 plane hijacking, Pakistan|
|1987–1988||Operation Earnest Will, Operation Prime Chance, Persian Gulf|
|1988||Operation Golden Pheasant, Honduras|
|1989||Operation Safe Passage, Afghanistan|
|1989||Operation Poplar Tree, El Salvador|
|1989||1989 Philippine coup attempt, Philippines|
|1989||Operation Just Cause, Panama|
|1990||Operation Promote Liberty, Panama|
|1990||Civilian evacuation, Liberia|
|1990–1991||Operation Desert Shield, Operation Desert Storm, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq|
|1991||Operation Eastern Exit, Somalia|
|1991–2003||Operation Provide Comfort I–III, Operation Northern Watch, Turkey, Iraq|
|1991||Operation Sea Angel, 1991 Bangladesh cyclone relief, Bangladesh|
|1991||Operation Fiery Vigil, Philippines|
|1991||Operation Desert Calm, Saudi Arabia|
|1991–2003||Operation Southern Watch, Kuwait|
|1992||Operation Silver Anvil, Sierra Leone|
|1992–1994||Operation Provide Promise I–II, Italy, Yugoslavia|
|1992–1993||Operation Restore Hope, Somalia|
|1993–1995||Operation Continue Hope I–III, Somalia|
|1993||Operation Deny Flight, Yugoslavia|
|1993||Operation Silver Hope, Ukraine|
|1994||Operation Restore Democracy, Operation Uphold Democracy, Haiti|
|1994||Operation Support Hope, Rwanda|
|1995||Operation United Shield, Somalia|
|1995–1996||Operation Deliberate Force, Operation Joint Endeavor, Operation Joint Guard, Italy, Yugoslavia, Bosnia|
|1996||Search and Rescue support for U.S. Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown CT-43 crash, Croatia|
|1996||Operation Assured Response, evacuation, Liberia|
|1996||Operation Guardian Retrieval, Uganda|
|1996||Operation Pacific Bridge, Palau|
|1996||Operation Guardian Assistance, Rwanda|
|1997||Operation Silver Wake, evacuation, Albania|
|1997||Operation Guardian Angel, Yugoslavia|
|1997||Operation Firm Response, evacuation, Republic of Congo|
|1997||Operation High Flight, Namibia|
|1998||Operation Desert Thunder, Persian Gulf|
|1998||Operation Desert Fox, Iraq|
|1999||Operation Allied Force, Serbia, Kosovo|
|2000||Operation Atlas Response, flood relief, Mozambique|
|2000||Operation Fiery Relief, volcano relief, Philippines|
|2001||Operation Valiant Return, China|
|2001–2014||Operation Enduring Freedom, Global War on Terror|
|2002||Operation Autumn Return, evacuation, Côte d'Ivoire|
|2003||Operation Shining Express, evacuation, Liberia|
|2003–2011||Operation Iraqi Freedom, Iraq|
|2003–2008||Operation Willing Spirit, Colombia|
|2004||Operation Atlas Shield, Greece|
|2004||Operation Secure Tomorrow, Haiti|
|2005–2005||Operation Unified Assistance, Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia|
|2005||Task Force Katrina, hurricane relief, United States|
|2008||Operation Aster Silver, evacuation, Chad|
|2008||Operation Assured Delivery, Georgia|
|2008||Operation Olympic Titan, Pacific Ocean|
|2010||Operation Unified Response, earthquake relief, Haiti|
|2011||Operation Tomodachi, earthquake and tsunami relief, Japan|
|2011||Operation Odyssey Dawn, Libya|
|2013||Operation Damayan, typhoon relief, Philippines|
|2014||Operation Inherent Resolve, Iraq, Syria, and Libya|
|2015-2021||Operation Freedom's Sentinel, Afghanistan|
((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)