Flag of an Air Forcelieutenant general
Flag of an Air Force
lieutenant general

This is a list of lieutenant generals in the United States Air Force since 2020. The rank of lieutenant general (or three-star general) is the second-highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Air Force, and the first to have a specified number of appointments set by statute. It ranks above major general (two-star general) and below general (four-star general).

There have been 42 lieutenant generals in the U.S. Air Force since 1 January 2020. All 42 achieved that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Air Force. Lieutenant generals entered the Air Force via several paths: 19 were commissioned via the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA), 13 via Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) at a civilian university, seven via Air Force Officer Training School (OTS), one via AFROTC at a senior military college, one via direct commission (direct), and one via direct medical officer commission at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU).

List of generals

Entries in the following list of lieutenant generals are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was promoted to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Air Force or was promoted to four-star rank while on active duty in the U.S. Air Force. Each entry lists the general's name, date of rank,[a] active-duty positions held while serving at three-star rank,[b] number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank (Yrs),[c] year commissioned and source of commission,[d] number of years in commission when promoted to three-star rank (YC),[e] and other biographical notes (years of birth and death are shown in parentheses in the Notes column).[f] Officers transferred to the U.S. Space Force in the grade of lieutenant general are included while having previously held that rank in the Air Force previously are included, while Air Force officers first promoted to lieutenant general in the U.S. Space Force are excluded.

List of U.S. Air Force lieutenant generals since 2020
# Name Photo Date of rank[a] Position[b] Yrs[c] Commission[d] YC[e] Notes[f]
1 David A. Krumm
Lt. Gen. David A. Krumm (2).jpg
20 Apr 2020   2 1989 (AFROTC) 31 (1967–        )
2 Scott L. Pleus
Lt. Gen. Scott L. Pleus.jpg
12 Jun 2020   2 1989 (AFROTC) 31
3 S. Clinton Hinote
Lt. Gen. S. Clinton Hinote.jpg
15 Jun 2020  
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, Strategy, Integration and Requirements, Air Staff (DCS A5), 2020–2022.
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, Air Force Futures, Air Staff (DCS A5/7), 2022–present.
2 1992 (USAFA) 28
4 Carl E. Schaefer
Lt. Gen. Carl E. Schaefer.jpg
21 Jun 2020   2 1990 (USAFA) 30
5 Gregory M. Guillot
Lt Gen Gregory M. Guillot (2).jpg
16 Jul 2020   2 1989 (USAFA) 31
6 Michael A. Loh
Lt. Gen. Michael A. Loh.jpg
22 Jul 2020   2 1984 (USAFA) 36 (1962–        ) Son of Air Force four-star general John M. Loh.
7 Kirk S. Pierce
Lt. Gen. Kirk S. Pierce (cropped 2).jpg
29 Jul 2020   2 1988 (AFROTC) 32 (1966–        )
8 Tony D. Bauernfeind
Lt. Gen. Tony D. Bauernfeind.jpg
31 Jul 2020   2 1991 (USAFA) 29
9 Kirk W. Smith
Lt Gen Kirk W. Smith.jpg
4 Aug 2020   2 1989 (USAFA) 31 (1967–        )
10 Brian S. Robinson
Lt. Gen. Brian S. Robinson.jpg
14 Aug 2020   2 1987 (OTS) 33 (1965–        )
11 Jeffrey A. Kruse
Lt. Gen. Jeffrey A. Kruse.jpg
16 Aug 2020   2 1990 (AFROTC) 30 (1968–        )
12 Charles L. Moore Jr.
Lt Gen Charles L. Moore Jr.jpg
3 Sep 2020   2 1989 (USAFA) 31 (1966–        )
13 Shaun Q. Morris
Lt. Gen. Shaun Q. Morris.jpg
3 Sep 2020   2 1988 (USAFA) 32
14 Sam C. Barrett
Lt Gen Sam C. Barrett (2).jpg
4 Sep 2020   2 1988 (USAFA) 32
15 James C. Dawkins Jr.
Lt. Gen. James C. Dawkins, Jr.jpg
1 Oct 2020   2 1989 (OTS) 31 (1966–        )
16 Andrew A. Croft
Lt. Gen. Andrew A. Croft (3).jpg
28 Dec 2020   2 1988 (AFROTC) 32 (1965–        )
17 Robert J. Skinner
Lt Gen Robert J. Skinner.jpg
25 Feb 2021   1 1989 (OTS) 32
18 Robert I. Miller
Lt Gen Robert I. Miller.jpg
4 Jun 2021   1 1989 (USU) 32 (1963–        )
19 Russell L. Mack
Lt Gen Russell L. Mack.jpg
16 Aug 2021   1 1988 (OTS) 33
20 Tom D. Miller
Lt Gen Tom D. Miller.jpg
17 Aug 2021   1 1990 (AFROTC) 31
21 James A. Jacobson
Lt Gen James A. Jacobson.jpg
20 Aug 2021   1 1990 (USAFA) 31
22 Mark E. Weatherington
Lt Gen Mark E. Weatherington.jpg
23 Aug 2021   1 1990 (USAFA) 31 (1967–        )
23 Ricky N. Rupp
Lt Gen Ricky N. Rupp.jpg
27 Aug 2021   1 1989 (AFROTC) 32
24 David J. Julazadeh
Lt Gen David J. Julazadeh.jpg
4 Oct 2021   1 1990 (AFROTC) 31 (1966–        )
25 Lance K. Landrum
Lt Gen Lance K. Landrum.jpg
11 Oct 2021   1 1992 (USAFA) 29 (c. 1970        )
26 John D. Caine
Lt Gen John D. Caine.jpg
3 Nov 2021   1 1990 (VMI) 31
27 Stephen L. Davis
Lt Gen Stephen L. Davis.jpg
2 Mar 2022   0 1989 (OTS) 33
28 Caroline M. Miller
Lt Gen Caroline M. Miller.jpg
26 May 2022  
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, Manpower, Personnel and Services, Air Staff (DCS A1), 2022–present.
0 1994 (OTS) 28 (1968–        )[g]
29 Charles L. Plummer
Lt Gen Charles L. Plummer.jpg
26 May 2022   0 1995 (direct)[h] 27
30 Randall Reed
Lt Gen Randall Reed.jpg
3 Jun 2022   0 1989 (USAFA) 33
31 Richard G. Moore Jr.
Lt Gen Richard G. Moore Jr.jpg
30 Jun 2022  
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, Plans and Programs, Air Staff (DCS A8), 2022–present.
0 1992 (USAFA) 30
32 Michael J. Schmidt
Lt Gen Michael J. Schmidt (2).jpg
5 Jul 2022   0 1991 (AFROTC) 31
33 John D. Lamontagne
Lt Gen John D. Lamontagne.jpg
7 Jul 2022   0 1992 (USAFA) 30
34 Alexus G. Grynkewich
Lt Gen Alexus G. Grynkewich (2).jpg
21 Jul 2022   0 1993 (USAFA) 29
35 Kevin B. Kennedy Jr.
Lt Gen Kevin B. Kennedy Jr.jpg
21 Jul 2022   0 1990 (USAFA) 32
36 Andrea D. Tullos
Lt Gen Andrea D. Tullos.jpg
25 Jul 2022   0 1991 (OTS) 31
37 Leonard J. Kosinski
Lt Gen Leonard J. Kosinski.jpg
2 Aug 2022   0 1993 (USAFA) 29
38 John P. Healy
Lt Gen John P. Healy.jpg
3 Aug 2022   0 1989 (AFROTC) 33 (c. 1967        )
39 Leah G. Lauderback
Lt Gen Leah G. Lauderback.jpg
6 Aug 2022   0 1993 (AFROTC) 29
40 Dagvin R. M. Anderson
Lt Gen Dagvin R. M. Anderson.jpg
8 Aug 2022  
  • Director, Joint Force Development, Joint Staff, J7, 2022–present.
0 1992 (AFROTC) 30
41 Stacey T. Hawkins
Lt Gen Stacey T. Hawkins.jpg
15 Aug 2022   0 1991 (USAFA) 31
42 Donna D. Shipton
Lt Gen Donna D. Shipton (cropped).jpg
22 Aug 2022   0 1991 (AFROTC) 31 (c. 1970        )



For lieutenant generals who are dual-hatted as both numbered air force (NAF) commanders and commander[i] or deputy commander[j] of a joint force, the service-specific command is to be prioritized.

Donna D. ShiptonStacey HawkinsDagvin AndersonLeah LauderbackJohn P. HealyLeonard KosinskiAndrea TullosKevin B. Kennedy Jr.Alexus GrynkewichJohn LamontagneMichael J. SchmidtRichard G. MooreRandall ReedCharles L. PlummerCaroline M. MillerStephen L. DavisJohn D. CaineLance K. LandrumDavid JulazadehRicky RuppMark E. WeatheringtonJames A. JacobsonTom D. MillerRussell L. MackRobert I. MillerRobert J. SkinnerAndrew A. CroftJames C. DawkinsSam C. BarrettShaun MorrisCharles L. MooreJeffrey A. KruseBrian S. RobinsonKirk W. SmithTony D. BauernfeindKirk S. PierceMichael A. LohGregory M. GuillotCarl E. SchaeferS. Clinton HinoteScott L. PleusDavid A. KrummWar in Afghanistan (2001–2021)


See also: List of lieutenant generals in the United States Air Force before 1960 § History

The United States Air Force originated as the Air Corps of the Regular Army. During World War II the Regular Army was augmented with a larger temporary force of reservists, volunteers, and conscripts to form the Army of the United States. Air personnel in the combined force belonged to the Army Air Forces. After the war, all Air Corps and Army Air Forces personnel split off from the Army to form the independent Air Force.

1939–1947 (U.S. Army Air Forces)

Delos C. Emmons

The first United States airman to become a lieutenant general was Delos C. Emmons, commanding general of General Headquarters Air Force, who was appointed to that grade under a 1940 law authorizing the President to appoint Regular Army officers to temporary higher grades in the Army of the United States. The first airman to become a lieutenant general in the Regular Army was Frank M. Andrews, who was automatically elevated to that grade upon assuming command of the Panama Canal Department in 1941. The Regular Army grade of lieutenant general had been abolished at the end of World War I, but was revived in 1939 when Congress authorized the officers commanding certain important Army formations to be temporarily appointed to the grade while detailed to those positions; these commands included the four field armies and the Panama Canal and Hawaiian Departments.[1]

Numerous airmen were promoted to lieutenant general during World War II. Lieutenant generals typically commanded one of the numbered field armies or air forces; served as deputy theater commanders; or headed major headquarters staffs, administrative commands, or support organizations. Most World War II lieutenant generals were appointed to that grade in the Army of the United States, even if detailed to a position that already carried the Regular Army grade; unlike the ex officio Regular Army grade, which was lost if an officer was reassigned, the Army of the United States grade was personal to each individual, making it easier to transfer officers without inadvertently demoting them.[2]

Although most air lieutenant generals belonged to the Regular Army Air Corps, anyone could be appointed lieutenant general in the Army of the United States, including reservists and civilians; James H. Doolittle was promoted to lieutenant general as an Air Corps Reserve officer and William S. Knudsen was commissioned lieutenant general directly from civilian life.[3]

1947–1960 (U.S. Air Force)

Otto P. Weyland

The National Security Act of 1947 transferred all personnel in the Army Air Forces, Air Corps, and General Headquarters Air Force to the newly created United States Air Force. Lieutenant generals in the new service typically headed divisions of the Air Staff in Washington, D.C.; the unified command in Alaska; the theater air forces in Europe or the Far East; or the Air Force's top-level strategic, tactical, air defense, materiel, or transportation commands. Many early three-star commands were subsequently upgraded to four stars, and their vice commanders were elevated to three stars along with the commanders of the larger numbered air forces.[4]

All three- and four-star ranks were made ex officio by the Officer Personnel Act of 1947, meaning that a lieutenant general had to be reconfirmed in that grade every time he changed jobs. During the Korean War the Far East Air Forces (FEAF) vice commander for operations, Major General Otto P. Weyland, was slated for a three-star job in the United States but Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt S. Vandenberg wanted Weyland to be promoted to lieutenant general while still in the war zone, so Vandenberg created the new three-star position of deputy commanding general of FEAF just for Weyland. Once promoted, Weyland immediately returned stateside but remained technically assigned to FEAF in order to keep his new grade while waiting for the Senate to confirm him in his permanent three-star assignment as commanding general of Tactical Air Command.[5]

It was rare but not unheard of for a lieutenant general to be demoted by accepting a transfer to a lower ranking job. Air Force Inspector General Truman H. Landon and Fifth Air Force commanding generals Frank F. Everest and Glenn O. Barcus all reverted to major general for their next assignments but regained their third stars in subsequent postings.[6] Conversely, Major General Muir S. Fairchild skipped three-star rank entirely when he was appointed to the four-star office of vice chief of staff of the Air Force.[7]

Modern use

Lt Gen Michael A. Loh is pinned with his new rank by his wife Dianne on July 28, 2020.
Lt Gen Michael A. Loh is pinned with his new rank by his wife Dianne on July 28, 2020.

There are presently 29 three-star billets in the United States Air Force.[k] Lieutenant generals in the Air Force typically serve in high-level command and staff positions,[8] including as commanders of major commands (MAJCOMs),[9] commanders of numbered air forces (NAF)[9][10] that are concurrently designated as service component commands under a four-star unified combatant commander and deputy commanders of four-star major commands. Under the Air Staff, this includes the director of staff and deputy chiefs of staff (limited to 8 by statute)[11] under the authority of the chief and vice chief of staff of the Air Force, as well as the inspector general[12] who answers directly to the service secretary. High-level specialty positions such as the surgeon general,[13] judge advocate general,[14] and chief of Air Force Reserve[15] may also hold three-star rank, though not by statute. The superintendent of the United States Air Force Academy and director of the Air National Guard have been three-star positions since 1983[l] and 2002 respectively.

Lt. Gen. Robert I. Miller has his new three-star flag unfurled during his promotion ceremony on June 4, 2021.
Lt. Gen. Robert I. Miller has his new three-star flag unfurled during his promotion ceremony on June 4, 2021.

About 20 to 30 joint service three-star billets exist at any given time that can be occupied by an Air Force lieutenant general, among the most prestigious being the director of the Joint Staff (DJS), principal staff advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and historically considered a stepping stone to four-star rank.[16] All deputy commanders of the unified combatant commands are of three-star rank,[m] as are directors of Defense Agencies not headed by a civilian such as the director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIRDIA).[17] Internationally based three-star positions include the deputy chair of the NATO Military Committee (DCMC), United States military representative to the NATO Military Committee (USMILREP), and the security coordinator for the Palestinian National Authority in Israel. All nominees for three-star rank must be confirmed via majority by the Senate before the appointee can take office and thus assume the rank.[18]

Statutory limits, elevations and reductions

Maj Gen Mark E. Weatherington is pinned with the rank of lieutenant general on August 14, 2021.
Maj Gen Mark E. Weatherington is pinned with the rank of lieutenant general on August 14, 2021.
Newly promoted Lt Gen Randall Reed is congratulated by Gen Michael A. Minihan on June 3, 2022.
Newly promoted Lt Gen Randall Reed is congratulated by Gen Michael A. Minihan on June 3, 2022.

The U.S. Code states that no more than 30 officers[n] in the U.S. Air Force may be promoted beyond the rank of major general and below the rank of general on the active duty list, with the exception of those on joint duty assignments.[19] However, the President[19] may designate up to 15 additional three-star appointments, with the condition that for every service branch allotted such additional three-star appointments, an equivalent number must be reduced from other service branches. Other exceptions exist for non-active duty or reserve appointments, as well as other circumstances.[20] As such, three-star positions can be elevated to four-star status or reduced to two-star status where deemed necessary, either to highlight their increasing importance[o] to the defense apparatus (or lack thereof) or to achieve parity with equivalent commands in other services or regions.

Senate confirmations

Military nominations are considered by the Senate Armed Services Committee. While it is rare for three-star or four-star nominations to face even token opposition in the Senate, nominations that do face opposition due to controversy surrounding the nominee in question are typically withdrawn. Nominations that are not withdrawn are allowed to expire without action at the end of the legislative session.

Additionally, events that take place after Senate confirmation may still delay or even prevent the nominee from assuming office.

The 2020 National Defense Authorization Act explicitly prohibits adding new general officer billets to the Space Force beyond the sole four-star billet of the chief of space operations. This necessitated that five Air Force three-star appointments be transferred to the Space Force, leaving them with 30 as opposed to 35 available three-star positions.[30][31][19]

See also


  1. ^ Army Register; Acts of July 31, 1940, and September 9, 1940.
  2. ^ Army Register; "Krueger Is In Line For New Command; President Prepares to Give Third Army Chief New Task by Confirming His Rank", The New York Times, p. 5, 9 February 1943; "63 Army Officers Move Up In Rank; 3 Named Lieutenant General, Eight Major General and 52 Brigadier General", The New York Times, p. 11, 5 May 1943.
  3. ^ DuPre, p. 59; "Knudsen the Only Civilian To Enter Army at His Rank", The New York Times, p. 9, 17 January 1942.
  4. ^ 2011 Air Force Almanac; Air Force Register.
  5. ^ Y'Blood, pp. 425, 442, 444–445, 477.
  6. ^ Air Force Register.
  7. ^ Puryear, p. 129.
  8. ^ "United States Air Force – O-9 Lieutenant General". FederalPay. Archived from the original on March 31, 2022. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
  9. ^ a b 10 U.S.C. § 9065 – Commands: territorial organization
  10. ^ "Numbered Air Forces – Air Force Historical Research Agency". U.S. Air Force. Archived from the original on May 21, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  11. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 9035 – Deputy Chiefs of Staff and Assistant Chiefs of Staff.
  12. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 9020 – Inspector General.
  13. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 9036 – Surgeon General: appointment; duties.
  14. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 9037 – Judge Advocate General, Deputy Judge Advocate General: appointment; duties.
  15. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 9038 – Office of Air Force Reserve: appointment of Chief.
  16. ^ Woodward, Bob (2006). State of Denial: Bush at War, Part III. Simon and Schuster. pp. 22, 40. ISBN 978-0-7432-7223-0. scott fry joint staff.
  17. ^ "On Raising the Rank of the Chief of the National Guard Bureau" (PDF). Library of Congress. Library of Congress. February 2007.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 601 – Positions of importance and responsibility: generals and lieutenant generals; admirals and vice admirals.
  19. ^ a b c 10 U.S.C. § 525 – Distribution of commissioned officers on active duty in general officer and flag officer grades.
  20. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 526 – Authorized strength: general and flag officers on active duty.
  21. ^ "DNI Welcomes New Senior Military Adviser". Office of the Director of National Intelligence. August 17, 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2021. Retrieved July 4, 2022.
  22. ^ "PN762 — Maj. Gen. Ryan F. Gonsalves — Army, 115th Congress (2017-2018)". U.S. Congress. July 13, 2017. Archived from the original on March 16, 2022. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  23. ^ a b Myers, Meghann (January 6, 2018). "Army 2-star loses promotion after calling congressional staffer 'sweetheart'". Army Times. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  24. ^ Bryant, Kevin (January 10, 2018). "Army general now 'special assistant' after 'sweetheart' comment to female staffer". KDH News. Archived from the original on May 23, 2022. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  25. ^ Vandiver, John (May 3, 2018). "General retires 6 months after IG chastised his behavior toward congressional staffer". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on January 11, 2021. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  26. ^ "PN1329 — Maj. Gen. John G. Rossi — Army, 114th Congress (2015-2016)". U.S. Congress. April 14, 2016. Archived from the original on March 16, 2022. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
  27. ^ "Rossi confirmed for appointment to SMDC". U.S. Army. Redstone Arsenal, Alabama: USASMDC/ARSTRAT Public Affairs. May 3, 2016. Archived from the original on April 17, 2022. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  28. ^ "Army: Two-star general committed suicide on Alabama military base". CBS News. Washington, D. C.: Associated Press. October 28, 2016. Archived from the original on March 16, 2022. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  29. ^ "PN1823 — Maj. Gen. James H. Dickinson — Army, 114th Congress (2015-2016)". U.S. Congress. November 15, 2016. Archived from the original on March 21, 2022. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
  30. ^ Gould, Joe; Insinna, Valerie (December 10, 2019). "Congress creating Space Force with limited headroom". Defense News. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  31. ^ Pub.L. 116–92 (text) (PDF) – National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020.
  32. ^ Mahshie, Abraham (August 3, 2021). "Space and Missile Systems Center Commander Retires Ahead of Changeover to Space Force". Air Force Magazine. Archived from the original on April 13, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  33. ^ "General Officer Announcements". U.S. Department of Defense. July 15, 2021. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  34. ^ "PN823 – Maj. Gen. Michael A. Guetlein – Space Force, 117th Congress (2021-2022)". U.S. Congress. July 13, 2021. Archived from the original on November 25, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  35. ^ Pons, Chip (August 13, 2021). "SSC stands up, Guetlein takes command". DVIDS. Los Angeles Air Force Base, California: Space and Missile Systems Center Public Affairs (now Space Systems Command Public Affairs). Archived from the original on September 26, 2021. Retrieved June 6, 2022.


  1. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken, where available, from the U.S. Air Force register of active and retired commissioned officers, or from the officer's official Air Force biography. The date listed is that of the officer's first promotion to lieutenant general. If such a date cannot be found, the next date substituted should be that of the officer's assumption of his/her first three-star appointment. Failing which, the officer's first Senate confirmation date to lieutenant general should be substituted.
  2. ^ a b Positions listed are those held by the officer when promoted to lieutenant general. Dates listed are for the officer's full tenure, which may predate promotion to three-star rank or postdate retirement from active duty. Positions held in an acting capacity are italicized.
  3. ^ a b The number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Date of rank" column from the last year in the "Position" column. Time spent between active-duty three-star assignments is not counted.
  4. ^ a b Sources of commission are listed in parentheses after the year of commission and include: the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA); the United States Military Academy (USMA); the United States Naval Academy (USNA); Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university; Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) at a civilian university; ROTC or AFROTC at a senior military college such as Texas A&M University (Texas A&M), the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), or Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI); Air Force Officer Training School (OTS); and direct commission (direct).
  5. ^ a b The number of years in commission before being promoted to three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Commission" column from the year in the "Date of rank" column.
  6. ^ a b Notes include years of birth and death; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with other significant military officers or significant government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and unusual career events such as premature relief or death in office. Officers who served as enlisted airmen for 7 years or more prior to commissioning are also noted.
  7. ^ Promoted directly from rank of brigadier general.
  8. ^ Directly commissioned via the JAG Corps Direct Appointment Program.
  9. ^ as in the case of the Commander, Eleventh Air Force, dual-hatted as Commander, Alaskan Command and Alaskan NORAD Region.
  10. ^ as in the case of the Deputy Commander, U.S. Forces Korea, dual-hatted as Commander, Seventh Air Force, and Deputy Commander, U.S. Forces Japan, who is dual-hatted as Commander, Fifth Air Force.
  11. ^ Excluding Air Force commands dual-hatted as joint duty assignments including the commanders of Fifth Air Force, Seventh Air Force and Eleventh Air Force.
  12. ^ While several lieutenant generals have served as superintendent since the academy's founding, there have been no Senate-confirmed officeholders below that rank since Robert E. Kelley, who was superintendent from 1981 to 1983.
  13. ^ The deputy commander of U.S. European Command was a four-star position until 2007, when it was reduced in rank to make way for the establishment of U.S. Africa Command, commanded by a four-star officer. The last four-star deputy commander of USEUCOM, General William E. Ward, also became the first commander of USAFRICOM.
  14. ^ The number of active duty lieutenant generals (for non-joint duty billets) authorized for the Air Force after subtracting nine officers holding the grade of general and five officers holding the grade of lieutenant general in the Space Force is 30.
  15. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 601 refers to positions held by four-star and three-star officers as "positions of importance and responsibility".