Antrim
  • Scots: Antrìm,[1] Anthrim[2] or Entrim[3]
  • Irish: Aontroim
Town
Massereene Bridge, Antrim - geograph.org.uk - 1310867.jpg

All Saints Parish Church and bridge over the Six Mile Water
Antrim is located in Northern Ireland
Antrim
Antrim
Location within Northern Ireland
Population23,375 (2011 Census)
Irish grid referenceJ1588
• Belfast19 miles (31 km)
District
County
CountryNorthern Ireland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townANTRIM
Postcode districtBT41
Dialling code028
PoliceNorthern Ireland
FireNorthern Ireland
AmbulanceNorthern Ireland
UK Parliament
NI Assembly
Website[1]
List of places
UK
Northern Ireland
Antrim
54°43′02″N 6°12′20″W / 54.7173°N 6.2055°W / 54.7173; -6.2055Coordinates: 54°43′02″N 6°12′20″W / 54.7173°N 6.2055°W / 54.7173; -6.2055

Antrim (Irish: Aontroim [ˈeːnˠt̪ˠɾˠɪmʲ], meaning 'lone ridge')[4] is a town and civil parish in County Antrim in the northeast of Northern Ireland, on the banks of the Six Mile Water, on the northeast shore of Lough Neagh. It had a population of 23,375 people in the 2011 Census.[5] It is the county town of County Antrim and was the administrative centre of Antrim Borough Council. It is 22 miles (35 km) northwest of Belfast.

History

Middle Ages

According to tradition, a monastery was founded at Antrim in AD 495, thirty years after the death of Saint Patrick, to take forward his ministry, with a small settlement growing up around it. The round tower (see below), also known as "the Steeple", is all that remains.[6] The original name of Antrim was Aontreibh, Irish for 'lone house', referring to the monks' house. This later became, or was reinterpreted, as Aontroim ('lone ridge').[7]

In the early Middle Ages, the area was part of the Gaelic territory of Dál Araide, which covered much of what is now County Antrim.[8] At the eastern edge of town is a ringfort called Rathmore (Ráth Mór, "the great fort"), which was the royal residence of the kings of Dál Araide.[9]

In the late 12th century, the area was conquered by Anglo-Normans led by John de Courcy, becoming part of the Earldom of Ulster. They built a motte-and-bailey castle at Antrim. Its mound (motte) still stands in Antrim Castle Gardens.[10]

The Anglo-Norman earldom collapsed in the early 14th century and Antrim became part of the Gaelic territory of Clannaboy. During the late Middle Ages, the O'Neill chiefs of Clannaboy were based at Edenduffcarrick castle (later called Shane's Castle), two miles west of Antrim.

Early Modern era

Following the Nine Years' War (1593–1603), Antrim came under English control. The area was then colonized by English and Scottish settlers as part of the Plantation of Ulster. Hugh Clotworthy, father of the Anglo-Irish politician John Clotworthy, 1st Viscount Massereene, supervised the building of Antrim Castle, a fortified mansion beside the old Norman motte. Hugh was knighted in 1617 and appointed High Sheriff of County Antrim.[6] In 1642, during the Irish Confederate Wars, Clotworthy's fleet fought a naval engagement on Lough Neagh.[11]

The Society of United Irishmen launched a rebellion in 1798, which began in Leinster and quickly spread to Ulster. The United Irishmen had been founded in 1791 by liberal Protestants in Belfast. Its goal was to unite Catholics and Protestants and to end British monarchical rule over Ireland and to found a sovereign, independent Irish republic. Although its membership was mainly Catholic, many of its leaders and members in northeast Ulster were Protestant Presbyterians. On 7 June 1798, about 4,000 United Irishmen led by Henry Joy McCracken attacked the town. The rebels were on the verge of taking the town until British reinforcements arrived. Thanks to a rebel band led by James Hope, most of the United Irishmen were able to withdraw safely. This is known as the Battle of Antrim.

Before the Act of Union, the parliamentary borough of Antrim returned two members to the Irish House of Commons by virtue of letters patent granted in 1666 by Charles II.[11] It was disenfranchised in 1801.

Steeple House, a substantial 18th-century mansion which was home to the Clark family and then became the headquarters of Antrim Borough Council, was destroyed in a fire in July 2019.[12][13]

The Troubles

See also: UDA South East Antrim Brigade

There were several incidents in and around Antrim during the Troubles including, in 1976, when six civilians (5 Protestants and one Catholic) were shot and killed during a UVF gun attack on the Ramble Inn pub near Antrim.[14]

Climate

As with the rest of Ireland, Antrim experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. The nearest official Met Office weather station for which online records are available is at Belfast International Airport,[15] under 4 miles to the south of the town centre.

In a typical year the warmest day should reach a temperature of 25.4 °C (77.7 °F)[16] and 2.1 days[17] should attain a temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or above in total.

The coldest night of the year averages −6.6 °C (20.1 °F)[18] and 39 nights should register an air frost.[19] The absolute minimum temperature of −14.2 °C (6.4 °F) was reported during the record cold spell of December 2010.[20] In total during that month 10 nights fell to −10.0 °C (14.0 °F) or below, and the 21st recorded a daytime maximum of just −7.7 °C (18.1 °F)

Climate data for Belfast International Airport, elevation: 63 m (207 ft), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1958–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
15.6
(60.1)
20.2
(68.4)
21.8
(71.2)
25.0
(77.0)
29.5
(85.1)
30.8
(87.4)
28.0
(82.4)
25.6
(78.1)
21.8
(71.2)
16.4
(61.5)
15.0
(59.0)
30.8
(87.4)
Average high °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
7.9
(46.2)
9.7
(49.5)
12.3
(54.1)
15.2
(59.4)
17.6
(63.7)
19.1
(66.4)
18.7
(65.7)
16.6
(61.9)
13.1
(55.6)
9.8
(49.6)
7.6
(45.7)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
4.9
(40.8)
6.3
(43.3)
8.5
(47.3)
11.2
(52.2)
13.8
(56.8)
15.4
(59.7)
15.2
(59.4)
13.2
(55.8)
10.2
(50.4)
7.1
(44.8)
5.0
(41.0)
9.6
(49.3)
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
2.0
(35.6)
3.0
(37.4)
4.7
(40.5)
7.1
(44.8)
9.9
(49.8)
11.8
(53.2)
11.7
(53.1)
9.9
(49.8)
7.2
(45.0)
4.4
(39.9)
2.4
(36.3)
6.4
(43.5)
Record low °C (°F) −12.8
(9.0)
−11.1
(12.0)
−9.9
(14.2)
−5.1
(22.8)
−2.8
(27.0)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.2
(36.0)
2.3
(36.1)
−0.5
(31.1)
−3.0
(26.6)
−8.6
(16.5)
−14.9
(5.2)
−14.9
(5.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 77.0
(3.03)
63.3
(2.49)
60.6
(2.39)
55.6
(2.19)
55.9
(2.20)
68.0
(2.68)
78.8
(3.10)
84.5
(3.33)
69.2
(2.72)
88.0
(3.46)
87.7
(3.45)
83.5
(3.29)
872.0
(34.33)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 14.7 13.2 13.0 12.0 11.6 11.9 14.1 14.2 12.1 14.0 15.5 15.2 161.3
Average snowy days 5 5 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 19
Average relative humidity (%) 89 87 88 89 90 90 90 92 92 91 90 89 91
Mean monthly sunshine hours 48.7 72.1 108.4 157.8 197.9 167.6 152.0 146.4 121.5 91.2 61.3 47.1 1,372
Source 1: Met Office[21] NOAA (relative humidity and snow days 1961–-1990)[22]
Source 2: KNMI[23][24]


Demography

On Census day (27 March 2011) there were 23,375 people living in Antrim, accounting for 1.29% of the NI total,[5] representing an increase of 16.9% on the Census 2001 population of 20,001.[25] Of these:

Landmarks

Antrim round tower
Antrim round tower
Antrim Masonic Hall
Antrim Masonic Hall

Transport

Antrim railway station on Northern Ireland Railways.

Antrim railway station was opened on 11 April 1848, and closed for goods traffic in 1965.[26]

Served by passenger trains on the Belfast-Derry railway line are run by Northern Ireland Railways.

Antrim's Aldergrove Airport known as Belfast International Airport is the largest airport in Northern Ireland, serving destinations in Britain, Europe and North America. However, Aldergrove does not have a proper Airport rail link connection.

Junction One Retail Park
Junction One Retail Park

Retail

The Junction, formerly Junction One (named after junction 1 of the nearby M22 Motorway), is a retail park in the area with restaurants and a hotel.[27] Supermarkets serving the town include an Asda store, Lidl outlet, Tesco Extra, and Iceland store.[citation needed] Castle Mall, located on High Street in the town, was formerly known as Castle Centre. It has a selection of every day shops, including the town's main Post Office.[28]

Education

Junior schools serving the area include Antrim Primary School,[29] Ballycraigy Primary School,[30] Greystone Primary School,[31] St Comgall's Primary School,[32] and St Joseph's Primary School.[33]

The secondary schools are Antrim Grammar School[34] and Parkhall College.[35]

The Greenmount campus of the College of Agriculture, Food and Rural Enterprise (CAFRE) is near Antrim.[36]

Sport

The local Gaelic Athletic Association club is Naomh Comhghall CLG (St. Comgalls Antrim).[37] The association football club, Chimney Corner F.C., plays its home games in Allen Park on Castle Road. Other Antrim sports clubs include Antrim Hockey Club and Muckamore Cricket Club.

People

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ballycopelann Wun-mäll – Department of the Environment" (PDF). doeni.gov.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  2. ^ Languages/Cultural Diversity Archived 29 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Dep. of Culture, Arts and Leisure.
  3. ^ The Ulster-Scot, July 2011 Archived 1 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine Charlie 'Tha Poocher' Rennals.
  4. ^ Postal Towns/Bailte Poist Archived 7 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Northern Ireland Place-name Project. Queen's University Belfast. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Census 2011 Population Statistics for Antrim Settlement". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  6. ^ a b Hanna, John (2002). Old Antrim. Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 9781840331868. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
  7. ^ "Antrim, Co Antrim". Northern Ireland Place-Names Project.
  8. ^ Boyd, Hugh Alexander. Irish Dalriada. The Glynns: Journal of The Glens of Antrim Historical Society. Volume 76 (1978).
  9. ^ "Rathmore, Co Antrim". Northern Ireland Place-Names Project.
  10. ^ Crothers, Norman, and Audrey Gahan. "Archaeological Excavations at Market Square, Antrim". Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. 60, 2001, pp. 94–111.
  11. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Antrim". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 154.
  12. ^ "Watch: 18th century Antrim mansion gutted by deliberate blaze". Belfast Telegraph. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  13. ^ "Steeple House Antrim fire "sad day and great loss" as historic building destroyed". Belfast Live. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  14. ^ "Chronological List of Deaths - 1976". cain.ulst.ac.uk. CAIN Archive - Conflict and Politics in Northern Ireland. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  15. ^ "Station Locations". MetOffice. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012.
  16. ^ "Annual average warmest day". Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  17. ^ ">25c days". Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  18. ^ ">Annual average coldest night". Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  19. ^ ">Average frost incidence". Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  20. ^ ">2010 minimum". 21 December 2010. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  21. ^ "Belfast International Airport 1991–2020 Averages". Met Office. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  22. ^ "Belfast International Airport 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  23. ^ "Belfast International Airpoirt (Aldergrove) extreme values". KNMI. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  24. ^ "Belfast International Airpoirt 1981-2010 average extreme values". KNMI. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  25. ^ "Census 2001 Usually Resident Population: KS01 (Settlements) - Table view". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  26. ^ "Review and Assessment of air quality in the Borough of Antrim" (PDF). Antrim Borough Council. p. 40. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  27. ^ "Visitor Information". The Junction Retail and Leisure Park. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  28. ^ "Castle Mall". Castle Mall. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  29. ^ "In the classroom". Antrim Primary School. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  30. ^ "Ballycraigy Primary School". Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  31. ^ "Greystone Primary School". Greystone Primary School. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  32. ^ "St. Comgall's Primary School". Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  33. ^ "St. Joseph's Primary School". Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  34. ^ "Antrim Grammar School". Antrim Grammar School. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  35. ^ "Parkhall Integrated College". Parkhall Integrated College. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  36. ^ "College of Agriculture, Food and Rural Enterprise". College of Agriculture, Food and Rural Enterprise. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  37. ^ "St. Comgalls Antrim – CLG Naomh Comhghall". St. Comgalls Antrim. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  38. ^ "Mark Allen opens up on "embarrassing" bankruptcy nightmare". Belfast Live. 12 October 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  39. ^ "Declan Kearney". Sinn Féin. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  40. ^ "Thomas McCord". National Assembly of Quebec. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  41. ^ University of Alaska. (n.d.) "The Eva McGown Room." Archived 2005-02-19 at the Wayback Machine UA Highlights: The People Behind Campus Names. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska. Reprinted from the Nanook News (student newspaper of University of Alaska Fairbanks), May 14, 1971. Retrieved on 2007-06-08.
  42. ^ "Joseph Stephenson-Jellie". Wisden. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  43. ^ "Josh Rock hits nine-dart leg in Grand Slam of Darts thriller". Belfast Live. 17 November 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.