Arandic
Geographic
distribution
South Australia
Linguistic classificationPama–Nyungan
  • Arandic–Thura-Yura
    • Arandic
Subdivisions
Glottologaran1267
Arandic languages (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan)

Arandic is a family of Australian Aboriginal languages consisting of several languages or dialect clusters, including the Arrernte (Upper Arrernte) group, Lower Arrernte (also known as Lower Southern Arrernte), Pertame language (also known as Southern Arrernte) and Kaytetye.

Languages

Differing classifications

There are differing opinions as to which are dialects and which separate languages, among linguists and among the Arrernte people themselves.

Proto-language

Proto-Arandic
Reconstruction ofArandic languages
Reconstructed
ancestor

Proto-Arandic and Pre-Arandic reconstructions from Koch (2004):[10]

gloss Proto-Arandic Pre-Arandic
armpit *ilhenpe *CilhVnpV
blood *arrknge *CVrrngV
brain *ake+urrnge *kaka+CurrngV
breast *atye *CatyV
egg *ukarte *muka+artV
face *inngerre *NinngVrrV
fat *antere *NantOrV
hand, finger *iltye *miltyV “claw”
nasal mucus *yungkel *CYungkVl
sweat *anytyeye *CantyVyV
tendon *alurrnge *CalO+CurrngV
thigh *uylepere *warli+pVrV
throat *ahentye *CaakVntyV
man *urte *CurtO
person, woman? *arelhe *CarVlhV
female *amarle *ngama+arlV
dreaming *altyerre *CaltyVrrV
camp *apmere *TamVrV
single men's camp *arnkentye *CarnkVntyV
single women's camp *arlwekere ? *CurlVkVrV/*wa-
father's father *arrenge *CarrVngV
father-in-law *ahenterre *CaakVntVrrV
mother's father *atye, itye *CEtyV
cousin (female) *altyele *CaltyVlV
cousin (male) *a(t)nkele *CankOlV
sister-in-law (of f?) *arntenge *NarntOngV
axe *ilepe *CilOpV
digging stick *atneme *kana+m(p)V
spindle *ante *unte *CuntO
rabbit bandicoot tail-tip *alpiyte? *CalpV+CV(r)ti
ant bed *ungkepeye *mungka+pVyV
burrow *ulhenge *ngulha+ngV
cave *inteye *CintVyV
cliff *arnke *CarnkV
coals *(a)perrke *CapVrrkV
delicacy, honey *ungkarle *NungkaarlV
flame *inthe *CinthV
gap *utatye *CutaatyV/*wa-
ground *ahe- *CaakV-
rainbow *umperlarre *CumpVrlV-
road *iyteye *Ci(r)tiyV
rock hole *arnerre *NarnOrrV
sun *aherrke *CaakVrrkV
east *Vkngerre *kangarra !
west *alte- *CaltO-
far *arlenge *CarlOngV
down, under, inside *ukene *CukVnV/*wa-
blind *upenge *CupVngV /*wa-
dangerous *ahe+ *CaakV-
dried out, desiccated *aynterrke *Ca(r)ntirrkV
empty *urlte *CurltV
frightened *atere *CatOrV
knowing *akaltye *kaka+CaltyV
point *arriylpe *Rirra+Ci(r)lpi
raw *arletye *CarlOtyV
sick, be in pain *arnte- *CarntO-
sleep *u(t)nke *CunkO /*wa-
smooth *alyelke *CalyVlkV

Verbs

gloss Proto-Arandic Pre-Arandic
bite *utnhe- *TunhV-
chase *ule(rne)- *CulO-
copulate with *Vnte(rne)- *CVntV-
cut off *urnte(rne)- *CurntO-
get stuck in *ume(rne)- *NumO-
go about (in search of) *u(t)nthe- *CunthV-
insert *uke(rne)- *CukV-/*wakV-
make, fix *umpare - *CumpV+CarV-
manipulate in coolamon? *aynpe- / *arnpe- *Ca(r)npi-
pluck, clear of feathers *althe- *CalthV-
put (down) *arre(rne)- *CVrrV-
put foot down, move off *arnpe- *CarnpO-
put high *utye(rne)- *CYutyV-?
return *alpe- *CalpO-?
see *are- *miira-?
shine (on) *arrtye- *CVrrtyV-
sing *ayle- *Ca(r)li-
swallow *uke(rne)- *CukV-/*wakV-
tie *irrtye- *CVrrtyV-

Plants

Scientific name Common name Proto-Arandic Pre-Arandic
Eucalyptus opaca desert bloodwood *arrke *CarrkV
Eucalyptus coolabah *ankerre *CankOrrV
green grass *atherrke *CathVrrkV
Acacia aneura mulga *artetye *CartOtyV
Ventilago viminalis supplejack *atnyere *TanyVrV
Ficus platypoda wild fig *wityerrke/*yu- *wityVrrkV /*CYu-
Canthium latifolium native currant *ahakeye *CaakaakVyV
Acacia kempeana witchetty bush *atnyeme *TanyVmV
Acacia ligulata umbrella bush *arterrke *CartOrrkV
Acacia tetragonophylla dead finish *arlketyerre *CarlkOtyVrrV
Acacia victoriae acacia bush *urlepe?, *arlepe *COrlOpV
Atalaya hemiglauca whitewood *arlperre *CarlpOrrV
Boerhavia spp. tar vine *ayepe *CayVpV
Grevillea striata beefwood *iyltentye *Ci(r)ltintyV
Hakea chordophylla northern corkwood *untyeye *CuntyVyV /*wa-

Animals

gloss Proto-Arandic Pre-Arandic
dingo *urtnere *TurnOrV
Jew lizard *ankerte *CankOrtV
kangaroo *aherre *CaakVrrV
crested pigeon *apelkere /-ure? *CapVlkVrV
honey ant *yerr+ampe? *CVyVrrV+
termites, white ants *interrke *CintOrrkV

References

  1. ^ Kearney 2007.
  2. ^ Lower Arrernte.
  3. ^ To save a dying language 2018.
  4. ^ Pertame Project.
  5. ^ Breen, Gavan (2001). "Chapter 4: The wonders of Arandic phonology". In Simpson, Jane; Nash, David; Laughren, Mary; Austin, Peter; Alpher, Barry (eds.). Forty years on: Ken Hale and Australian languages (pdf). Pacific Linguistics 512. ANU. Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. (Pacific Linguistics). pp. 45–69. ISBN 085883524X.
  6. ^ "Kaytetye". Ethnologue. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  7. ^ Note:"Aranda" is a simplified, Australian English approximation of the traditional pronunciation of the name of Arrernte [ˈarəɳ͡ɖa ].(Turpin, Myfany (August 2004). "Have you ever wondered why Arrernte is spelt the way it is?". Central Land Council. Retrieved 15 June 2019.)
  8. ^ "Arandic". Glottolog. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  9. ^ "Arandic". Ethnologue. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  10. ^ Koch, Harold (2004). "The Arandic subgroup of Australian languages". In Claire Bowern & Harold Koch, eds., Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method. John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi:10.1075/cilt.249.10koc

Bibliography