Ashok Ramchandra Kelkar (1929–2014) was a linguist and critical Marathi writer from Maharashtra, India. He was honoured with the Padma Shri in 2002 and Sahitya Akademi Award for Marathi in 2010.
Kelkar was born on 22 April 1929 in Pune. He did his schooling from New English School and then from Ferguson College. As he was fond of grammar and had interest in linguistic puzzles, he graduated from Ferguson in English and Philosophy. He received a master's degree in English and French literature from Pune University. He also studied Linguistics (1956–58) from Rockfeller and Comparative Literature and Review from Lily Institute in 1958 and received scholarships there. In the period of 1958–62, he served the Agra University teaching Linguistics. During 1962–67, he served as a reader at Pune University, and during the next 22 years, he served as professor of Linguistics and later as director of the Centre of Advanced Studies and Linguistics at Deccan College in Pune. He also had a PhD in Linguistics and Anthropology from Cornell University in the USA. He used to guide the students of linguistics completing their M.Phil. and PhD He took retirement from academics in 1989.
Kelkar founded the Marathi Abhyas Parishad and served as its director. There he started the trimonthly Bhasha Ani Jeewan (भाषा आणि जीवन) in 1982 and served as its editor until 1989.
Kelkar was honoured with the Padma Shri from the Indian government in 2002 for his literary accomplishments. In 2008, he received the Sahitya Akademi Award for Marathi for his book Rujuvaat (रूजुवात). His book Prachin Bhartiya Sahitya Mimansa – Ek Aakalan (प्राचिन भारतीय साहित्य मीमांसा – एक आकलन) was translated into Hindi and won a national award.
Kelkar had a son and a daughter. He died on 20 September 2014 at Aurangabad where he lived with his daughter Roshan Ranade since two years.