Viscount Keppel

Keppel, 1749, Joshua Reynolds's first painting of him,
produced on Menorca
Born25 April 1725
Died2 October 1786(1786-10-02) (aged 61)
AllegianceKingdom of Great Britain
Service/branchRoyal Navy
Years of service1735–1786
Commands heldHMS Wolf
HMS Greyhound
HMS Sapphire
HMS Maidstone
HMS Anson
HMS Centurion
Mediterranean Fleet
North American Station
HMS Swiftsure
HMS Torbay
HMS Valiant
Jamaica Station
Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty
Channel Fleet
First Lord of the Admiralty

Admiral Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel, PC (25 April 1725 – 2 October 1786) was a British Royal Navy officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1755 to 1782. He saw action in command of various ships, including the fourth-rate Maidstone, during the War of the Austrian Succession. He went on to serve as Commodore on the North American Station and then Commander-in-Chief, Jamaica Station during the Seven Years' War. After that he served as Senior Naval Lord and then Commander-in-Chief of the Channel Fleet.

During the American Revolutionary War Keppel came into a notorious dispute with Sir Hugh Palliser over Palliser's conduct as his second-in-command at the inconclusive Battle of Ushant in July 1778; the dispute led to Keppel and Palliser facing courts martial, which acquitted both of them. During the final years of the American Revolutionary War Keppel served as First Lord of the Admiralty.

Early life

A member of a leading Whig aristocratic family (which had come to England with William of Orange in 1688), Augustus Keppel was the second son of Willem van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle and, Anne van Keppel, a daughter of the 1st Duke of Richmond (himself an illegitimate son of King Charles II).[1] Educated briefly at Westminster School, Keppel went to sea at the age of ten, and had already five years of service to his credit when he was appointed to Centurion and sent with Lord Anson round the world in 1740.[1] He had a very narrow escape from being killed at the capture of Paita (13 November 1741) and was promoted to acting lieutenant in March 1742.[2][1] Also on this voyage, he made friends with John Campbell, and lost many of his teeth to the scurvy prevalent on the voyage. After their return from the circumnavigation, in November 1744, he was promoted to be commander and post-captain of the 14-gun sloop Wolf.[3] He transferred to the sixth-rate Greyhound in December 1744, to the fifth-rate Saphire in February 1745 and the fourth-rate Maidstone in November 1745.[1] In June 1747 he ran his ship, the Maidstone, ashore near Belleisle while chasing a French vessel, but was honourably acquitted by a court martial, and reappointed to another command,[2] the fourth-rate Anson.[1] He was actively employed throughout the rest of the War of the Austrian Succession, until peace was signed in 1748.[1]

Keppel, by Reynolds, 1752–53, in the pose of the Apollo Belvedere.
1747-1751 portrait by John Wollaston

Early in 1749, he was introduced by Lord Edgecombe to Sir Joshua Reynolds. When, on 11 May 1749, Keppel sailed from Plymouth to the Mediterranean, as Commodore commanding the Mediterranean Fleet,[4] (with his pennant in his old ship HMS Centurion intending to persuade the Dey of Algiers to restrain the piratical operations of his subjects[2]) Reynolds travelled with him as far as Menorca and there painted the first of his 6 portraits of Keppel,[nb 1] along with others of officers of the British garrison there.[nb 2] Keppel concluded an agreement with the Dey of Algiers which protected British commerce. After negotiating treaties at Tripoli and Tunis, Keppel returned to England in July 1751.[4]

Seven Years' War

Further information: Great Britain in the Seven Years' War

During the Seven Years' War he saw constant service. He served as Commodore on the North American Station with his broad pennant in the fourth-rate Norwich from 1751 to 1755.[7] He was on the coast of France in 1756 and was detached on an expedition to conquer Gorée, a French island off the west coast of Africa in 1758. His ship, Torbay (74), was the first to get into action in the Battle of Quiberon Bay in November 1759.[1]

In 1757 he had formed part of the court martial which had condemned Admiral John Byng, but was active among those who endeavoured to secure a pardon for him; but neither he nor those who had acted with him could produce any serious reason why the sentence should not be carried out.[1] In March 1761, Keppel transferred to the third-rate HMS Valiant and was put in command of a squadron to reduce Belle Isle, which was successfully completed in June 1761.[1]

Havana expedition

Main article: Battle of Havana (1762)

When Spain joined France in 1762 he was sent as second in command with Sir George Pocock in the British expedition against Cuba which took Havana.[1] His health suffered from the fever which carried off an immense proportion of the soldiers and sailors. The £25,000 of prize money which he received freed him from the unpleasant position of "younger son of a family ruined by the extravagance of his father".[2]

Achievement of flag rank

Keppel, wearing flag officer's undress uniform, 1765, by Reynolds (National Maritime Museum)

Promoted to rear admiral on 21 October 1762, Keppel became Commander-in-Chief of the Jamaica Station late in the year.[8] He was a member of the Board of Admiralty in the First Rockingham ministry from July 1765 and was Senior Naval Lord in the Chatham ministry from September 1766[9] until leaving the Admiralty Board in December 1766.[10] In 1768 he acquired Elveden Hall in Suffolk.[11] He was promoted to vice admiral on 24 October 1770. When the Falklands Crisis occurred in 1770 he was to have commanded the fleet to be sent against Spain, but a settlement was reached, and he had no occasion to hoist his flag.[2]

American War of Independence

The most prominent period of his life belongs to the opening years of the American Revolutionary War. Keppel was a strong supporter of the Whig connection, led by the Marquess of Rockingham and the Duke of Richmond. The Whigs were then excluded from power by George III. As a member of Parliament, in which he had a seat for Chichester from 1755 until 1761, Windsor from 1761 until 1780, and then for Surrey from 1780 to 1782, Keppel was a Whig partisan, hostile to the King's Friends. The Whigs believed that the king's ministers, and in particular Lord Sandwich, then First Lord of the Admiralty, were capable of any villainy. When Keppel was promoted to full admiral on 29 January 1778[12] and appointed to command the Western Squadron, the main fleet prepared against France, he thought the First Lord would be glad for him to be defeated.[2][1]

Prior to 1778 Keppel failed to persuade Sandwich to ignore technical difficulties and "copper sheath only a few ships"; he was later possibly unfairly to make political capital out of this in The London Magazine, March 1781. He had remarked that coppering "gave additional strength to the navy" and he reproached Lord Sandwich with having "refused to sheath only a few ships with copper" at his request, when he had since ordered the whole navy to be sheathed. The lack of coppering the Navy was one of the key reasons leading to Britain losing the Thirteen Colonies.[13]

One of Keppel's subordinate admirals was Sir Hugh Palliser, a member of the Admiralty Board, a member of parliament, and in Keppel's opinion responsible with his colleagues for the bad state of the Royal Navy. The battle which Keppel fought with the French on 27 July 1778 (the First Battle of Ushant) ended badly. Reasons included Keppel's own management, but also the failure of Palliser to obey orders. Keppel became convinced that he had been deliberately betrayed.[2]

Keppel–Palliser affair

Keppel's Court Martial at the Governor's House, Portsmouth

Though Keppel praised Palliser in his public despatch, he attacked him in private. The Whig press, with Keppel's friends, began a campaign of calumny. The ministerial papers answered in the same style, and each side accused the other of deliberate treason. The result was a scandalous series of scenes in Parliament and of courts martial. Keppel was first tried and acquitted, and then Palliser was also tried and acquitted. Keppel left his post in March 1779.[2][1] A column was built in the late 18th century to commemorate his acquittal, commissioned by Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham and designed by John Carr.[14]

Political career

Lord Keppel in his later years.

When the North ministry fell in 1782 he became First Lord of the Admiralty, was raised to the peerage as Viscount Keppel, of Elveden in the County of Suffolk,[15] and sworn of the Privy Council.[16] His career in office was not distinguished, and he broke with his old political associates by resigning as a protest against the Peace of Paris. He finally discredited himself by joining the Coalition ministry formed by North and Fox, and with its fall disappeared from public life in December 1783.[1] Keppel died unmarried on 2 October 1786.[1] Burke, who regarded him with great affection, said that "he had something high in his nature, and that it was a wild stock of pride on which the tenderest of all hearts had grafted the milder virtues".[2] The peerage died with him.[1]

In popular culture

Keppel appears in Patrick O'Brian's 1956 novel The Golden Ocean as a midshipman aboard the Centurion. He is often the comic relief, winding up bald and toothless due to the various privations of the voyage.[17]


Great Keppel Island and Keppel Bay in Australia, and Keppel Island in the Falkland Islands are named after Keppel.[18] Keppel's Column in Rotherham was constructed to mark his acquittal.[19]


  1. ^ One of the 6, belonging originally to Edmund Burke,[5] is now in the National Gallery where there is also one by him of Keppel's mother[6]
  2. ^ Reynolds then stayed on the island for the rest of 1749 before leaving for Rome, where he stayed 2 years


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Laughton, John Knox (1892). "Keppel, Augustus" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 31. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHannay, David (1911). "Keppel, Augustus Keppel, Viscount". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 751–752.
  3. ^ Winfield 2007, p. 300
  4. ^ a b MacKay, Ruddock (2004). "Augustus Keppel". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15439. Retrieved 29 July 2017. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^ Cone, Carl B. (1947). "Edmund Burke's Art Collection". The Art Bulletin. 29 (2): 126–131. doi:10.2307/3047117. JSTOR 3047117.
  6. ^ "Anne, 2nd Countess of Albemarle". National Gallery. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  7. ^ Augustus Keppel Archived 27 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine Royal Navy Museum
  8. ^ Cundall, p. xx
  9. ^ Rodger, p. 51–52
  10. ^ "Sainty, JC, Lord High Admiral and Commissioners of the Admiralty 1660–1870, Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 4: Admiralty Officials 1660–1870 (1975), pp. 18–31". Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  11. ^ Mrs. Stirling (July 1911). "A Master of the Horse". The Nineteenth Century and After. 70: 525. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  12. ^ "No. 11844". The London Gazette. 27 January 1778. p. 2.
  13. ^ "Keppel and Sandwich". Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  14. ^ "Keppel's Column". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2009.
  15. ^ "No. 12290". The London Gazette. 23 April 1782. p. 1.
  16. ^ "No. 12282". The London Gazette. 26 March 1782. p. 1.
  17. ^ O'Brian, Patrick (1995). The Golden Ocean. Recorded Books. ISBN 0-7887-4469-0.
  18. ^ Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  19. ^ "Keppels Column, Keppel, Rotherham". Retrieved 11 March 2018.