Texas is the second-most populous U.S. state, with a 2020 U.S. census resident population of 29,145,505,[1][2] and apportioned population of 29,183,290.[3] Since the beginning of the 21st century, the state of Texas has experienced strong population growth.[4][5] Texas has many major cities and metropolitan areas, along with many towns and rural areas. Much of the population is concentrated in the major cities of Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin, and El Paso, and their corresponding metropolitan areas.


Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 – 2020 census[6]

Texas passed New York State in the 1990s to become the second-largest U.S. state in population, after California.[7] The state is also the most populous state in the South Central United States, and the most populous state in the South.[8] Texas' population growth between 2000 and 2010 represents the highest population increase, by number of people, for any U.S. state during this time period. The large population increase can somewhat be attributed to Texas' relative insulation from the U.S. housing bubble.

At the 2020 United States census it was reported that Texas had a resident population of 29,145,505,[1][2] a 15.9% increase since the 2010 U.S. census. Its apportioned population in 2020 was 29,183,290.[3] At the 2010 census, Texas had a population of 25.1 million—an increase of 4.3 million since the year 2000, involving an increase in population in all three subcategories of population growth: natural increase (births minus deaths), net immigration, and net migration. As of 2012, the state had an estimated 4.1 million foreign-born residents, constituting approximately 15% of the state population at the time.[9] An estimated 1.7 million people were undocumented immigrants in 2014.[10] The undocumented population of Texas decreased to an estimated 1,597,000 at the 2016 American Community Survey. Of the undocumented immigrant population, 960,000 have resided in Texas from less than 5 up to 14 years. An estimated 637,000 lived in Texas from 15 to 19 and 20 years or more. The undocumented immigrant population rebounded to 1,730,000 in 2018.[11]

The center of population of Texas is located at 30°54′19″N 97°21′56″W / 30.905244°N 97.365594°W / 30.905244; -97.365594 in Bell County, in the town of Holland.[8]

Net domestic migration

Year[12] In-migrants Out-migrants Net migration
2010 486,558 411,641 74,917
2011 514,726 404,839 109,887
2012 507,752 402,187 105,565
2013 548,034 409,977 138,057
2014 538,572 435,107 103,465
2015 553,032 445,343 107,689
2016 531,996 444,340 87,656
2017 524,511 467,338 57,173
2018 563,945 462,140 101,805
2019 559,661 453,015 106,646

Race and ethnicity

See also: History of Mexican Americans in Texas, History of African Americans in Texas, History of Chinese Americans in Texas, Hispanics and Latinos in Texas, Czech Texans, and German Texan

Texas racial breakdown of population (1970–2020)
Racial composition 1970[13] 1990[13] 2000[14] 2010[15] 2020[16]
White 86.8% 75.2% 71.0% 70.4% 50.1%
Black 12.5% 11.9% 11.5% 11.9% 12.2%
Asian 0.2% 1.9% 2.7% 3.8% 5.4%
Native 0.2% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 1.0%
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific Islander

0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
Other race 0.4% 10.6% 11.7% 10.5% 13.6%
Two or more races 2.5% 2.7% 17.6%

In 2019, non-Hispanic whites represented 41.2% of Texas's population, reflecting a national demographic shift.[17][18][19] Blacks or African Americans made up 12.9%, American Indians or Alaska Natives 1.0%, Asian Americans 5.2%, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders 0.1%, some other race 0.2%, and two or more races 1.8%. Hispanics or Latin Americans of any race made up 39.7% of the estimated population.[20] At the 2020 census, the racial and ethnic composition of the state was 42.5% white (39.7% non-Hispanic white), 11.8% Black or African American, 5.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 13.6% some other race, 17.6% two or more races, and 39.3% Hispanic and Latin American of any race.[21][22]

In 2015 non-Hispanic whites made up 11,505,371 (41.9%) of the population, followed by Black Americans at 3,171,043 (11.5%); other races 1,793,580 (6.5%); and Hispanics and Latinos (of any race) 10,999,120 (40.0%).[23] At the 2010 United States census, the racial composition of Texas was the following:[24] White American 70.4 percent, (Non-Hispanic whites 45.3 percent), Black or African American 11.8 percent, American Indian 0.7 percent, Asian 3.8 percent (1.0 percent Indian, 0.8 percent Vietnamese, 0.6 percent Chinese, 0.4 percent Filipino, 0.3 percent Korean, 0.1 percent Japanese, 0.6 percent other Asian), Pacific Islander 0.1 percent, some other race 10.5 percent, and two or more races 2.7 percent. In addition, 37.6 percent of the population was Hispanic or Latino (of any race) (31.6 percent Mexican, 0.9 percent Salvadoran, 0.5 percent Puerto Rican, 0.4 percent Honduran, 0.3 percent Guatemalan 0.3 percent Spaniard, 0.2 percent Colombian, 0.2 percent Cuban).[25] In 2011, 69.8% of the population of Texas younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white).[26]

Welcome sign in Praha
Welcome sign in Praha

As of 1980 German, Irish, and English Americans have made the three largest European ancestry groups in Texas.[27] German Americans made up 11.3 percent of the population and number over 2.7 million members. Irish Americans made up 8.2 percent of the population and number over 1.9 million. There are roughly over 600,000 French Americans, 472,000 Italian Americans, 369,161 Scottish Americans, and 288,610 Polish Americans residing in Texas; these four ethnic groups made up 2.5 percent, 2.0 percent, 1.5 percent, and 1.0 percent of the population respectively. In the 1980 United States census the largest ancestry group reported in Texas was English with 3,083,323 Texans citing they were of English or mostly English ancestry, making them 27 percent of the state at the time.[27] Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies (the census of 1790 gives 48% of the population of English ancestry, together with 12% Scots and Scots-Irish, 4.5% other Irish, and 3% Welsh, for a total of 67.5% British and Irish; 13% were German, Swiss, Dutch, and French Huguenots; 19% were African American),[28] thus many of them today identify as "American" in ancestry, though they are of predominantly British stock.[29][30] In 2012 there were nearly 200,000 Czech Americans living in Texas, the largest number of any state.[31]

El Paso was founded by Spanish settlers in 1659.
El Paso was founded by Spanish settlers in 1659.

Hispanics and Latinos are the second-largest groups in Texas after non-Hispanic European Americans. More than 8.5 million people claim Hispanic or Latin American ethnicity. This group forms over 37 percent of Texas's population. People of Mexican descent alone number over 7.9 million, and made up 31.6 percent of the population. The vast majority of the Hispanic/Latino population in the state is of Mexican descent, the next two largest groups are Salvadorans and Puerto Ricans. There are more than 222,000 Salvadorans and more than 130,000 Puerto Ricans in Texas. Other groups with large numbers in Texas include Hondurans, Guatemalans, Nicaraguans and Cubans, among others.[32][33] The Hispanics in Texas are more likely than in some other states (such as California) to identify as white; according to the 2010 U.S. census, Texas is home to 6,304,207 White Hispanics and 2,594,206 Hispanics of "some other race" (usually mestizo).

African Americans are the racial minority in Texas. Their proportion of the population has declined since the early 20th century after many left the state in the Great Migration. Blacks of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin made up 11.5 percent of the population in 2015; blacks of non-Hispanic origin formed 11.3 percent of the populace. African Americans of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin numbered at roughly 2.7 million individuals, increasing in 2018 to 3,908,287.[20] The majority of the Black and African American population of Texas lives in the Greater Houston, Dallas and San Antonio metropolitan areas.[34]

Native Americans are a smaller minority in the state. Native Americans made up 0.5 percent of Texas's population and number over 118,000 individuals as of 2015.[35] Native Americans of non-Hispanic origin made up 0.3 percent of the population and number over 75,000 individuals. Cherokee made up 0.1 percent of the population, and numbered over 19,400. In contrast, only 583 identified as Chippewa.

Asian Americans are a sizable minority group in Texas. Americans of Asian descent formed 4.5 percent of the population in 2015.[35] They total more than 1.2 million individuals. Over 200,000 Indian Americans make Texas their home. Texas is also home to more than 187,000 Vietnamese and 136,000 Chinese. In addition to 92,000 Filipinos and 62,000 Koreans, there are 18,000 Japanese Americans living in the state. Lastly, more than 111,000 people are of other Asian ancestry groups, such as Cambodian, Thai, and Hmong. Sugar Land, a city within the Houston metropolitan area, and Plano, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area, both have high concentrations of ethnic Chinese and Korean residents. The Houston and Dallas areas,[36][37][38][39] and to a lesser extent, the Austin metropolitan area,[40] all contain substantial Vietnamese communities.

Americans with origins from the Pacific Islands are the smallest minority in Texas. According to the 2019 American Community Survey, only 21,484 Texans are Pacific Islanders.[41] The city of Euless, a suburb of Fort Worth, contains a sizable population of Tongan Americans, at nearly 900 people, over one percent of the city's population. Killeen has a sufficient population of Samoans and Guamanian,[42] and people of Pacific Islander descent surpass one percent of the city's population.

Multiracial individuals are also a visible minority in Texas. People identifying as multiracial form 2.9 percent of the population, and number over 800,000 people.[41] Over 80,000 Texans claim African and European heritage. People of European and American Indian ancestry number over 108,800. People of European and Asian ancestry number over 57,600. People of African and Native American ancestry were even smaller in number at 15,300.

German trek on its way to New Braunfels
German trek on its way to New Braunfels

German descendants inhabit much of central and southeast-central Texas. Over one-third of Texas residents are of Hispanic origin; while many have recently arrived, some Tejanos have ancestors with multi-generational ties to 18th century Texas. The African American population in Texas is increasing due to the New Great Migration.[43][44] In addition to the descendants of the state's former slave population, many African American college graduates have come to the state for work recently in the New Great Migration.[43] Since the early 21st century, the Asian population in Texas has grown—primarily in Houston and Dallas. Other communities with a significantly growing Asian American population is in Austin, Corpus Christi, San Antonio, and the Sharyland area next McAllen, Texas. Three federally recognized Native American tribes reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe, and the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo.[45]

In 2010, 49% of all births were Hispanics; 35% were non-Hispanic whites; 11.5% were non-Hispanic blacks, and 4.3 percent were Asians/Pacific Islanders.[46] Based on U.S. Census Bureau data released in February 2011, for the first time in recent history, Texas's non-Hispanic white population is below 50% (45%) and Hispanics grew to 38%. Between 2000 and 2010, the total population growth by 20.6%, but Hispanics and Latin Americans growth by 65%, whereas non-Hispanic whites grew by only 4.2%.[47] Texas has the fifth highest rate of teenage births in the nation and a plurality of these are to Hispanics or Latinos.[48]

Romani Americans are present in Texas. In Texas, the two main Roma subgroups are Vlax and Romanichal. They mainly live in Houston and Fort Worth, though significant numbers of Romani families live in Dallas, San Antonio, Austin, and El Paso.[49]

Birth data

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013[50] 2014[51] 2015[52] 2016[53] 2017[54] 2018[55] 2019[56] 2020[57]
White: 318,211 (82.1%) 326,480 (81.7%) 327,429 (81.1%) ... ... ... ... ...
> non-Hispanic White 136,608 (35.3%) 140,992 (35.3%) 140,553 (34.8%) 134,262 (33.7%) 127,533 (33.4%) 125,549 (33.2%) 124,678 (33.0%) 120,329 (32.7%)
Black 49,039 (12.7%) 51,274 (12.4%) 53,144 (13.2%) 48,562 (12.2%) 48,642 (12.6%) 48,144 (12.7%) 47,326 (12.5%) 46,643 (12.7%)
Asian 18,861 (4.9%) 20,844 (5.2%) 21,775 (5.4%) 20,889 (5.2%) 20,385 (5.3%) 19,850 (5.2%) 19,930 (5.3%) 19,064 (5.2%)
American Indian 1,229 (0.3%) 1,168 (0.3%) 1,270 (0.3%) 782 (0.2%) 664 (0.2%) 721 (0.2%) 689 (0.2%) 638 (0.2%)
Pacific Islander ... ... ... 498 (0.1%) 510 (0.1%) 487 (0.1%) 566 (0.1%) 543 (0.1%)
Hispanic (of any race) 185,467 (47.9%) 189,462 (47.4%) 191,157 (47.4%) 188,393 (47.3%) 180,216 (47.2%) 179,142 (47.3%) 179,689 (47.6%) 175,940 (47.8%)
Total Texas 387,340 (100%) 399,766 (100%) 403,618 (100%) 398,047 (100%) 382,050 (100%) 378,624 (100%) 377,599 (100%) 368,190 (100%)


The most common American English accent spoken was Texan English, which is a mix of Southern American English and Western American English dialects. Louisiana Creole language is spoken mostly in Southeast Texas. Chicano English is also widely spoken, as well as African American Vernacular English, and General American English.

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Texas
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)[58]
Spanish 29.21%
Vietnamese 0.75%
Chinese (including Mandarin and Cantonese) 0.56%
German 0.33%
Tagalog 0.29%
French 0.25%
Korean and Urdu (tied) 0.24%
Hindi 0.23%
Arabic 0.21%
Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba) 0.15%

The 2019 American Community Survey estimated 64.4% of the population spoke only English, and 35.6% spoke a language other than English.[59] Roughly 30% of the total population spoke Spanish. Approximately 50,742 Texans spoke French or a French-creole language. German and other West Germanic languages were spoken by 47,098 residents; Russian, Polish, and other Slavic languages by 27,956; Korean by 31,581; Chinese 22,616; Vietnamese 81,022; Tagalog 43,360; and Arabic by 26,281 Texans.[60]

In 2010, 65.80% (14,740,304) of Texas residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 29.21% (6,543,702) spoke Spanish, 0.75% (168,886) Vietnamese, and Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin) was spoken as a main language by 0.56% (122,921) of the population over the age of five.[58] Other languages spoken include German (including Texas German) by 0.33% (73,137,) Tagalog with 0.29% (73,137) speakers, and French (including Cajun French) was spoken by 0.25% (55,773) of Texans.[58] In total, 34.20% (7,660,406) of Texas's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[58]


Religion in Texas (2014)[61]

  Protestantism (50%)
  Catholicism (23%)
  Mormonism (1%)
  Other Christians (3%)
  No religion (18%)
  Judaism (1%)
  Other religion (3%)
  No response given/Unknown (1%)

Texas, while historically and currently containing a substantial Catholic population, has long been part of the strongly socially conservative, Evangelical Protestant Bible Belt.[62] The Dallas–Fort Worth area is home to three major evangelical seminaries and several of America's largest megachurches, including the Potter's House pastored by T.D. Jakes and Prestonwood Baptist pastored by Jack Graham. Houston is home to the largest Evangelical Protestant church in the U.S., Lakewood Church, pastored by Joel Osteen. Lubbock, Texas had the most churches per capita in the U.S. as of 2003.[62]

According to the Pew Research Center in 2014, Christianity was the largest religion (77%).[63][64] The following largest were the irreligious (18%), nothing in particular (13%), Judaism (1%), Islam (1%), Buddhism (1%) and Hinduism and other religions at less than 1 percent each. In a separate study by the Public Religion Research Institute in 2020 however, while Christianity remained the largest religion (75.5%), its irreligious communities have increased to forming 20% of the Texan population.[65]

The largest Christian denomination as of 2014 has been the Catholic Church, per the Pew Research Center at 23% of the population, though Protestants altogether made up 50% of the Christian population in 2014;[66] in the study by the Public Religion Research Institute in 2020, the Catholic Church's membership increased to encompassing 28% of the population identifying with a religious or spiritual belief.[67] The largest Catholic jurisdictions in Texas are the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston—the first and oldest Latin Church diocese in Texas[68]—the dioceses of Dallas, Fort Worth, and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Antonio.

Among Protestant Christians, which as a whole declined to 47% of the population in a separate study by the Public Religion Research Institute, predominantly-white Evangelical Protestantism declined to 14% of the Protestant Christian population. Mainline Protestants in contrast made up 15% of Protestant Texas. Hispanic or Latino American-dominated Protestant churches and historically Black or African American Protestantism grew to a collective 13% of the Protestant population.

In contrast, Evangelical Protestants altogether were 31% of the population at the Pew Research Center's 2014 study, and Baptists were the largest Evangelical tradition (14%);[66] per the 2014 study, they made up the second largest Mainline Protestant group behind Methodists (4%). Nondenominational and interdenominational Christians were the second largest Evangelical group (7%) followed by Pentecostals (4%). The largest Evangelical Baptists in the state were the Southern Baptist Convention (9%) and independent Baptists (3%). The Assemblies of God made the largest Evangelical Pentecostal denomination in 2014. Among Mainline Protestants, the United Methodist Church was the largest denomination (4%) and the American Baptist Churches USA comprised the second largest Mainline Protestant group (2%).

According to the Pew Research Center in 2014, the largest historically African American Christian denominations were the National Baptist Convention (USA) and the Church of God in Christ. Black Methodists and other Christians made up less than 1 percent each of the Christian demographic. Other Christians made up 1 percent of the total Christian population, and the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox formed less than 1 percent of the statewide Christian populace. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints is the largest nontrinitarian Christian group in Texas alongside the Jehovah's Witnesses.[66]

Non-Christian faiths accounted for 4% of the religious population in 2014, and 5% in 2020 per the Pew Research Center and Public Religion Research Institute.[66][67] Adherents of many other religions reside predominantly in the urban centers of Texas. Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism were tied as the second largest religion as of 2014 and 2020. In 1990, the Islamic population was about 140,000 with more recent figures putting the current number of Muslims between 350,000 and 400,000 as of 2012.[69] The Jewish population was around 128,000 in 2008.[70] In 2020, the Jewish population grew to over 176,000.[71] Around 146,000 adherents of religions such as Hinduism and Sikhism lived in Texas as of 2004.[72] Texas is the fifth-largest Muslim-populated state in the country.[73] Of the unaffiliated, an estimated 2% were atheists and 3% agnostic.


See also: List of cities in Texas, List of Texas metropolitan areas, List of cities in Texas by population, and List of United States cities by population


As of 2010, the state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas.[74] These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States. As of 2020, six Texas cities had populations greater than 600,000 people. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 20 largest U.S. cities. Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown, San Antonio–New Braunfels, and Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos. The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas numbered about 7.5 million and 7 million residents as of 2019.[75]

Largest city in Texas by year[76]
Year(s) City
1850–1870 San Antonio[77]
1870–1890 Galveston[78]
1890–1900 Dallas[76]
1900–1930 San Antonio[77]
1930–present Houston[79]

Three interstate highwaysI-35 to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Triangle megaregion. The region of 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population.[80] Houston and Dallas have been recognized as beta world cities.[81] These cities are spread out amongst the state. Texas has 254 counties, which is more than any other state by 95 (Georgia).[82]

In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty.[83] The office of the Texas Attorney General stated, in 2011, that Texas had about 2,294 colonias and estimates about 500,000 lived in the colonias. Hidalgo County, as of 2011, has the largest number of colonias.[84] Texas has the largest number of people of all states, living in colonias.[83]

Largest cities or towns in Texas
Rank Name County Pop.

San Antonio

San Antonio
1 Houston Harris 2,303,482


2 San Antonio Bexar 1,492,510
3 Dallas Dallas 1,317,929
4 Austin Travis 947,890
5 Fort Worth Tarrant 854,113
6 El Paso El Paso 683,080
7 Arlington Tarrant 392,772
8 Corpus Christi Nueces 325,733
9 Plano Collin 286,057
10 Laredo Webb 257,156

See also


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