Eight Immortals
Gathering of Yaochi (Eight) Immortals (瑤池仙劇圖), by Zhang Chong, Ming dynasty (British Museum)
Chinese八仙
Literal meaningeight xian

The Eight Immortals (Chinese: 八仙) are a group of legendary xian ("immortals") in Chinese mythology. Each immortal's power can be transferred to a vessel (法器) that can bestow life or destroy evil. Together, these eight vessels are called the "Covert Eight Immortals" (暗八仙). Most of them are said to have been born in the Tang or Song Dynasty. They are revered by the Taoists and are also a popular element in secular Chinese culture. They are said to live on a group of five islands in the Bohai Sea, which includes Mount Penglai.

The Immortals are:

In literature before the 1970s, they were sometimes translated as the Eight Genies. Some stories had them all "cheerfully addicted to wine", so they were called the "Jiu-zhong Ba Xian" or "Eight Drunken Immortals".[6] First described in the Yuan Dynasty, they were probably named after the Eight Immortal Scholars of the Han.

In art

The Eight Immortals (Walters Art Museum)

While cults dedicated to various Taoist immortals date back to the Han dynasty, the popular and well-known Eight Immortals first appeared in the Jin dynasty. The wall murals and sculptures in the Jin tombs, created during the 12th and 13th centuries, depicts a group of eight Taoist immortals. The term "Eight Immortals" became commonplace after the popularization of the Taoist group of writers and artists known as the Complete Realization (Quanshen). The most famous art depiction of the Eight Immortals from this period is a mural of them in the Eternal Joy Temple (Yongle Gong) at Ruicheng.

The Eight Immortals are considered to be signs of prosperity and longevity, so they are popular themes in ancient and medieval art. They were frequent adornments on celadon vases. They were also common in sculptures owned by the nobility. Many silk paintings, wall murals, and wood block prints remain of the Eight Immortals. They were often depicted either together in one group, or alone to give more homage to that specific immortal.

An interesting feature of early Eight Immortal artwork is that they are often accompanied by jade hand maidens, commonly depicted servants of the higher ranked deities, or other images showing great spiritual power. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Eight Immortals were frequently associated with other prominent spiritual deities in artwork. There are numerous paintings with them and the Three Stars (the gods of longevity, prosperity, and good fortune) together. Also, other deities such as the Queen Mother of the West are commonly seen in the company of the Eight Immortals and she is also popularly thought to have blessed them with their supernatural abilities.[7]

The artwork of the Eight Immortals is not limited to paintings or other visual arts. They are quite prominent in written works too. Authors and playwrights have written numerous stories and plays on the Eight Immortals. One famous story that has been rewritten many times and turned into several plays (the most famous written by Mu Zhiyuan in the Yuan Dynasty) is The Yellow-Millet Dream, which is the story of how Lǚ Dòngbīn met Zhongli Quan and began his path to immortality.[8]

In literature

The Eight Immortals crossing the sea, from Myths and Legends of China.[9] Clockwise in the boat starting from the stern: He Xian'gu, Han Xiang Zi, Lan Caihe, Li Tieguai, Lü Dongbin, Zhongli Quan, Cao Guojiu and outside the boat is Zhang Guo Lao.

The Immortals are the subject of many artistic creations, such as paintings and sculptures. Examples of writings about them include:

In qigong and martial arts

Furthermore, they have been linked to the initial development of qigong exercises such as the Eight Piece Brocade.[10] There are some Chinese martial arts styles named after them, which use fighting techniques that are attributed to the characteristics of each immortal.[11] Some drunken boxing styles make extensive use of the Eight Immortals archetypes for conditioning, qigong/meditation and combat training.[12] One subsection of ba ying quan[Chinese script needed] drunken fist training includes methodologies for each of the eight immortals.

Worship

Established in the Song Dynasty, the Xi'an temple Eight Immortals Palace (八仙宮), formerly Eight Immortals Nunnery (八仙庵), is where statues of the Immortals can be found in the Hall of Eight Immortals (八仙殿). There are many other shrines dedicated to them throughout China and Taiwan. In Singapore, the Xian'gu Temple (仙姑殿) is dedicated to the Immortal Lady He from the group as its focus of devotion.

Overall though, in the Sinosphere, the Eight Immortals are deities who are very often not seen as such, being more like folk heroes and saints to most who venerate them.[13] However, to these people, the Immortals often "represent ... the close ties between the living and the deceased, since the spirits of the deceased are always within reach when help in needed" in some branches of Chinese folk religion and their existence is seen as being similar to ghosts as well.[13]

Depictions in popular culture

Statue of the Eight Immortals in Penglai City, Shandong
Diorama at Haw Par Villa, Singapore, depicting the battle between the Eight Immortals and the forces of the Dragon King of the East Sea.

The Immortals are the subject of many depictions in popular culture, including:

References

  1. ^ Ho, Kwok Man (1990). The Eight Immortals of Taoism: Legends and Fables of Popular Taoism. Translated and edited by Joanne O'Brien. New York: Penguin Books. p. 1. ISBN 9780452010703.
  2. ^ "Li T'ieh-kuai". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
  3. ^ National Geographic Society (U.S.). National Geographic Essential Visual History of World Mythology. National Geographic Books, 2008. Page 340.
  4. ^ Dorothy Perkins. Encyclopedia of China: History and Culture. Page 140.
  5. ^ Valery M. Garrett. A Collector's Guide to Chinese Dress Accessories. Times Books International, 1997. Page 32.
  6. ^ Storm, Rachel (2011). Sudell, Helen (ed.). Myths & Legends of India, Egypt, China & Japan (2nd ed.). Wigston, Leicestershire: Lorenz Books. p. 206.
  7. ^ Stark, Rodney (2007). Discovering God: The Origins of the Great Religions and the Evolution of Belief (1st ed.). New York: HarperOne. p. 409. ISBN 978-0-06-117389-9.
  8. ^ Little, Stephen (2000). Taoism and the Arts of China. The Art Institute of Chicago. pp. 313, 319–334. ISBN 978-0520227842.
  9. ^ Werner, E. T. C. (1922). Myths & Legends of China. New York: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 2007-03-14. (Project Gutenberg eText 15250)
  10. ^ Olson, Stuart Alve (2002). Qigong Teachings of a Taoist Immortal: The Eight Essential Exercises of Master Li Ching-Yun. Bear & Company. ISBN 0-89281-945-6.
  11. ^ Leung, Ting (July 2000). The Drunkard Kung Fu and Its Application. Leung Ting Co. ISBN 962-7284-08-4.[self-published source?]
  12. ^ Drunken Yoga Group. "Drunken Eight Immortals Internal Kung Fu".
  13. ^ a b World Religions: Eastern Traditions. Edited by Willard Gurdon Oxtoby (2nd ed.). Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press. 2002. p. 401. ISBN 0-19-541521-3. OCLC 46661540.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)

Further reading