Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix personifies the French motherland.

A homeland is a place where a cultural, national, or ethnic identity has formed. The definition can also mean simply one's country of birth.[1] When used as a proper noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other languages, often has ethnic nationalist connotations. A homeland may also be referred to as a fatherland, a motherland, or a mother country, depending on the culture and language of the nationality in question.


"Motherland" redirects here. For other uses, see Motherland (disambiguation).

"Mother country" redirects here. For other uses, see Mother Country (disambiguation).

Further information: Metropolis

Bharat Mata (Mother India) statue accompanied by a lion at Yanam, India

Motherland refers to a mother country, i.e. the place in which somebody grew up or had lived for a long enough period that somebody has formed their own cultural identity, the place that one's ancestors lived for generations, or the place that somebody regards as home, or a Metropole in contrast to its colonies. People often refer to Mother Russia as a personification of the Russian nation. The Philippines is also considered as a motherland which is derived from the word "Inang Bayan" which means "Motherland". Within the British Empire, many natives in the colonies came to think of Britain as the mother country of one, large nation. India is often personified as Bharat Mata (Mother India). The French commonly refer to France as "la mère patrie";[2] Hispanic countries that were former Spanish colonies commonly referred to Spain as "la Madre Patria". Romans and the subjects of Rome saw Italy as the motherland (patria or terrarum parens) of the Roman Empire, in contrast to Roman provinces.[3][4] Turks refer to Turkey as "ana vatan" (lit: mother homeland.)


"Fatherland" redirects here. For other uses, see Fatherland (disambiguation).

Postcard of an Austrian and a German soldier in the First World War with the text "Shoulder to shoulder, hand in hand, for God, Emperor and Fatherland."

Fatherland is the nation of one's "fathers", "forefathers", or ancestors. The word can also mean the country of nationality, the country in which somebody grew up, the country that somebody's ancestors lived in for generations, or the country that somebody regards as home, depending on how the individual uses it.[5]

It can be viewed as a nationalist concept, in so far as it is evocative of emotions related to family ties and links them to national identity and patriotism. It can be compared to motherland and homeland, and some languages will use more than one of these terms.[6] The national anthem of the Netherlands between 1815 and 1932, "Wien Neêrlands Bloed", makes extensive use of the parallel Dutch word, as does the current Dutch national anthem, Het Wilhelmus.

The Ancient Greek patris, fatherland, led to patrios, of our fathers and thence to the Latin patriota and Old French patriote, meaning compatriot; from these the English word patriotism is derived. The related Ancient Roman word Patria led to similar forms in modern Romance languages.

"Fatherland" was first encountered by the vast majority of citizens in countries that did not themselves use it during World War II, when it was featured in news reports associated with Nazi Germany.[7][8] German government propaganda used its appeal to nationalism when making references to Germany and the state.[7][8] It was used in Mein Kampf,[9] and on a sign in a German concentration camp, also signed, Adolf Hitler.[10]

The term fatherland (Vaterland) is used throughout German-speaking Europe, as well as in Dutch. National history is usually called vaderlandse geschiedenis in Dutch. Another use of the Dutch word is well known from the national anthem, "Het Wilhelmus".

In German, the word became more prominent in the 19th century. It appears in numerous patriotic songs and poems, such as Hoffmann's song Lied der Deutschen which became the national anthem in 1922. Because of the use of Vaterland in Nazi-German war propaganda, the term "Fatherland" in English has become associated with domestic British and American anti-Nazi propaganda during World War II. This is not the case in Germany itself, where the word remains used in the usual patriotic contexts.

Terms equating "Fatherland" in other Germanic languages:

A corresponding term is often used in Slavic languages, in:

Other groups that refer to their native country as a "fatherland"

Groups with languages that refer to their native country as a "fatherland" include:

Romance languages

In Romance languages, a common way to refer to one's home country is Patria/Pátria/Patrie which has the same connotation as Fatherland, that is, the nation of our parents/fathers (From the Latin, Pater, father). As patria has feminine gender, it is usually used in expressions related to one's mother, as in Italian la Madrepatria, Spanish la Madre Patria or Portuguese a Pátria Mãe (Mother Fatherland). Examples include:

Multiple references to parental forms

In Hebrew

Jews, especially Modern-Day Israelis, use several different terms, all referring to Israel, including:

Uses by country

Land of one's home

In some languages, there are additional words that refer specifically to the place where one is home to, but is narrower in scope than one's nation, and often have some sort of nostalgic, fantastic, heritage connection, for example:

See also


  1. ^ "Definition of Homeland". Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  2. ^ Pitroipa, Abdel (14 July 2010). "Ces tirailleurs sénégalais qui ont combattu pour la France". L'Express (in French). Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  3. ^ Bloomsbury Publishing (20 November 2013). Historiae Mundi: Studies in Universal History. A&C Black. p. 97. ISBN 9781472519801.
  4. ^ Anthon, Charles (1867). Eneid of Virgil.
  5. ^ "Definition of FATHERLAND". Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  6. ^ James, Caroline (May 2015). "Identity Crisis: Motherland or Fatherland?". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  7. ^ a b Wierzbicka, Anna (21 July 1997). Understanding Cultures Through Their Key Words : English, Russian, Polish, German, and Japanese. Oxford University Press. pp. 173–175. ISBN 978-0-19-535849-0.
  8. ^ a b Stargardt, Nicholas (18 December 2007). Witnesses of War: Children's Lives Under the Nazis. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 328. ISBN 9780307430304.
  9. ^ Wilensky, Gabriel (2010). Six Million Crucifixions. QWERTY Publishers. ISBN 9780984334643. What we have to fight for is the freedom and independence of the fatherland, so that our people may be enabled to fulfill the mission assigned to it by the creator
  10. ^ "Nazi Germany reveals official pictures of its concentration camps". Life. Vol. 7, no. 8. Time Inc. 21 August 1939. p. 22. ISSN 0024-3019. There is a road to freedom. Its milestones are Obedience, Endeavor, Honesty, Order, Cleanliness, Sobriety, Truthfulness, Sacrifice, and love of the Fatherland.
  11. ^ Wilhelmus-YouTube
  12. ^ Vaterland-YouTube
  13. ^ "Ziemia Ojców". 16 April 2012.
  14. ^ "Ziemia Ojców Naszych". Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  15. ^ Noonan, Peggy (14 June 2002). "OpinionJournal – Peggy Noonan". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2007. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ "The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia". 1994. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. ^ Peterson, Nicolas; Myers, Fred, eds. (January 2016). Experiments in self-determination: Histories of the outstation movement in Australia [blurb]. Monographs in Anthropology. ANU Press. doi:10.22459/ESD.01.2016. ISBN 9781925022902. Retrieved 2 August 2020.

Further reading