MorbiusHydro-ManChameleonWill o' the WispKingpinCarnageSwarmLizardVerminSandmanScarecrowScorpionTarantulaVultureKraven the HunterHobgoblinGreen GoblinVenomMolten ManElectroHammerheadRhinoMysterioDoctor Octopus
Depiction of the many Spider-Man villains in a dream sequence of Spider-Man in The Sensational Spider-Man (vol. 2) #32. Art by Sean Chen. (Click on a character's face to identify the character's name and to learn more about the character.)

Spider-Man is a superhero created by Marvel Comics who debuted in the anthology comic book series issue Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) during the Silver Age of Comics. After his debut, he received his own comic book entitled The Amazing Spider-Man. This comic introduced many of what would become his major supervillain adversaries. Spider-Man then became popular enough for more Spider-Man comic spinoffs (The Spectacular Spider-Man, Marvel Team-Up, Web of Spider-Man, Peter Parker: Spider-Man etc.) which introduced more recurring enemies of the web-slinger, across their various incarnations.

As with Spider-Man, most of his villains' powers originate from scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology. They can be classified into multiple categories, such as animal-themed villains (Doctor Octopus, Vulture, Black Cat, Lizard, Rhino, Scorpion, Jackal, Beetle, Kangaroo, Tarantula, and Puma), villains with powers over the elements (Sandman, Electro, Molten Man, and Hydro-Man), horror-themed villains (the Green Goblin, the Hobgoblin, Morbius, Morlun, and the Symbiotes), crime lords (the Kingpin, Tombstone, Hammerhead, Silvermane, and Mister Negative),[1] inventors (the Shocker, the Tinkerer, Spencer Smythe, and Alistair Smythe), and masters of trickery and illusion (the Chameleon and Mysterio).[1] There are, however, numerous villains that don't fit into any specific category, such as Kraven the Hunter and Mephisto, the latter of whom originated as a Silver Surfer villain. The villains oftentimes form teams such as the Sinister Six to oppose the web-slinger.

Spider-Man is notable for having numerous villains that redeemed themselves and became antiheroes, such as Black Cat, the Prowler, Morbius, Kraven, Sandman and Silver Sable. Also, unlike most superheroes, Spider-Man doesn't have one particular archenemy, but rather three: the Norman Osborn version of the Green Goblin, the Otto Octavius version of Doctor Octopus, and the Eddie Brock version of Venom, the latter two of whom have been similarly redeemed and depicted as antiheroes; since the late 2000s, the demon Mephisto has additionally been depicted as an overarching archenemy/prominent adversary of all incarnations of Spider-Man, responsible for Harry and Norman Osborn's transformations into the Green Goblin, creating Kindred, and manipulating various incarnations of Spider-Man into making deals with him: erasing Peter Parker's and Mary Jane Watson's marriage (and future daughter) from history, reverting Octavius from the Superior Spider-Man to a return to villainy, and tricking Miles Morales into sacrificing an innocent soul.

The rogues gallery of Spider-Man has garnered positive critical acclaim and has been considered one of the greatest rogues galleries of all time.

Debuting in Spider-Man titles

Stan Lee is responsible with helping create the most villains for the web-slinger and helped pave the way for the fictional rogues gallery.

The majority of supervillains depicted in Spider-Man comics first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man, while some first appeared in spinoff comics such as The Spectacular Spider-Man and Marvel Team-Up and other titles.

The Amazing Spider-Man debuts

See also: List of The Amazing Spider-Man issues

Most of the supervillains of Spider-Man would be introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man comic book starting with the Chameleon.[2] The early villains would be introduced in the 1960s during the Silver Age of Comic Books,[2] and created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko.[2] John Romita Sr. replaced Ditko starting with the Rhino.[3] Gerry Conway later replaced Stan Lee and helped create new adversaries for the web-slinger and also helped pave the way for the Bronze Age of Comic Books with the death of Spider-Man's long-time romantic interest, Gwen Stacy.[4][5][6] Many collaborators would soon take over The Amazing Spider-Man title. One of the more popular examples included Todd McFarlane's Venom in the Modern Age of Comic Books.[7]

Note: Alter ego characters who are the most high profile in the supervillain alias but have shared that alias with others are in bold. Alter egos listed having N/A use their real name as supervillain name. All the villains are listed in the chronological order of their debut in comics. Characters of the central rogues gallery are in bold.

Central rogues gallery

Name Notable alter ego First appearance issue # Creator Descriptions
Chameleon1 Dmitri Anatoly Nikolayevich Smerdyakov #1 (March 1963)[2][8] Stan Lee[2][8]
Steve Ditko[2][8]
A master of disguise who can make himself look like anybody[2][8]
Vulture Adrian Toomes #2 (May 1963)[9][10] An inventor who created mechanical wings that allow him to fly and grant him superhuman strength[11]
Doctor OctopusArch1 Dr. Otto Gunther Octavius #3 (July 1963)[8] Originally a brilliant scientist, his greatest invention, a set of metallic limbs, became fused to his body by an accident which caused his insanity. He has telepathic control of these arms, which are strong enough to physically hurt Spider-Man.[12] While Doctor Octopus is regarded as one of Spider-Man's archenemies, he has also been portrayed as an antihero, and even starred in his own comic book storyline that saw him becoming a superhero called the Superior Spider-Man after the original Spider-Man's death.
Sandman2 William Baker / Flint Marko #4 (September 1963)[13][14] Once a small-time crook, he became a supervillain after his body merged with sand which he can manipulate in many ways, such as shapeshifting, increasing his density and strength to lift up to 85 tons, and creating dust storms from his body.[15]
Lizard Dr. Curtis "Curt" Connors

Peter Benjamin Parker (Earth 65)

#6 (November 1963)[16][17][18] A scientist researching genetics, he injected himself with an experimental serum made from reptile DNA which transformed him into a humanoid lizard. As the Lizard, he has regeneration abilities, along with superhuman strength, speed, and agility. He has sometimes been shown as being able to telepathically command all reptiles within a one-mile radius.[19]
Electro3 Maxwell Dillon #9 (February 1964)[20][21] Originally a lineman for an electric company, he turned to a life of crime after being struck by lightning while working on a power line and becoming a living electric capacitor. His powers range from shooting electricity bolts to flight and superhuman strength and speed, which makes him one of Spider-Man's most dangerous enemies.[22]
Mysterio4 Quentin Beck
Daniel Berkhart
Francis Klum
#13 (June 1964)[23][24] A master of illusion who uses special effects, hypnosis, and an extensive knowledge of chemistry and robotics to trick his enemies[24]
Green Goblin[25]Arch2 Norman Osborn (Green Goblin I)Arch2
Harry Osborn (Green Goblin II)[26][1]
#14 (July 1964)[25] The first Green Goblin, Norman Osborn, is the CEO of Oscorp and has powers derived from a "Goblin formula" that increases agility, endurance, strength, and reflexes to superhuman levels. The formula has also advances the intelligence while causing insanity as a side effect. He uses an arsenal of weapons created by Oscorp, such as pumpkin bombs and a personal glider. The Norman version of the Green Goblin is usually regarded as Spider-Man's archenemy.[25] The second Goblin, Harry Osborn, is Norman's son and Peter Parker's best friend. He has the same powers as his father.
Kraven the Hunter5 Sergei Kravinoff
Alyosha Kravinoff (son)
Ana Kravinoff (daughter)
#15 (August 1964)[27] Depicted as the world's greatest big-game hunter, Kraven is skilled in hand-to-hand combat, though he also uses a "magic jungle potion" to increase his speed, strength, and tracking skills. He aims to kill Spider-Man, whom he regards as his equal, to prove himself as the world's greatest hunter, and is also the half-brother of the Chameleon.[28]
Beetle Abner Jenkins

Janice Lincoln

Strange Tales #123 (August 1964)[29] A master mechanic who wears a beetle-themed armor that went on to become the founder of The Sinister Syndicate. After Abner rebranded himself as MACH-1 to joined the initial incarnation of The Thunderbolts,[30] Janice Lincoln, the paternal daughter of Tombstone, took over the mantle and went onto lead her own version of The Sinister Syndicate.[31][32]
Scorpion6 Mac Gargan6 #20 (January 1965) A former private investigator who underwent a test that made him more powerful than Spider-Man, at the cost of his sanity. He gained the superhuman strength of a scorpion, and was provided with a scorpion-themed suit and weaponry (such as a tail which evolved from a simple club tail to a scythe-like spike capable of shooting lasers, acid among other projectiles). Gargan later became the third host of the Venom symbiote.[33][34]
The Smythe Family / Spider-Slayers Spencer Smythe (Father)
Alistair Smythe (Son)
Spider-Slayers: (Multiple Names)
#25 (June 1965)[35] The Smythe Family are robotic experts who create various deadly weapons known as "Spider-Slayers" for the purpose of hunting down Spider-Man. Spencer Smythe is the initial antagonist who creates the first Spider-Slayer on behalf of J Jonah Jameson.[35] Alistair Smythe is the paternal son of Spencer Smythe who was crippled after a lab accident while helping his father with his work. Alistair fully inherits the Spider-Slayer legacy following his father's death,[36] eventually enhancing himself with his own technology to increase his strength and return his ability to walk. Following this upgrade Alistair takes on the alias of "The Spider-Slayer"[37][38]
Rhino7 Aleksei Mikhailovich Sytsevich #41 (October 1966)[39] Stan Lee[3]
John Romita Sr.[3]
A Russian thug who was given a rhinoceros modeled armor, which give him superhuman strength and resistance, after undergoing a chemical and radiation treatment. After escaping from his handlers, he used his newfound powers to become a supervillain.[40] He became best known for being dimwitted.[41]
Shocker Herman Schultz #46 (March 1967)[33][42] A former small-time criminal who built himself a battle suit that contains vibro-shock gauntlets.[33][43]
Kingpin8 Wilson Grant Fisk #50 (July 1967) ("Spider-Man No More!")[44][45] Depicted as crime lord of New York City. Manipulate henchman to do his bidding. His body consists of mostly muscle (despite looking like he is obese) that has much strength and agility. Enough to grapple and hammer Spider-Man.[46][1]
Prowler Hobie Brown

Aaron Davis (Ultimate)
Miles Morales (Earth 42)

#78 (November 1969)[47] Stan Lee
John Buscema[35]
An African-American teenage prodigy created the Prowler Technology; donning a green and purple battle suit with a cape and clawed gauntlets in order to operate as a petty thief. The "Ultimate" version was depicted as the uncle of Miles Morales.
Morbius, the Living Vampire[1][48] Michael Morbius #101 (October 1971)9[49] Roy Thomas[49]
Gil Kane[35]
A formerly renowned biochemist who was mutated into a vampire. He has all the powers and weaknesses of a vampire. Later comic book storylines depict him as a tragic antihero.[1]
Hammerhead[1][50][51] Joseph (Full Name Unrevealed)[52] #113 (October 1972)[53] Gerry Conway
John Romita Sr.[54]
A mobster who had most of his skull replaced with an unbendable steel alloy
Jackal[55] Miles Warren #129 (February 1974)10[55] Gerry Conway[55]10
Ross Andru[55]10
A brilliant professor with the knowledge of cloning, which he uses to torment Spider-Man emotionally. The Jackal possesses superhuman strength, speed, and agility. There are two versions of the Jackal that operate independently of each other; the original being Miles Warren, while his clone goes by the alias of the Carrion.[1]
Black Cat11 Felicia Hardy #194 (July 1979)[56] Marv Wolfman
Keith Pollard[56]
A master cat burglar, who inherited her name and skills from her father. She often carries a grappling hook for swinging on rooftops,[1] and sometimes has bad luck powers.[57] She has often been depicted as both a love interest and ally of Spider-Man.
Hydro-Man[1] Morris Bench #212 (January 1981)[58][59] Denny O'Neil
John Romita Jr.
A former crewman who gained aquakinetic abilities following an accident during Spider-Man's fight with Namor.
Hobgoblin Roderick Kingsley
Jason Macendale
Ned Leeds
Phil Urich
#238 (March 1983) Roger Stern[61][62]
John Romita Sr.[62][63]
Roderick Kingsley discovered one of Norman Osborn's lairs and perfected the Green Goblin formula, which granted him superhuman strength and intelligence without Osborn's insanity. Using a vast arsenal of weapons similar to the Green Goblin's, including a goblin glider, pumpkin bombs and razor-sharp bats, Kingsley became the criminal mastermind known as the Hobgoblin.[62][64][1]
Tombstone Alonzo "Lonnie" Thompson Lincoln Web of Spider-Man #36 (March 1988)[29] Gerry Conway
Alex Saviuk
An albino mob enforcer
VenomArch3 Eddie Brock (Venom I)Arch3
Mac Gargan (Venom II)
#300 (May 1988)12[7][65] Todd McFarlane[66] Eddie Brock is a former reporter who blamed Spider-Man for ruining this career and his life. He became Venom after binding with the symbiote that once merged with Spider-Man. As Venom, he has the same powers as Spider-Man, and aims to ruin his life in any way he can.[66] He is also undetectable to Spider-Man's spider sense.[67] While Venom grew to be regarded as one of Spider-Man's archenemies, later comic book storylines depict him as an antihero, and he even reluctantly teamed up with Spider-Man when the lives of innocent people were at risk. Other character have also been the host of the Venom symbiote, including Mac Gargan, who became the second Venom.
Carnage Cletus Kasady #361 (April 1992)13[68] David Michelinie[69][70]
Erik Larsen[71]
Mark Bagley[69]
An offspring of the Venom symbiote merged with a serial killer. Carnage possess powers such as shapeshifting and creating weapons from his body. He can also plant ideas in people's heads.[68]
Mister Negative[48] Martin Li #546 (January 2008) (full appearance)[72] Dan Slott
Phil Jimenez
A crime boss and leader of the Inner Demons gang, who can swap between his normal appearance and his alter ego. His powers include a healing touch, mind control, and the ability to charge regular weapons with his energy.

Foes of lesser renown that originated in The Amazing Spider-Man

Name Notable alter ego First appearance issue # Creator Descriptions
Tinkerer Phineas T. Mason #2 (May 1963)[73] Stan Lee
[74] Steve Ditko[74]
A gifted engineer who specializes in creating gadgets from just about anything[74]
Living Brain[75] N/A #8 (January 1964)[76] Stan Lee[76]
Steve Ditko[76]
A living robot that is designed to solve any problem[76]
Big Man Frederick Foswell #10 (March 1964)[35] Stan Lee[35]
Steve Ditko[35]
A notorious crime lord in New York City[35]
Crime Master[77] Various #26 (July 1965)[35] Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
A professional criminal who was the alias of different people
Molten Man[78] Mark Raxton[78] #28 (September 1965)[79] Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
A scientist who was covered in a liquid metallic alloy that not only gives him super-strength, but also enabled him to generate heat and radiation.
Looter[80][81] Norton G. Fester #36 (May 1966)[79] Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
A poor scientist who gains superpowers from meteor gas
Robot Master / Gaunt Mendel Stromm #37 (June 1966)[35][29] Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
A former college teacher and partner of Norman Osborn that became a cyborg after being betrayed by Osborn
Finisher Karl Fiers Annual #5 (November 1968)[82] Stan Lee[82]
Larry Lieber[82]
Man Mountain Marko[83] Michael Marko #73 (June 1969)[35] Stan Lee
John Romita Sr.
A Maggia lieutenant to Silvermane with super-strength
Silvermane[84] Silvio Manfredi #73 (June 1969)[85] Stan Lee
John Buscema[35]
An aging crime boss
Kangaroo[80][86] Frank Oliver[87]
Brian Hibbs
#81 (February 1970)[35] Stan Lee
John Buscema
Jim Mooney
John Romita Sr.[86]
A name given to two kangaroo-themed villains
Schemer[35] Richard Fisk #83 (April 1970) Stan Lee
John Romita Sr.
The son of the Kingpin
Gog N/A #103 (December 1971)[35] Roy Thomas
Gil Kane
An alien was found by Kraven the Hunter and adopted as a pet. He quickly grew gigantic in size, and possesses superhuman strength and bracelets that allow interdimensional teleportation.
Gibbon[88] Martin Blank #110 (July 1972])[35] Stan Lee
John Romita Sr.[88]
A lesser criminal with gibbon-like abilities
Man-Wolf[89] John Jameson #124 (September 1973).[35] Gerry Conway[54] When exposed to the Godstone, John Jameson transforms into the werewolf-like creature Man-Wolf.
Tarantula Various #134 (July 1974)[35][85] Gerry Conway
Ross Andru
A name given to different tarantula-themed villains
Mindworm[90] William Turner #138 (November 1974) Gerry Conway[35]
Ross Andru[35]
A superhuman with telepathic powers
Grizzly[91] Maxwell Markham #139 (December 1974)[92] Gerry Conway
Ross Andru
An ex-professional wrestler who wears a grizzly bear-themed outfit
Human Fly[87] Richard Deacon Annual #10[93] (1976) Len Wein
Bill Mantlo
Gil Kane
A criminal who was imprinted with the genetic code of a housefly
Will o' the Wisp[35] Jackson Arvad #167 (April 1977) Len Wein
Ross Andru
A former Roxxon employee who can manipulate his molecules
Big Wheel[80] Jackson Wheele[87] #182 (July 1978)[35] Marv Wolfman
Ross Andru
Mike Esposito
A criminal who rides the Big Wheel vehicle
Calypso Calypso Ezili #209 (October 1980)[94] Dennis O'Neil
Alan Weiss
An accomplice of Kraven the Hunter who uses voodoo potions and magic
Rose[95][96] Richard Fisk #253 (June 1984)[94] Tom DeFalco The alias of a gentleman-like crime lord with the alias used by different people most notably Kingpin's son Richard Fisk
Puma Thomas Fireheart #256 (September 1984) Tom Defalco A Native American who was bred to be a perfect warrior prophesied to stop a future threat that might destroy the world, gaining the ability to transform into a mountain lion werecat at will.
Slyde[87] Jalome Beacher #272 (January 1986)[97] Tom DeFalco
Sal Buscema
A chemist whose suit allow him to move at nearly 30 miles per hour (48 km/h). He is almost impossible to grasp and he is incredibly maneuverable
Styx and Stone[80] Jacob Eishorn and Gerald Stone #309 (November 1988)[98] David Michelinie
Todd McFarlane
A mad scientist and homeless man duo who fought Spider-Man as well as The Hulk, Venom and Cardiac. Styx has a disintegrating touch. Stone had two-large weapons on his shoulders and was later mutated into a golem-like creature.
Black Tarantula Carlos LaMuerto #419 (January 1997)[29] Tom DeFalco
Steve Skroce
A tarantula-themed martial artist
Morlun[1][48] N/A vol. 2 #30 (June 2001)[90] J. Michael Straczynski
John Romita Jr.
A member of the Inheritors who can drain the life force out of totems
Shathra N/A vol. 2 #46 (November 2002) J. Michael Straczynski
John Romita Jr.
Scott Hanna
An insectoid creature from the Astral Plane
Grey Goblin Gabriel Stacy
Lily Hollister (Menace)[51]
#509 (August 2004)
#550 (April 2008) (Menace)[99]
J. Michael Straczynski
Mike Deodato
A gray-resembling Green Goblin whose alias was used by different people
Overdrive[51] James Beverley Swing Shift (May 2007)[100] Dan Slott
Phil Jimenez
A supervillain who can convert any vehicle into a high-powered one
Freak Unknown #546 (January 2008) Dan Slott
Steve McNiven
A drug addict turned into a superpowered being able to adapt to injuries by metamorphing into new forms. Also referred to as Armadillo Man.
Screwball Unknown #559 (May 2008) Dan Slott
Marcos Martín
The world's first "live-streaming super-villain"
Massacre[101][102] Marcus Lyman #655 (April 2011)[103][104][105] Dan Slott
Marcos Martín
A brain-damaged criminal who lacks emotions
Panda-Mania Unknown Vol. 3 #1 Dan Slott
Humberto Ramos
A giant panda-themed supervillain
Regent Augustus Roman Vol. 4 #1 Dan Slott
Christos Gage
Paco Diaz
The CEO of Empire Unlimited whose suit enables him to copy the powers of anyone imprisoned in his stasis tubes. A version of the character from Earth-18119 first appeared in Amazing Spider-Man: Renew Your Vows as part of the "Secret Wars" storyline.
Kindred Gabriel Stacy

Sarah Stacy

Vol. 5 #5 Nick Spencer
Ryan Ottley
A human-turned-demon who has been revealed as Gabriel & Sarah Stacy.

The Spectacular Spider-Man debuts

Note: In chronological order

Name Alter ego First appearance Description
Lightmaster Dr. Edward Lansky #3 (February 1977) A physics professor and vice-chancellor of Empire State University who became a criminal mastermind as a way to prevent budget cuts for higher education. He created a unique special power armor suit which utilized "gravity-pump circuitry" to allow him to manipulate photons for a variety of effects.
Carrion Various #25 (December 1978)[106] Originally a clone of Miles Warren (the Jackal), he can levitate, kill by touch, control his density and telepathy. The first Carrion was killed by an amoeba-like clone of Peter Parker, and since then other incarnations of him has appeared.
Iguana None #32 (July 1979) An accident occurs while Dr. Connors experiments on an ordinary iguana, endowing the iguana with part of Connors' lifeforce and memories, as well as the personality and powers of Connors' alter ego, the Lizard. The Iguana becomes a human-sized semi-humanoid reptile with superhuman strength, hypnotic powers, and the ability to mentally control other reptiles.[107][108] The Iguana encounters and battles Spider-Man, and is turned back into a normal iguana.[109]
Answer[90] Aaron Nicholson #91 (June 1984)[110]
Spot[80][111] Jonathan Ohnn #98 (January 1985)[112] A scientist with the ability to create portals that lead to an alternate dimension and instantly cross short distances
Foreigner[90] Kris Keating #115 (June 1986)[113] A master mercenary and assassin.
Sin-Eater[90] Stanley Carter #107 (October 1986)[114] Multiple abilities ranging from artificially heightened physicality, to supernatural energy manipulation and self-healing. Was instrumental in the creation of Venom, and is also a reoccurring villain of Ghost Rider.
Lobo Brothers Carlos and Eduardo Lobo #149 (October 1988) Two brothers who become werewolves and Drug cartel members who expanded into Texas.

Marvel Team-Up debuts

Note: In chronological order

Name Alter ego First appearance Creator Description
Stegron[80] Vincent Stegron Marvel Team-Up (1st series) #19 (March 1974)[85] Len Wein
Gil Kane
A scientist who became a humanoid Stegosaurus using the same method that turned Curt Connors into Lizard
Witch-Slayer[115] Cotton Mather Marvel Team-Up #41 (January 1976)[116] Bill Mantlo, Sal Buscema A witch-hunter of Salem, Massachusetts in the 17th century who had been given access to mystical power by the Dark Rider
White Rabbit[35] Dr. Lorina Dodson Marvel Team-Up #131 (July 1983)[117] J. M. DeMatteis[117]
Kerry Gammill[117]
Mike Esposito[117]
A rabbit-themed supervillain, who pilots a giant rabbit mech and has a large arsenal of weapons at her disposal
Black Abbot (unknown) Marvel Team-Up #147 (November 1984) Cary Burkett
Greg LaRocque
A former monk of Dakoth-Kuru, a sect that had managed to use their teachings to unlock the full potential of their minds, giving them incredible mental powers. The Black Abbot had more powers, including the ability to control the twelve others and took control of the entire brotherhood.
Incandescent Man (unknown) Marvel Team-Up #149 (January 1985) Louise Simonson
Bret Blevins
Following an experiment bt Project Pegasus, he gained the ability to draw electrical energy into one's body.

Debuting in other Spider-Man titles

Note: In chronological order

Name Alter ego First appearance Creator Description
Shriek Frances Louise Barrison Spider-Man Unlimited #1 (May 1993)[90] Ron Lim
Mark Bagley
Mike W. Barr
Tom DeFalco
Jerry Bingham
Terry Kavanagh
A sound-manipulating supervillain

Debuting outside Spider-Man titles

Name Alter ego First appearance Description
Boomerang[87] Fred Myers Tales to Astonish #81 (July 1966)[29] A former baseball player who uses boomerangs as weapons
Mephisto Stan Lee[118]
John Buscema[119]
The Silver Surfer #3 (December 1968; originally)[120] A demon who manipulates Spider-Man and other superheroes into making deals with him. He is responsible for Norman Osborn's and his son Harry's initial transformations into the Green Goblin, and manipulating Norman into trading away Harry's soul and facilitating the latter's torment and transformation into the demonic Kindred.[121] Mephisto is also responsible for manipulating Spider-Man into erasing his marriage to Mary Jane Watson from the timeline in exchange for resurrecting May Parker, and erasing his future daughter and adversary from existence.[122][123]
Ringer[124][125] Anthony Davis Defenders #51 (June 1977)[94] A supervillain who wields ring-based weapons
Swarm[80] Fritz von Meyer Champions #14 (July 1977)[35] A former Nazi and beekeeper whose skeleton is surrounded by a swarm of bees
Jack O'Lantern[48] Jason Macendale Machine Man #19 (February 1981)[29] A jack-o'-lantern-themed villain whose alias was used by different people.
Speed Demon James Sanders Avengers #70 (November 1960) (as the Whizzer)
The Amazing Spider-Man #222 (November 1981)[29]
A chemist with super-speed and former member of the Squadron Sinister
Vermin Edward Whelan Captain America #272 (August 1982)[35] A geneticist who was turned into a humanoid rat by Arnim Zola
Doppelganger Spider-Doppelganger The Infinity War #1 (July 1992)[35] A nearly-mindless duplicate of Spider-Man
Supercharger Ronald Hiliard Amazing Fantasy #17 (January 1996) A supervillain who is able to absorb and store electricity
Proto-Goblin Nels van Adder Spider-Man #-1 (July 1997) In a retcon, Norman Osborn tests the incomplete version of the formula on Oscorp employee Nels van Adder, driving van Adder insane and causing him to transform into a red, demon-like being known as the "Proto-Goblin". Killing several people and blaming Norman for his condition, van Adder harasses and later attempts to kill him before being knocked out an Oscorp window by Chief of Security Arthur Stacy and his brother Detective George Stacy. In order to escape conviction for what he had done to van Adder, Norman convinces the police that van Adder had been experimenting on himself and that he had been trying to help him. Van Adder was last seen fleeing into the wilderness and his current fate is unknown.

As well as endowing van Adder with super strength and agility, the prototypical Goblin Formula gave him claws, talons, fangs, glowing green eyes, and near-impenetrable red skin that is capable of withstanding several close range bullet shots.

Hippo Mrs. Fluffy Lumpkins Dark Reign: The Sinister Spider-Man #1 (August 2009) An uplifted hippopotamus that was uplifted by the High Evolutionary. The hippopotamus had been named "Mrs. Fluffy Lumpkins" before being experimented upon, despite the fact that it was a male hippo.

Other villains


Coldheart / Kateri Deseronto debuted in Spider-Man #49, created by Tom Lyle and Howard Mackie. She is an expert martial artist and swordsman who wields Cryonic Swords that can freeze anyone in their place.[126]


First appearanceThe Amazing Spider-Man #414 (August 1996)
Created byTom DeFalco and Mark Bagley
  • Expert assassin
Further reading

Delilah first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #414 by Tom DeFalco and Mark Bagley.[35] A highly skilled and ruthless assassin who came under the employ of the Rose during one of the many crime-boss gang wars and became his confidante as well as his chief enforcer. She is first shown wiping out an entire room of mobsters so the Rose could maintain control of part of the New York Organize Crime. Delilah came into conflict with Spider-Man for the first time when she attempted to assassinate the ex-husband of one of Rose's employers. When the Black Tarantula first involved himself in the gang war, Delilah attempted to kill his super-strong henchman El Uno but she was overwhelmed by his power. The rematch, though, was a firm win for Delilah, with El Uno's head being mailed back to the Black Tarantula.[127][128]

She also had a role during the Rose's efforts to gain extra muscle and to remove Spider-Man from interfering in their operations, in the rebirth of two of Spider-Man's old foes. She was the one who threw the switch of the electric chair which gave Electro his powers back, hoping he would eliminate Spider-Man. Electro failed, and so they devised a new plan. This time, they stole the corpse of Doctor Octopus so the Hand could succeed in restoring him to life. Delilah later found herself ambushed by the Black Tarantula himself, who easily subdued her and broke her neck, inflicting fatal injuries, but before she could die, however, the Black Tarantula instantly healed her with a message of warning for the Rose.

Attempting to find help to bring down the Black Tarantula, Delilah enlisted the aid of the new costumed adventurer Ricochet (actually Spider-Man in disguise). Together they tackled two of the Black Tarantula's operatives, Roughhouse and Bloodscream. Bloodscream grabbed hold of Delilah and caused her to bleed until she passed out. She was taken by the authorities to the hospital.

Years later she appears in Loners as an assassin smuggling MGH. When Johnny Gallo (the second Ricochet) broke into a laboratory, she thought he was the one she had teamed up with, and attacked him. Despite her skills, Johnny managed to knock her out with a cunningly thrown disc.[129][130][131][132]


First appearanceThe Spectacular Spider-Man #22 (March 1995)
Created byTom DeFalco (writer)
and Sal Buscema (artist)
Abilitiesshapeshifting, molecular manipulation, same abilities of Spider-Man
AliasesPeter Parker
Further reading

Spidercide was a major antagonist in the "Maximum Clonage" story arc. He first appeared in The Spectacular Spider-Man #222 by Tom DeFalco and Sal Buscema.[90] He is depicted as an evil foil of Spider-Man, Ben Reilly, and Kaine. Introduced as a red herring to suggest the possibility of a third individual that was the original Peter Parker, he is one of the Spider-Man clones created by Jackal, to be Jackal's enforcer and protector. However, Spidercide is actually a clone to Ben Reilly, who is a direct genetic duplicate of Spider-Man.[80]

The Jackal later modified Spidercide's powers, granting him the unique ability to control his physical make-up on a molecular level; he can alter his mass, density, shape and state at will similar to the symbiotes. Despite being created to escort and protect the Jackal, Spidercide betrayed him and aligned with the Scrier. He was believed to have died after being thrown off the roof of the Daily Bugle.[80][133] only to survive and return to menace Reilly shortly afterwards.[134]

El Muerto

El Muerto / Juan-Carlos Sanchez debuted in Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #45, created by Peter David and Roger Cruz. [135]

Trained by his father Marcus Estrada de la García, Juan-Carlos gained the mystical mask and lineage of El Muertos, granting the user superhuman strength. Hesitant to do so, he battles his fellow Luchador foe El Dorado, who kills his father. Ten years go by and now Juan-Carlos is now El Muerto, who Dorado wishes to take his mask for his own. But Spider-Man aides in defeating El Dorado. [136]

During Civil War, the United States Superhuman Registration Act (SHRA) newly-appointed S.H.I.E.L.D. Director Tony Stark classified El Muerto with further monitoring before able to join the Act. [137]

Antiheroes and reformed, semi-reformed, or occasionally reformed supervillains

The following is a list of Spider-Man adversaries who, at one point or another, have been reformed or semi-reformed, either temporarily or currently, or who are no longer primarily antagonists of Spider-Man. Many of these characters are now anti-heroes and have often acted as allies of the web-slinger, while others occasionally return to villain status depending on the story arc.

Name Alter ego First appearance
Doctor Octopus Dr. Otto Gunther Octavius The Amazing Spider-Man #3 (July 1963)
Sandman Flint Marko The Amazing Spider-Man #4 (September 1963)
Lizard Dr. Curtis "Curt" Connors The Amazing Spider-Man #6 (November 1963)
Kraven the Hunter Sergei Kravinoff I The Amazing Spider-Man #15 (August 1964)
Boomerang Frederick "Fred" Myers Tales to Astonish #81 (July 1966)
Beetle Abner Jenkins Strange Tales #123 (August 1964)
Molten Man Mark Raxton The Amazing Spider-Man #28 (September 1965)
Prowler Hobart "Hobie" Brown The Amazing Spider-Man #78 (November 1969)
Gibbon Martin Blank The Amazing Spider-Man #110 (July 1972)
Punisher Frank Castle The Amazing Spider-Man #129 (February 1974)
Rocket Racer Robert Farrell The Amazing Spider-Man #172 (September 1977)
Black Cat Felicia Hardy The Amazing Spider-Man #194 (July 1979)
Puma Thomas Fireheart The Amazing Spider-Man #256 (September 1984)
Silver Sable Silver Sablinova The Amazing Spider-Man #265 (June 1985)
Venom Eddie Brock Web of Spider-Man #18 (September 1986)
Solo James Bourne Web of Spider-Man #19 (October 1986)
Cardiac Elias Wirtham The Amazing Spider-Man #344 (December 1990)
Kaine Kaine Parker Web of Spider-Man #119 (December 1994)
Screwball Unknown The Amazing Spider-Man #559 (July 2008)

Non-supervillain enemies

See also: List of Spider-Man supporting characters

Name First appearance Description
Burglar Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) The man who killed Peter's uncle, which would inspire him to use his powers responsibly and become Spider-Man.[138]
Flash Thompson[138] Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) Early on, Flash Thompson was usually depicted as an enemy of Peter Parker and an ardent admirer of Spider-Man. He is Peter's classmate who enjoys bullying him, while ironically being one of Spider-Man's biggest fans. Later on, Flash would become good friends with Peter. In The Amazing Spider-Man #654, Flash came into contact with the Venom symbiote and became the superhero Agent Venom.[139]
J. Jonah Jameson The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963) The editor in chief of the Daily Bugle and Peter Parker's boss. He has a strong hatred of Spider-Man and tries his best to turn the city against him by publishing fake news about him, or changing them to make it look like Spider-Man is in cahoots with the villains he is fighting. He was also responsible for the funding of the creation of Scorpion, the Spider-Slayers,[1] and the Human Fly.

Group villains

Cover of The Spectacular Spider-Man #246 (May 1997) depicting Spider-Man's weaker foes (Spot, Gibbon, the second Kangaroo and the third Grizzly) teaming up to try to defeat Spider-Man. Art by Luke Ross
Group name Original members First Appearance Description
Enforcers[140] Montana
Fancy Dan
The Amazing Spider-Man #10 (March 1964) A team of mercenaries usually in the employment of crime bosses. They are generally depicted as having no super powers, but are highly skilled assassins.
Sinister Six[141] Doctor Octopus
Kraven the Hunter
The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #1 (January 1964) Brought together by Doctor Octopus, they consist of some of Spider-Man's worst enemies, who joined forces in an attempt to eliminate the web-slinger once and for all. The team had different members in its various iterations over the years, but Doctor Octopus generally remained their leader across all versions.
Sinister Syndicate[142] Beetle
Speed Demon
The Amazing Spider-Man #280 (September 1986) A team of Spider-Man villains who were inspired by the Sinister Six to band together. Unlike them, however, they are not interested in killing Spider-Man, and work for the highest bidder.
Spider-Man Revenge Squad[143] Spot
Kangaroo II
The Spectacular Spider-Man #246 (May 1997) A team of lesser-known and weaker Spider-Man villains, also known as the Legion of Losers, who decided to join forces to stand a better chance against the web-slinger.
Inheritors[144] Solus
Unnamed Matriarch
The Superior Spider-Man #33 (November 2014) A clan of totem hunters from Earth-001 who feed from animal, human and deity totems. Their main goal is to hunt down the various versions of Spider-Man across the Marvel Multiverse and feed on their life energy.

Kravinoff family

Kravinoff family
Sonya SmerdyakovaNikolai KravinovAnna Makarova KravinovaAleksandra NikolaevnaMikhail Aleksei Nikolaevich
Dmitri Anatoly Nikolayevich Smerdyakov
The Chameleon
Calypso Ezili
The Witch of Kraven
Sergei Nikolaevich Kravinoff (né Kravinov)
Kraven the Hunter
The Unhuntable Sergei
Aleksandra "Sasha" Kravinova (née Nikolaevna)Unnamed Sisters
The Hunter X[n 1]
Nedrocci "Ned" TannengardenAnastasia "Ana" Tatiana Kravinova
Kraven the Hunter
Vladimir "Vlad" Kravinoff
The Grim Hunter
Son of the Hunter
Alexei Sergeevich "Alyosha" Kravinoff
Kraven the Hunter
The Sons of Kraven
[n 2]
Sergei Kravinoff II
The Last Son of Kraven

[n 2]
  1. ^ Clone of Kraven created by Mr. Sinister, featuring the DNA of the X-Men Cyclops, Marvel Girl, the Iceman, the Angel, and the Beast, as well as a sample of the Carnage symbiote.
  2. ^ a b "Hunted" established 87 such clones of Kraven the Hunter to exist, until all are killed by one of their number, dubbed "The Last Son of Kraven" and heir to his father's identity.


Unlike most superheroes, who have a particular villain or villainous group among their adversaries with whom they have come into conflict the most (e.g., the Joker to Batman, and Lex Luthor to Superman in DC Comics, or the Red Skull to Captain America, Doctor Doom to the Fantastic Four, and the Brotherhood of Mutants to the X-Men in Marvel Comics etc.), Spider-Man is often regarded as having three archenemies, and it can be debated as to which one is the worst:[145]

  1. ^ Doctor Octopus has been described as Spider-Man's greatest enemy, and the man Peter Parker might have become if he hadn't been raised with a sense of responsibility.[146][12][147] He is infamous for defeating him the first time in battle and for almost marrying Peter's Aunt May. He is also the core leader of the Sinister Six, and at one point adopted the "Master Planner" alias. ("If This Be My Destiny...!")[12][148] Later depictions revealed him in Peter Parker's body where he was the titular character for a while, ultimately becoming an antihero; on several occasions, he and Spider-Man have even put their differences aside to become allies.[147]
  2. ^ The Norman Osborn version of the Green Goblin is most commonly regarded as Spider-Man's archenemy.[145][149][150] Unlike Doctor Octopus, who only aims to kill Spider-Man, the Goblin also targeted his loved ones and showed no remorse in killing them as long as it caused pain to Spider-Man, therefore making him not only Spider-Man's worst enemy, but also Peter Parker's. His most infamous feat is killing Spider-Man's girlfriend in what became one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time and helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books.[145] While the Goblin was killed in the same story, he returned in the 1990s to plague Spider-Man once again, committing more heinous acts (such as being involved of the murder of Aunt May). He also came into conflict with other heroes, such as the Avengers.[1] Norman is sometimes depicted as an enemy of Spider-Man even when not being the Green Goblin.[151]
  3. ^ The Eddie Brock incarnation of Venom is often regarded as Spider-Man's deadliest foe, and has been described as an evil mirror version of Spider-Man in many ways.[7][8][145] He is also among Spider-Man's most popular villains.[152] Venom's main goal is usually to ruin Peter Parker's life and mess with his head in any way he can.[66] Despite this, Venom is not a traditional criminal, as he is only interested in hurting Spider-Man and does not engage in criminal acts, lacking the typical supervillain desires for wealth and power. The character also has a sense of honor and justice, and later starred in his own comic book stories, where he is depicted as an antihero and has a desire to protect innocent people from harm. On several occasions, he and Spider-Man have even put their differences aside to become allies.[7][153]

In other media

Main article: List of Spider-Man enemies in other media


Reaction to Spider-Man's rogues gallery has been overwhelmingly positive with many journalists citing it as one of the greatest comic book rogues galleries of all time,[154][155][156] with Batman's rogues gallery being its most rivaled contender.[157][158] However, editors such as The Hollywood Reporter's Graeme McMillan felt that only Flash's rogues gallery can compete with Spider-Man's rogues.[155] Kyle Schmidlin of What Culture! described the superhero's rogues gallery as "one of the most colorful in comics" explaining that Batman could only be debated as having a great number of enemies as good as Spider-Man.[159] IGN staff editors, Joshua Yehl and Jesse Schedeen, described the Spider-Man villains as "one of the most iconic and well-balanced in comics". They opined that the scope of their schemes, how cool their powers are, and how dramatically they have affected Spider-Man's life is what makes the Spider-Man villains so great.[1] Newsarama ranked Spider-Man's rogues gallery as number one out of ten as the greatest rogues gallery of all time.[158]


George Marston of Newsarama said that the reason he felt that Spider-Man's rogues gallery was the best was the thematic elements that the villains manifested.[158] He explained that just like the superhero they have the same concept of science gone wrong. They are "like him, great men with great minds, great power, and great determination." But instead they fail to use their powers responsibly, symbolizing the thin line between being a hero and being a villain.[158] Alex Wyse of Comic Book Resources felt that a good villain is supposed to challenge the ideals of the hero. For Spider-Man that idea was the famous quote "With great power comes great responsibility", where the superhero is pitted against an antithesis of the hero's motto like the concept of using superpowers for their personal gain.[160]

Me and the Boys

A viral Internet meme called "Me and the Boys", centering on images of Spider-Man foes from the 1960s Spider-Man animated series that showcases the four supervillains – the Green Goblin, Electro, Vulture and a photoshopped addition of Rhino – along with other Spider-Man foes in some variations, emerged in 2019. The meme image parodied and represented a group of friends bonding, hanging out, or engaging in various shenanigans.[161] It originated from Reddit and, later, Twitter. It was placed as the 35th-best meme of 2019 by Thrillist.[162][163][164]

See also


  1. ^ The Chameleon is the first member of Spider-Man's rogues gallery in publication date. (Excluding the Burglar.)[8] He is also well known to be related to Kraven the Hunter and Kraven to him. That revealed relationship helped evolve him as a major villain compared to his original depiction of being just a solo villain in the original issue of The Amazing Spider-Man.[168][48][169]
  2. ^ Besides being most notable as a Spider-Man supervillain, he has also been depicted as a Fantastic Four antagonist in Stan Lee and Jack Kirby comics books (mostly due to being introduced as the original Frightful Four[170]). He was also a heroic figure (as an Avengers member[171]) until being introduced as a tragic supervillain in the Spider-Man comics once again.[172]
  3. ^ The character is also known as the member of the Frightful Four battling the Fantastic Four.[22] He is also the first major Marvel villain to be written in publication history as battling Daredevil.[173][174] Even being the founder and leader of the supervillain team that oppose him, the Emissaries of Evil.[175]
  4. ^ Just like Electro, he has also been a major villain of Daredevil. In the storyline "Guardian Devil" he crossed into Daredevil's territory almost pushing Daredevil to the edge (just like he if often trying to do with Spider-Man) when Mysterio believes Spider-Man is a clone at one point.[24]
  5. ^ While a recurring villain to Spider-Man since his introduction, Kraven the Hunter did not stand out as a memorable supervillain until the critically acclaimed storyline, "Kraven's Last Hunt".[8][28][169][176]
  6. ^ Not counting any other character in the mainstream Marvel Universe with that name. Only outside of the mainstream Spider-Man comics or in other media is there other Spider-Man villains (that isn't named Mac Gargan) that are antagonists of Spider-Man.[177][178][179] Gargan is the third character to assume the Scorpion alias in comics, but he became the most notable one, and is only one to be a recurring adversary of Spider-Man.[1]
  7. ^ While initially written to be a recurring villain of Spider-Man,[40] Rhino has also come into conflict with other superheroes (especially Hulk[1]). He is a major character in the storyline titled "Flowers for Rhino" (Spider-Man's Tangled Web), whose name is an homage to Flowers for Algernon.[180]
  8. ^ Despite first appearing in Spider-Man comic books, the Kingpin is more notable of being Daredevil's archenemy. Despite this he is a major antagonist of both superheroes in the Marvel comic books just as recurringly.[8][46] He also is a major recurring villain in the rest of the Marvel Universe crossing over as major antagonists to superheroes/antiheroes (such as the Punisher) in certain comic books of the many based universes of Marvel (PunisherMAX, etc.)[181]
  9. ^ Morbius debuted in the storyline "The Six Arms Saga".[49]
  10. ^ Miles Warren's first appearance was in The Amazing Spider-Man #31 (December 1965), but he didn't become the Jackal until much later.[182]
  11. ^ Although she is listed as a supervillain, the Black Cat is more often portrayed as an antiheroine and the major femme fatale romantic interest for Spider-Man. She is struggling to decide between good and bad, and the only thing preventing her from becoming a villain is her complicated relationship with Spider-Man. Nonetheless. she has been a staple supporting Spider-Man character during her debut.[1]
  12. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #299 is the first appearance of Eddie Brock as Venom. The alien costume debuted from The Amazing Spider-Man #252 and the symbiote bonded to Spider-Man in Secret Wars #8.[7] Venom's creators are determined by pre-alien costume by not counting the creators/designers of the alien costume, David Michelinie or Mike Zeck, or the Marvel Comics fan who originally thought of the concept for the creators.[7][183][184]
  13. ^ Cletus Kasady first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man 344.[69] Carnage is a major character in the popular storyline "Maximum Carnage".[185]
  14. ^ Despite becoming an antihero with his own comic book storylines, the Punisher was first introduced as an adversary of Spider-Man.[55]
  15. ^ Harry didn't become the Green Goblin until The Amazing Spider-Man #136 (September 1974).


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Top 25 Spider-Man Villains". IGN. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g DeFalco, Tom (2008). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8.
  3. ^ a b c Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. Now it was time for John Romita Sr. to introduce a new Spidey villain with the help of [Stan] Lee. Out of their pooled creative energies was born the Rhino, a monstrous behemoth trapped in a durable rhinoceros suit.
  4. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. [The Amazing Spider-Man #111] marked the dawning of a new era: writer Gerry Conway came on board as Stan Lee's replacement. Alongside artist John Romita, Conway started his run by picking up where Lee left off.
  5. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. This story by writer Gerry Conway and penciler Gil Kane would go down in history as one of the most memorable events of Spider-Man's life.
  6. ^ David and Greenberger p. 49: "The idea of beloved supporting characters meeting their deaths may be standard operating procedure now but in 1973 it was unprecedented...stan's death took villainy and victimhood to an entirely new level."
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Top 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters: 33. VENOM (Spider-Man)". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Siegel, Lucas. "The 10 Greatest SPIDER-MAN Villains of ALL TIME!". Newsarama. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  9. ^ Beard, Jim. "ARCHRIVALS: SPIDER-MAN VS THE VULTURE". Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  10. ^ Kyle, Scmidlin (13 June 2013). "10 Spider-Man Villains (And Combinations) Deserving Of The Big Screen (7. The Vulture)". What Culture!. Retrieved 2 January 2014. "He's been one of Spider-Man's most frequent and iconic antagonists ever since his first appearance in issue 2 of The Amazing Spider-Man.
  11. ^ Perry, Spencer (22 August 2012). "Spidey Turns 50: 11 Villains Who Could Be in The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (Part 3)". Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  12. ^ a b c "Doctor Octopus is number 28 on greatest comic book villain of all time". IGN. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  13. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. In this installment, Stan Lee and Steve Ditko introduced Sandman – a super villain who could turn his entire body into sand with a single thought.
  14. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Nothing Can Stop...The Sandman!" The Amazing Spider-Man, no. 4 (September 1963).
  15. ^ "Sandman is number 72 as greatest comic book villain of all time". IGN. Archived from the original on May 9, 2009. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  16. ^ DeFalco, Tom (2008). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8.
  17. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Face-to-Face With...the Lizard!" The Amazing Spider-Man, no. 6 (November 1963).
  18. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. The Amazing Spider-Man's sixth issue introduced the Lizard.
  19. ^ "Lizard is number 62 on greatest comic book villain of all time". IGN. Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  20. ^ DeFalco, Tom (2008). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8.
  21. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Man Called Electro!" The Amazing Spider-Man, no. 9 (February 1964).
  22. ^ a b "Electro is number 87 on greatest comic book villain of all time". IGN. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  23. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Menace of... Mysterio!" The Amazing Spider-Man, no. 13 (June 1964).
  24. ^ a b c "Mysterio is number 85 on greatest comic book villain of all time". IGN. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  25. ^ a b c Albert, Aaron. "Green Goblin Profile". Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  26. ^ Beard, Jim. "SPIDER-MAN 3: THE SPIDER & THE GOBLIN". Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  27. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. [Stan] Lee and [Steve] Ditko's newest villain, Kraven the Hunter, debuted in this issue.
  28. ^ a b "Top 100 Comic Book Villains. #53 Kraven the Hunter". IGN. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Gina Renée, Misiroglu; Eury, Michael (2006). The Supervillain Book: The Evil Side of Comics and Hollywood. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 0-7808-0977-7.
  30. ^ Thunderbolts Vol 1 #1
  31. ^ Captain America #607
  32. ^ Amazing Spider-Man Vol. 5 #26
  33. ^ a b c Lealos, Shawn S. (9 October 2010). "Alternate Takes 10.02.10 – Greatest Spider-Man Adversaries, Part 1". Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  34. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Coming of the Scorpion!" The Amazing Spider-Man, no. 20 (January 1965).
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Gross, Edward (2002). Spider-Man Confidential: From Comic Icon to Hollywood Hero. ISBN 0-7868-8722-2.
  36. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man Annual 19
  37. ^ Superior Spider-Man Vol 1 #12
  38. ^ Amazing Spider-Man Vol 1 #373
  39. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John Sr. (p), Esposito, Mike (i). "The Horns of the Rhino!" The Amazing Spider-Man, no. 41 (October 1966).
  40. ^ a b Lealos, Shawn. "Alternate Takes 10.02.10 – Greatest Spider-Man Adversaries, Part 1". Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  41. ^ Conroy, Mike. (2004). 500 Comicbook Villains. Collins & Brown. ISBN 0-7641-2908-2..
  42. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John Sr. (p), Romita, John Sr. (i). "The Sinister Shocker!" The Amazing Spider-Man, no. 46 (March 1967).
  43. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. [Stan] Lee and [John] Romita's second major Spidey villain appeared in the form of the Shocker, a criminal equipped with vibration-projecting gauntlets.
  44. ^ DeFalco, Tom (2008). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8. Stan Lee wanted to create a new kind of crime boss. Someone who treated crime as if it were a business...He pitched this idea to artist John Romita and it was Wilson Fisk who emerged in The Amazing Spider-Man #50.
  45. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John Sr. (p), Esposito, Mike (i). "Spider-Man No More!" The Amazing Spider-Man, no. 50 (July 1967).
  46. ^ a b "Kingpin is number 10 on greatest comic book villain of all time". IGN. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  47. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Buscema, John (p), Mooney, Jim (i). "The Night of The Prowler!" The Amazing Spider-Man, no. 78 (November 1969).
  48. ^ a b c d e f Cronin, Brian (24 April 2012). "50 Greatest Friends and Foes of Spider-Man: Villains #6-4". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  49. ^ a b c Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1970s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man to be written by someone other than Stan Lee...Thomas also managed to introduce a major new player to Spidey's life – the scientifically created vampire known as Morbius.
  50. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1970s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. Writer Gerry Conway made his first major contribution to the Spider-Man saga...a new mobster was on the rise in New York's underworld – Hammerhead.
  51. ^ a b c Boland, Robbie (11 April 2011). "10 Spectacularly Third-Rate Spider-Man Villains (Part one)". Topless Robot.
  52. ^ Dan Slott (w), Marcos Martin (p), Marcos Martin (i). "Mysterioso, Part 1: Un-Murder Incorporated" The Amazing Spider-Man, vol. 1, no. 618 (March 2010). United States: Marvel Comics.
  53. ^ "AMAZING SPIDER-MAN (1963) #113". Marvel. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  54. ^ a b Williams, Scott E. (October 2010). "Gerry Conway: Everything but the Gwen Stacy Sink". Back Issue!. TwoMorrows Publishing (44): 7.
  55. ^ a b c d e Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1970s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. Writer Gerry Conway and artist Ross Andru introduced two major new characters to Spider-Man's world and the Marvel Universe in this self-contained issue. Not only would the vigilante known as the Punisher go on to be one of the most important and iconic Marvel creations of the 1970s, but his instigator, the Jackal, would become the next big threat in Spider-Man's life.
  56. ^ a b Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1970s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. Spider-Man wasn't exactly sure what to think about his luck when he met a beautiful new thief on the prowl named the Black Cat, courtesy of a story by writer Marv Wolfman and artist Keith Pollard.
  57. ^ "Back in Black ... Cat? Joe Kelly on Her 'Amazing' Return". Newsarama. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  58. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1980s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. In this issue, award-winning writer Denny O'Neil, with collaborator John Romita Jr., introduced Hydro-Man.
  59. ^ "AMAZING SPIDER-MAN (1963) #212". Marvel. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  60. ^ Terry Kavanagh (w), Steven Butler (p), Randy Emerlin (i). "Lives Unlived" Web of Spider-Man, vol. 1, no. 125 (June 1995). United States: Marvel Comics.
  61. ^ David and Greenberger, pp. 68–69: "Writer Roger Stern is primarily remembered for two major contributions to the world of Peter Parker. One was a short piece entitled 'The Kid Who Collects Spider-Man'...[his] other major contribution was the introduction of the Hobgoblin."
  62. ^ a b c Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1980s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. Writer Roger Stern and artists John Romita Jr. and John Romita Sr. introduced a new – and frighteningly sane – version of the [Green Goblin] concept with the debut of the Hobgoblin.
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