Symbiosis with a host provides superhuman strength, speed, agility, and endurance; gains characteristics of host; amplifies original powers and traits of hosts
The Klyntar (colloquial: symbiotes) are a fictional species of extraterrestrialsymbiotes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, most commonly in association with Spider-Man. The symbiotes form a symbiotic bond with their hosts, through which a single entity is created. They are able to alter their hosts' personalities and/or memories by influencing their darkest desires, along with amplifying their physical and emotional traits and personality and thereby granting them super-human abilities. There are more than 40 known symbiotes in the Marvel Universe.
The first and most well-known symbiote is Venom, who originally attached itself to Spider-Man during the 1985 Secret Wars miniseries. After Spider-Man rejected it upon discovering its true evil nature, the symbiote bonded with his rival, Eddie Brock, with whom it first became Venom. The character has since endured as one of Spider-Man's archenemies, though he has also been occasionally depicted as an antihero. Other characters have later merged with the Venom symbiote, including the villain Mac Gargan, and Flash Thompson, who became the superhero Agent Venom. Other well-known symbiotes are Carnage, an offspring of Venom who, when merged with its most infamous host, Cletus Kasady, has served as an enemy of both Spider-Man and Venom; and Anti-Venom, which originated when the Venom symbiote re-merged with Brock after a long split, gaining a new white appearance and additional powers as a result of Martin Li using his powers on Brock to cure his cancer.
Since their conception, the symbiotes have appeared in various media adaptations, including films, television series, and video games. Venom has been the most featured one, appearing in the 2007 film Spider-Man 3, and as the titular protagonist of the 2018 film Venom. Carnage also made its cinematic debut in the film Venom: Let There Be Carnage (2021).
The first appearance of a symbiote occurs in The Amazing Spider-Man #252, The Spectacular Spider-Man #90, and Marvel Team-Up #141 (released concurrently in May 1984), in which Spider-Man brings one home to Earth after the Secret Wars (Secret Wars #8, which was released months later, details his first encounter with it). The concept was created by a Marvel Comics reader; the publisher purchased the idea for $220. The original design was then modified by Mike Zeck, at which point it became the Venom symbiote. The concept would be explored and used throughout multiple storylines, spin-off comics, and derivative projects.
The cover of Secret Wars #8, which details Spider-Man's first encounter with the black costume. Pencil art by Mike Zeck.
Symbiotes were originally created by an ancient malevolent primordial deity named Knull. When the Celestials began their vast plan to evolve the universe, Knull, seeing that his "Kingdom" was being touched, retaliated by constructing All-Black, the first symbiote, and subsequently cut off a Celestial's head. The other Celestials then banished Knull, along with the severed Celestial head, deeper into space. After that, he started using the head's cosmic energies as a forge for the symbiotes, which is how they developed the weaknesses to sound and fire. The head would later become interdimensional crossroads and laboratory Knowhere. Knull then embarked on a campaign of genocide against the other gods. During a battling with the gods, he crashed on a desolate planet where All-Black left him and went to Gorr, drawn to his murderous hate, who tried to kill Knull. Knull later reawakened and created an army of symbiotes, which he used to conquer planets and destroy entire civilizations, establishing the Symbiote Imperium in the process. However, when a dragon-like creature journeyed to the medieval Earth, Thor defeated it and destroyed the connection between Knull and the symbiotes. Subsequently, the symbiote hive-mind began to explore notions of honor and nobility as they bonded to benevolent hosts. The symbiotes subsequently rebelled against their god, imprisoning him at the heart of an artificial planet in the Andromeda Galaxy they called Klyntar, from which derived the name of their species. Ashamed of their dark past, the symbiotes desired to spread and maintain peace throughout the Cosmos by seeking out worthy hosts from various species in order to create an organization of noble warriors. However, these altruistic goals were imperfect, as the Klyntar symbiotes could be corrupted by hosts with harmful chemical imbalances or problematic personality traits, turning them into destructive parasites that would spread lies and disinformation about their own kind in order to make other peoples fear and hate the Klyntar species as a whole.
The corrupted Klyntar became more widespread than their benevolent counterparts, establishing a spacefaring culture dedicated to infecting and overtaking whole planets and reestablishing the Imperium. These symbiotes forced their hosts to perform death-defying feats in order to feed off of the resulting surges of hormones, like adrenaline and phenethylamine. These hosts would die quickly, either because of the wear from constant stress and exertion or as a result of the inherent danger of the stunts performed.
At some point it was believed that a symbiote-run planet was devoured by Galactus. Due to their hive-mind's memory, all symbiotes now loathe both Galactus and his former herald, the Silver Surfer, but it was later revealed that their hatred for the Silver Surfer was because he had time traveled to a time where the Klyntar were rebelling against Knull and the Silver Surfer had made the God of the symbiotes bleed. ZZZXX, a symbiote with a predilection for eating brains, was also captured by the Shi'ar, and imprisoned and studied for years until it was released and employed as a Praetorian Guard by Gabriel Summers. The corrupted symbiotes had invaded the Microverse and tried to absorb the Enigma Force, but they were defeated by the avatar of the force, after they had caused destructive effects on this world and its people. The symbiote would arrive on the Savage Land, where it remained trapped for years to the point of madness and bonded to Conan during a confrontation between the Savage Avengers and Kulan Gath.
During the Kree-Skrull War, the Kree wanted to replicate the Skrull's shapeshifting abilities; they acquired a newborn symbiote which had been outcast from its species on the planet where Knull had created them. They recruited Tel-Kar to be bonded to the young symbiote, and modified both Tel-Kar and the symbiote so that he could have full control over it. He infiltrated the Skrulls using the symbiote's shapeshifting ability, but was discovered. He deleted the symbiote's memories and separated himself from it. The symbiote then reunited with the parasitic symbiotes, retaining little memory of its first host. When the corrupted symbiotes found out that this symbiote wanted to commit to its host rather than exploit it as they tended to do, they decided that it was insane and trapped it in a canister to be condemned to die on a planet that would later become part of Beyonder's Battleworld. There, it would be encountered by Spider-Man in the 1984 miniseries Secret Wars. In that story, which saw the heroes of Earth transported to this planet to battle their archenemies,Spider-Man sought to repair or replace his tattered costume, which had been damaged in battle, and was directed by Thor and Hulk to a device inside the alien compound that they had come to use as headquarters. Mistaking the device in which the symbiote was imprisoned for the device Thor and Hulk mentioned, Spider-Man activated it, freeing the symbiote, which appeared before him as a black sphere that enveloped his body and took on the form of a black version of his costume that could respond to his mental commands. Spider-Man assumed that the device produced clothing designed to do this. He did not know that Deadpool had already briefly bonded with the symbiote and had corrupted it with his unstable personality. Spider-Man returned to Earth with the symbiote, where, after discovering that it was an alien lifeform that wanted to bond with him, he managed to separate himself from it by using sound waves to hurt the creature, which took refuge in a church's bell tower. It later bonded with Eddie Brock, who went to the church, despondent and vengeful after his journalism career was destroyed because he incorrectly identified the serial killer known as Sin-Eater as a man who later turned out to be a compulsive confessor; he blamed this turn of events on Spider-Man. Having bonded with the symbiote, the two became the being known as Venom. During this time, it spawned seven offspring and a clone; its first child later had three of its own, producing the symbiotes known as Carnage, Scream, Lasher, Phage, Agony, and Riot.
The Venom symbiote eventually becomes too much for Eddie to handle, and he separates himself from it. This separation causes a telepathic scream that is heard by the other corrupted symbiotes, who then invade Earth. Eddie, Spider-Man and Scarlet Spider team up against the invasion. The battle comes to an end when Eddie rebinds with Venom, causing another scream which results in the symbiotes committing suicide.
While bonded to Flash Thompson as part of Project Rebirth, who originally struggled to control it, the symbiote developed a slight affection for him. It is later established that the host's mental state affects the symbiote just as much as the other way around: Venom's first child, the Carnage symbiote, is as psychotic as its host, Cletus Kasady, and the Venom suit's explosiveness worsened after bonding with Angelo Fortunato and Mac Gargan, both of whom are career criminals. Likewise, the various symbiotes bonded to heroes are not shown to be as twisted, though they do occasionally struggle with aggression.
A swarm of Brood that had been overtaken by symbiotes later invade the S.W.O.R.D. satellite and possess all of its inhabitants, including Deathbird and her unborn child, in order to expand the symbiote Imperium. However, Spider-Man, bonded to a second symbiote, defeats the symbiotes with help from his class at Jean Grey's School.
The Klyntar were later raided by the Poisons with help from Haze Mancer, a symbiote poacher, resulting in the apparent death of the Agents of the Cosmos and the abduction of all the symbiotes. The abducted symbiotes were later modified by the Poisons so they could be used on the superheroes on Earth, in order for the Poisons to consume. After the defeat of the Poisons, the surviving symbiotes were returned to Klyntar.
When the body of Grendel, the dragon-like composite symbiote defeated by Thor, is discovered on Earth, this reawakens Knull enough to allow him to control the creature. It is subsequently stopped by the combined efforts of Venom and Spider-Man (Miles Morales), and is later incinerated by Eddie, denying Knull the chance to escape Klyntar.
After some months, a cult had gotten hold of Cletus's damaged body inside a chamber and had planned to revive him by using the Grendel's remnants, which they stole from Maker. This cult, who worships Knull and Carnage as Knull's prophet, was led by Scorn. They implanted the remnants inside Cletus, reviving him, and at first he resembled Ancient Venom (Venom possessed by Knull), until the Carnage pieces were absorbed by the ancient symbiote and acquired Scorn's remnants by killing her. When Cletus came in contact with Knull, he got a new purpose: to free Knull. The only way left to do this was to acquire every single Codex – the symbiote remnants containing the genetic information of the host – left inside the bodies of every single host, dead or alive, who came into physical contact with the symbiotes on Earth, in order to overload the symbiote hive mind and scatter the Klyntar.
Knull slowly began reawakening as a result of Carnage's efforts on Earth and the symbiotes of Klyntar began succumbing to his control once more. When Sleeper was drawn to Klyntar, the symbiotes attacked and tried to assimilate it into the hive-mind. After escaping, Sleeper realized that Eddie was in danger and returned to Earth as quickly as it could. When Knull fully awakened, he destroyed Klyntar and seized control of its constituent symbiotes, coalescing them into a horde of symbiote-dragons.
The symbiotes, when they were originally created, were used as tools by Knull in order to conquer the universe. At the time, they had a symbiote dialect. When they were freed from Knull's control and began learning about compassion, they established the lie about their nature in order to redeem themselves. They formed the Agents of Cosmos, symbiotes bonded to benevolent hosts, forming noble warriors who try to maintain peace across the universe. However, some symbiotes were corrupted by malevolent hosts, turning them back into monsters and reestablishing the symbiote Imperium first formed by Knull; these symbiotes were cut from the Klyntar hive mind. The symbiote Imperium would conquer planets and infect their inhabitants in order to drain and consume them.
The symbiotes in general don't have an actual culture. As seen with Venom and Carnage, the symbiote's personality and psychology depends largely on the host's nature, as the link between the host and the symbiote is what gives the symbiote a purpose and meaning to their life.
As for the Nameless, a group of Kree explorers infected by the Exolon parasites, after being infected by the parasites which consumed their souls, they lost all sense of time and sentience and started engaging in gruesome self-inflicted pain rituals in order to remember their past lives.
The symbiote bonding with a host, which it needs to survive
The symbiotes are an alien species of inorganic,amorphous and multicellularsymbioticparasites formed from Knull's "Living Abyss", after he had experimented with his abilities. The symbiotes function as living extradimensional tesseracts, requiring living hosts to anchor them to the fabric of space and time. They record the genetic material of each of their hosts in a genetic codex. They also empower a host's natural abilities to the point that they far exceed that of normal members of the host's species. These abilities include the following:
superhuman strength (strong enough to lift 50 tons or more), speed, endurance, agility, healing powers, and intelligence
genetic memory, allowing them to recall information from previous hosts. They also leave traces of themselves, called codex, attached to the host's DNA, in order to send information to the hive mind
the ability to negate damage caused by terminal illnesses and permanent injuries. While symbiotes can somewhat heal their hosts, they generally seek to force their hosts to depend on them in order ensure their own survival. For example, Eddie Brock was able to survive indefinitely with terminal cancer, and Scott Washington was able to walk despite being paraplegic. Similarly, Flash Thompson and Cletus Kasady had received "legs" when bonded with the Venom symbiote and Carnage symbiote even though they had lost their legs. Wraith was able to use his Exolon powers to cure the Kree who were infected by the Phalanx.
they can reproduce asexually with a limited number of seeds inside their mass. For example, Venom gave birth to seven "children", and its first child Carnage had three.
senses that extend over its entire surface, enabling hosts to "see" what is behind them or otherwise not in their line of sight (like a Spider-Sense).
the ability to change shape and size at will. This ability functions regardless of the host's actual stature and bodily dimensions, as the symbiotes are living tesseracts. This includes expanding to any size as long as they have something to grow on, such as a host or an object. Symbiotes can form multi-layered shields against powerful attacks and fit inside of small areas, such as electric wires and the insides of cars, in order to completely disable them. This shapeshifting allows the symbiote to change its color and texture, which allows it to blend into the environment as a form of camouflage, or to change the host's outward appearance (including mimicking the appearances of other beings).
the ability to sense the thoughts and will of the host. When Spider-Man was originally selected, he had been thinking about Spider-Woman's costume in the Secret Wars. The symbiote acted on this and formed a similar costume to hers and Knull's emblem, which is the one seen on Spider-Man and Venom.
the ability to excrete matter that enters in its body, like bullets, turning them into the green saliva
immortality, as evidenced by Venom 2099, which was still alive in the year 2099, and All-Black, which was created in the beginning of the Universe and was still alive in King Thor's timeline.
the ability to merge with other symbiotes or otherwise absorb one another. This is similar to how Hybrid was formed, or when Carnage absorbed another symbiote from the Negative Zone, regenerating itself. The symbiote can also absorb the codices of other symbiotes, obtaining their genetic memory - for example, when Spider-Man bonded to two other symbiotes, they absorbed the Venom's codex, allowing then to appear exactly like Venom.
the ability to force their hosts into a comatose state, as shown with Zak-Del and Eddie Brock
the ability to prolong their host's life by replacing their failing organs with simulacrums manifested from their living abyss - however, they cannot do this indefinitely
Because they record the genetic material of each of its hosts, there are also additional powers that have been demonstrated, but are not necessarily universal to all symbiotes:
the ability to block parts of the host's mind - Venom and all its descendants possess the ability to bypass Spider-Man's Spider-Sense; because the original symbiote was attached to Peter Parker (Spider-Man) first, it took his genetic information and spider-powers by using its Parasitic Inheritance. This means that battles between Peter and Venom or any of its descendants would essentially be a fight between Peter and his black-suited self, which wouldn't set off his Spider-Sense (during the Clone Saga, this became complicated, as Venom did set off Ben Reilly's Spider-Sense; however, this has been attributed to Ben being cloned from Peter prior to his first encounter with the Venom symbiote).
the ability to form fangs or simple bladed weapons out of their limbs. The first appearance of this was the Carnage symbiote.
the ability to form tendrils and tentacles of various lengths from their body
the ability to form wings, as shown when Venom came into contact with Knull and grew a pair of web-like wings; in some cases the symbiote has also been shown to form gliding wings (see Venom-Punisher and Hybrid)
in the case of the purified Klyntar, Cosmic Awareness, which allows the Agents of Cosmos to sense people in need
the ability to project the surface of the symbiote to attack at a distance
the ability to sustain its humanoid body even without a host, but only for a certain period of time
the ability to stick to walls (adapted from Spider-Man)
the ability to produce acid, toxins, and venoms, like the venomous bite Venom delivered to Sandman (see Venom, Agony, and Venom 2099)
the ability to produce webbing from its own mass (adapted from Spider-Man)
the ability to sense the presence of other beings within a certain distance
the ability to generate and manipulate an ice-like substance (adapted from Iceman), use telepathy and telekinesis (adapted from Marvel Girl), create powerful kinetic blasts (adapted from Cyclops), increase strength and intelligence (adapted from Beast) and grant the host with the ability to fly (adapted from Angel)
the ability to create storage portals inside of themselves (this allowed Peter Parker to stow and access his camera)
the ability to filter breathable air for its host, allowing them to breathe underwater (seen in Vengeance of Venom), inhale poisonous fumes, and even survive in the vacuum of space
the ability to transfer symbiote traits to its host - for example, when Carnage ate Karl Malus and he became a symbiote-human hybrid
in the case of the Venom symbiote, the possession of empathic abilities, and the ability to project desires and needs into the thoughts of its host or potential hosts; this ability can also aid Venom in detecting the truth from those he interrogates.
in some realities, the symbiote feeds on the baser emotions of its host, creating an increasingly hostile personality. The longer the host is exposed to the symbiote, the more overpowering this state of mind becomes.
each symbiote has its own unique abilities: Venom has a venomous bite; Toxin can change its shape and form into a Spider-Man-like build (slim, but strong) and Venom-like build (big and muscular) depending on its mood; Scream can use its web-like hair as a weapon; Agony canspit acid and manipulate matter; Phage can create bladed weapons; Lasher can create tendrils on its back; Riot can use bludgeoning weapons and agility; Payback can produce electricity; Scorn can fuse itself with technology; All-Black can grant its host immortality; and Sleeper possesses chemokinesis, the ability to manipulate chemicals, providing limited telepathy and excellent cloaking abilities through pheromones.
some symbiotes are immune to sonic attacks and fire through modification, like Anti-Venom, Red Goblin, Mayhem, Payback and Grendel.
the ability to change the mood of its host by manipulating their brain chemicals
the ability to replicate itself, as seen with Carnage and All-Black in the mainstream universe and Venom in Spider-Man Reign
However, the symbiotes also possess weaknesses that can be fatal. Some of these weaknesses include:
a natural weakness to sonic attacks and heat-based attacks, which Knull unintentionally gave them while they were being forged. However, symbiotes have a growing resistance to sound and fire due to their evolution. Still, there has not been an invulnerable symbiote in mainstream continuity, because the newest breeds can be harmed by incredible amounts of sonic waves and heat. Symbiotes, like Krobaa, are also seemingly vulnerable to light. The symbiotes in Ultimate Marvel are only vulnerable to the heat produced by high voltage electricity.
vulnerability to chemical and biological attacks - for example, Iron Man created a cure to a virus-like bio-weapon based on the Venom symbiote that was created by Doctor Doom. Venom and Carnage have shown susceptibility to chemical inhibitors. Whether a symbiote can mutate and reduce the effect of these weaknesses is unknown.
potential hosts with advanced healing factors, such as Wolverine, have shown resistance to symbiosis.
in some incarnations, the symbiote is depicted as requiring a certain chemical (most likely phenethylamine) to stay sane and healthy, which has been said to be found abundantly in two sources: chocolate and human brain tissue. Thus, the host is forced to either consume large amounts of chocolate or become a cannibal who devours the brains of those they kill. This peculiar trait has only been witnessed in the Venom symbiote. However, both Carnage and Toxin have threatened their enemies with aspirations to "eat their brains", as well as various other body parts. When Toxin teamed up with Spider-Man and Black Cat, he struggled to keep himself together, but told Spider-Man that he was only "joking" about eating the robbers' brains. Similarly, the Exolons feed on the immortal soul of the hosts, making the hosts immortal; however, this causes the host to descend into madness, as well making them forget all of their old memories unless they inflict pain to themselves in an attempt to keep their memories for longer (see Zak-Del and the Nameless)
on at least one occasion, Spider-Man was able to exhaust the Venom symbiote by taking advantage of the fact that it made its webbing out of itself; after the symbiote had already used a great deal of webbing to bind him to a bell, Spider-Man forced Venom to use further webbing so that it would exhaust itself, like blood dripping from a wound (although the sheer amount of webbing that the symbiotes would need to use for this weakness to be exploited makes its use in a fight limited).
inability to bond to more than one host, as shown when Venom tried to bond to both Eddie and Peter at the same time and again with Flash and Eddie (although the Carnage symbiote did not display this weakness when bonding itself to people in Doverton, Colorado)
susceptibility to feelings - in the storyline Planet of the Symbiotes, Eddie Brock releases a cry of pain and agony so great that the entire symbiote race commits mass suicide, but how they kill themselves is not clear.
the Xenophages, a race of extraterrestrial shapeshifters which prey on symbiotes, possess the ability to spew an unknown incendiary chemical that can paralyze symbiotes and enhance their taste.
numerous occasions have shown that when a corrupted symbiote remains bonded to a host for too long, the symbiote will eventually consume the body of the host, leaving the host a dead husk (see the soldiers who were bonded to the Grendel symbiotes and with Peter Parker in two What If?!)
when Eddie Brock was diagnosed with cancer, Martin Li used his Lightforce healing ability to cure him, accidentally producing white blood cells in Eddie's blood which combatted the Venom's symbiote remnants; this created a new, non-sentient symbiote called Anti-Venom. This symbiote had the ability to cure every sickness (including Spider-Man's powers) and it was also corrosive to the symbiotes, as shown when Eddie and Flash nearly killed Venom, Mania, the Poisons and Red Goblin. There have been no symbiotes shown to be immune to Anti-Venom.
vulnerability to the abilities of telepaths
a new and still mysteriously extraterrestrial race known as Poisons, apparently nature's answer to the symbiotes, prey on them through direct contact infection, which forms an unstoppable one-sided union that the symbiote wants no part of.
List of symbiotes
Major symbiote characters
The following symbiotes have appeared throughout several years of Spider-Man's history, appeared in multiple media such as film and video games, and were main characters/villains in story arcs.
Chronologically introduced in Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #8, merged with Spider-Man, and notably Eddie Brock. Mac Gargan then went on to be the symbiote's host for a while. Later it was acquired by the government and was being used by Flash Thompson under the alias Agent Venom, until it separated from Flash and moved on to Lee Price, only to eventually return to Eddie Brock. It is revealed in Venom: First Host that a Kree soldier named Tel-Kar is chronologically the first to wear the suit, before Spider-Man. He is ranked by S.H.I.E.L.D. as one of the biggest threats along with Magneto, Doctor Doom, and Red Skull.
A child-spawn of Venom bonded to serial killer Cletus Kasady through his bloodstream. The symbiote would occasionally be separated from Cletus and bond to other hosts, such as Ben Reilly and Karl Malus, only to be reunited with Kasady again. Some time later Cletus was separated from Carnage and Norman Osborn was bonded to the Carnage symbiote in order to defeat Spider-Man.
In an attempt to create "super-cops" to police their new Utopia, the Life Foundation probed the Venom symbiote and extracted the last five of its "seeds", the materials used to create its spawn. These were cultured and bonded to five of the Life Foundation's best security personnel to form the Guardians: Donna Diego (Scream), Carl Mach (Phage), Leslie Gesneria (Agony), Trevor Cole (Riot), and Ramon Hernandez (Lasher).
In the comics none of the five symbiotes were originally given names. However, in the Venom: Planet of the Symbiotes toy line, the yellow symbiote was named Scream and the green symbiote was named Lasher. The name Scream was eventually used in Marvel Super Hero Island Adventures #1 and the Spider-Man Back in Black Handbook. The toy line also featured a four-armed symbiote named Riot, which was loosely based on the unnamed symbiote in the comic What if Scarlet Spider Killed Spider-Man?. The name Phage comes from an unrelated character from the comic Venom The Hunted and the Venom: Along Came A Spider toy line. The other symbiote names became popular among fans but did not appear in an official Marvel work until the 2011 Carnage U.S.A. mini-series.
Mach, Cole, Hernandez and Gesneria were all murdered by Diego after she decided that symbiotes were "evil"; the murdered guards' symbiotes fused to create Hybrid. Diego would later be killed by a powerless Eddie Brock, when the latter was eliminating the "evil" of the symbiotes from the Earth.
The character was introduced as the fusion of four symbiotes (Lasher, Phage, Agony and Riot), bonded to prison guard Scott Washington. Years later, Scream and Hybrid were hunted and killed by Eddie Brock, who was eliminating the "evil" of the symbiotes from the Earth. The Hybrid symbiote was able to survive and was taken in by the US Government, forcibly separated, and bonded to four soldiers to battle Carnage: Rico Axelson (Phage), James Murphy (Agony), Howard Ogden (Riot), and Marcus Simms (Lasher). The four soldiers came to be known as the Mercury Team. While on another rampage, Carnage killed the Mercury Team without their symbiotes. The four symbiotes temporarily bonded with Deadpool to fight Carnage. After Carnage's defeat, Deadpool unbonds with the symbiotes and the symbiotes bond to Mercury Team's dog.
A spawn of Carnage in the 1,000th generation that bonded with police officer Patrick Mulligan, becoming a hero. This was the first symbiote that Spider-Man considered an ally and it became something of a mentee of Spider-Man. It was later forcibly bonded to Eddie Brock by the Crime Master sometime after Patrick was beaten to death by Blackheart.
A hybrid symbiote created accidentally when the codexes of the Venom symbiote in Eddie Brock's body were combined with his white blood cells by the mystical energies of Mister Negative. Unlike other symbiotes, Anti-Venom is completely mindless and Eddie Brock is in full control of his actions. It possesses tremendous healing powers and other powers that differ from the Venom symbiote, such as the ability to produce antibodies that can cure any known disease and remove any other impurities within a human body. Its touch is corrosive to the other symbiotes. Anti-Venom was seemingly destroyed in the 2011 "Spider-Island" story arc. However in 2017's "Venom Inc.", Dr. Steven recreates the symbiote and it bonds with Flash Thompson, creating the same look as Agent Venom but with inverted colors.
First introduced in Venom #1. When Venom was fighting The Thing, his tongue was cut off. The tongue was subsequently retrieved from a scientist who was working for the Arat corporation, which was led by Bob (mini alien spider robots working together). They turned the tongue into an unstable clone of Venom which killed every human it saw. The clone was then bonded to Patricia Robertson and became the second She-Venom, but she was defeated by Eddie and the clone was absorbed into Venom. Eugene Thompson's neighbor in Philadelphia, Andy, bonded with the clone to save her from Jack O'Lantern. In "Venom Inc", Lee Price, who was bonded to Venom, stole the Mania symbiote and became Maniac. He was later defeated by Spider-Man, Venom, Black Cat and Agent Anti-Venom, but the weakened clone remained bonded to Lee, leaving Andy without a symbiote. Eventually, Cletus absorbed the symbiote after killing Lee.
A primordial god of darkness who manifested the first symbiote from his shadow in order to kill a Celestial and used the head's cosmic properties to form a suit of symbiote-armor while embarking on his deicidal crusade. While stranded on Gorr's desolate world, Knull discovered he could infect "lesser creatures" with the living abyss, creating the symbiotes in order to conquer the universe. He is considered to be the God of the symbiotes and is also the unidentified entity seen in Thor: God of Thunder #6.
First introduced in Venom #165, it is revealed that one seed inside Venom had remained after the Life Foundation extracted the seeds of Scream, Phage, Lasher, Agony and Riot. Venom, after having been "purified", wanted to keep his new offspring safe from people who would use it for nefarious purposes, and wanted to make it a hero like itself instead of another evil symbiote like Carnage. He gave birth to it in Alchemax. After the Venom symbiote was stolen by its first host, Tel-Kar, the offspring bonded to Eddie so that they could save Venom with the help of the Skrull Warbride M'Lanz. In the battle against Tel-Kar, Sleeper briefly bonds to M'Lanz, and her and Eddie return to Earth with Venom, where she leaves them. When Tel-Kar returned to Earth and tried to kill Eddie, Sleeper intervened and bonded with Tel-Kar, lobotomizing him in the process as revenge for what he had done to the Venom symbiote and Eddie. Brock was dismayed by this, but Sleeper bid him farewell and set out to explore the cosmos.
Other symbiote characters
The following symbiotes have made only a few other appearances in comic books and are usually excluded from adaptations in other media.
A symbiote capable of mind-controlling subjects by touch. The alien was captured aboard the ship of Devos the Devastator but escaped during an altercation between Devos and the Fantastic Four. Dreadface is presumed destroyed.
Rune vs Venom #1 (December 1995)
A leftover symbiote from the Planet of the Symbiotes arc, who bonded with Rune and tried to frame Venom for murdering civilians. He was later defeated by Venom, after Rune consumed his symbiote due to its influence.
Venom: Seed of Darkness #1 (July 1997)
This symbiote was bonded to a scientist who drove him mad and went on a destructive rampage across the city. Eddie used his camera's flash to defeat the creature.
When Mac Gargan encountered Scorpion (Carmilla Black), he was outraged after finding out she was using the Scorpion name and attacked her. However, Carmilla used her stinger to create a neo-symbiote from Venom's webbing, which proved to be harmful to the Venom symbiote. In the end, the symbiote died because Camilla's body was too toxic to sustain it.
The Exolon – created by Knull – are parasites which feed on the souls of living creatures. These parasites infected some Kree explorers, turning them into the Nameless and inhabiting The Exoteric Latitude thousands of years ago. Zak-Del is eventually infected and becomes one of them.
It is a unique brain-eating member of the symbiote species that was discovered several years ago by Shi'ar Emperor D'Ken. Unlike other symbiotes, ZZZXX was a mutant symbiote and did not bother to ask permission from or care to know his host. After being experimented and tamed, it bonded to Raza Longknife and became a Praetorian Guard. Then the Nova Corps captured and surgically removed it from Raza. The symbiote was then used as a weapon against an evil version of Charles Xavier from the Cancerverse, who became a planet-size brain, which proved to be a feast for the symbiote.
Originally a piece of Carnage recovered after his apparent destruction by Sentry. The piece was used to develop an advanced prosthetic arm used by Dr. Tanis Nieves. After she rejected its attempt to bond with her, it became attached to Shriek but grew fearful of her. Dr. Nieves accepted its desire to return to her and bonded with the symbiote to become Scorn. Because the symbiote's first host was a prosthetic arm, it developed the ability to bond to technology. Dr. Tanis was later corrupted by the presence of Knull, the creator of the symbiotes, and built a cult in order to release him from his prison. She freely submitted herself to Cletus, who killed her in order to absorb her codex inside her.
Venom Vol. 2 #13 (April, 2012)
Four clones of X-23 created by Blackheart and bonded to symbiote pieces – seemingly from Toxin. They are all killed by Laura.
The first symbiote ever created from the shadow of the evil deity Knull and tempered using the divine power of a slain Celestial head. It takes the form of a sword made from living darkness and responds to intense negative emotions, often corrupting its user into committing divine atrocities. After taking The All Black from Knull, Gorr was corrupted by the symbiote and continues the "God killing spree" started by Knull, becoming Gorr the God Butcher. After Gorr's plan to kill all of the universe's gods fails, Odinson, Thor and King Thor kill him and cast the Necrosword into a black hole. In King Thor's timeline, King Thor used it to stop Galactus from consuming Earth. Then the All-Black bonded to an injured Galactus, who became Galactus the World Butcher. When Ego the Living Planet arrives, the All-Black goes to Ego and turns him into Ego the Necroplanet, who then eats Galactus. Then Ego was destroyed by this timeline's Loki, who is disguised as a worm. Loki took the Necrosword and became Loki the All-Butcher.
When Tony Stark's personality was switched during The AXIS storyline he created the Armor Mark 50 or The Endo-Sym Armor. This armor was an artificial symbiote based on the Venom symbiote, but it didn't have any of the symbiote's weaknesses. Tony controlled the artificial symbiote through a device which it reads his thoughts. This symbiote didn't have a mind of his own like the original symbiotes. When Tony's mind returned to normal, he got rid of this armor.
An organization of noble warriors from various species that were sought out by symbiotes to act as champions, dedicated to protecting those in need and capable of maintaining peace across the universe. Flash Thompson was formerly a member of this organization when he possessed the Venom symbiote. Following the departure of Agent Venom and Tarna from the organization, the Agents of the Cosmos were attacked and killed by the Poisons.
Venom Spaceknight #2 (February 2016)
A female Skrull who was part of the Agents of Cosmos and was bonded to a purple symbiote. She assisted Flash Thompson with Venom and after an argument, Venom nearly killed the purple symbiote. The symbiote would be separated from Tarna to be bonded to another host.
Spawned by Carnage and bonded with former FBI special agent Claire Dixon as part of a ritual involving the Darkhold. The symbiote was eventually absorbed into the Toxin symbiote, so that it could defeat the newly resurrected Chthon.
A woman who bonded with a sadistic symbiote after purchasing it from a poacher. Before becoming Killer Thrill, she had come into conflict with Drax the Destroyer. She led her team of bounty hunters on a mission to kidnap the Starjammers and sell them to the highest bidder. Killer Thrill enjoyed torturing her captives with her symbiote powers, which enhanced her telepathic abilities and allowed them to become more powerful when she got excited. She was defeated during a battle with Venom and the X-Men and was killed when her symbiote was taken over by a Poison.
When Cyclops' father and the Starjammers were captured by symbiote-bonded bounty hunters, the young X-Men forced Eddie Brock to help them, since he was bonded to Venom. After going to space, they found a poacher who had sold the symbiotes to the bounty hunters and, during the fight that ensued, the X-Men accidentally became bonded to symbiotes. When they started fighting the bounty hunters, Poisons arrived and consumed them. The X-Men survived and gave their symbiotes to the Starjammers to send them to their home.
These symbiotes had arrived on earth in Northern Europe. At this time it was controlled by Knull to invade this planet as part of Knull's Imperium, until Thor arrived and defeated the symbiote dragon. This destroyed the connection between Knull and the symbiotes, but Knull had still full control of Grendel. These symbiotes remained trapped in ice for years until Nick Fury discovered them. He bonded the symbiotes to soldiers to create symbiote-enhanced supersoldiers, dubbed Sym-soldiers, to fight in the Vietnam War. However, the symbiotes, under the control of Knull, took over their hosts, except one soldier named Rex Strickland, who removed his symbiote from himself; the others started killing everyone. Fury – as a Life Model Decoy and with the help of Logan, who briefly bonded to the removed symbiote in the fight – captured the symbiote-infected soldiers, except the one removed symbiote, nicknamed Tyrannosaurus, who escaped Knull's control and took the form of its original human host - the original host was consumed during the action.
The Tyrannosaurus symbiote, after escaping Knull's control thanks to Logan, saw how beautiful the light was and wanted show its friends. With the appearance of its host Rex, it started working for S.H.I.E.L.D., escaping everyone's notice. It worked there for years until Secret Empire, when S.H.I.E.L.D. was dismantled. It then asked Eddie to free its friends. Unfortunately the symbiotes were still under the control of Knull, and, in dragon form, started searching for Tyrannosaurus. Tyrannosaurus then merged with Venom and tricked the dragon to come to them. Tyrannosaurus weakened the dragon with sonic bombs. Then it ordered Eddie to put them inside the furnace and burn them, denying Knull the chance to escape Klyntar. Their codexes are eventually retrieved by Maker and are later stolen by Scorn's cult, who implant them into Cletus, reviving him.
2,000 years in the future, N'Jadaka – a man named after Erik Killmonger's real name – and his team were exploring the other planets to expand the Wakanda Empire in the Galaxy. While exploring a planet, they were attacked by the Between. He and his men were trying to survive when he encountered a symbiote. He bonded to the symbiote because they hated the current Wakandan Emperor who had sent N'Jadaka to be killed, because he had rendered the symbiotes an endangered species. With its power, he killed the Shadow People and the Emperor and became the new ruler of Wakanda. He and the symbiote then killed the current Avatar of Bast and became the new Avatar.
Venom Vol. 4 #13 (June 2019)
During the War of the Realms event, after Eddie Brock was separated from Venom, he with his son Dylan were approached by one of Malekith's War Witches. She gave Eddie one of the Dark Elves' Dreamstones, in the hope of recruiting Eddie into Malekith's army. The Dreamstone turned into an artificial symbiote, similar to Venom but without a mind of its own. Eddie eventually bonded pieces of the suit to civilians in order to save them from the invasion.
During a confrontation between Knull and the Silver Surfer, Knull infected the Surfer with his Abyss, turning him into his Void Knight. However, Ego freed the Silver Surfer from Knull's control, destroying the symbiote and allowing him to escape.
King in Black: Planet of the Symbiotes #1 (January 2021)
A symbiote used by Knull to bond with the long dead serial killer Cortland Kasady, Knull's most faithful servant, reanimating Cortland in the process.
Following the death of the Scream symbiote, Dr. Steven tried to revitalize the symbiote by harvesting samples from the skin and blood of its host, Andi Bentonto. However, when the process proved unsuccessful, Dr. Steven combined its remains with a sample of Anti-Venom Serum, creating a new symbiote. When Andi was mortally wounded by Phage on the orders of Carnage, she bonded with the symbiote, thinking it was Scream. Dubbing itself Silence and characterizing itself as the absence of Scream, the symbiote took over Andi's body and handily defeated Phage using a version of Anti-Venom's cleansing touch, disconnecting it from the symbiote hive-mind.
In the Ultimate Marvel universe, the Venom suit is a man-made creation born of an experiment by Richard Parker and Edward Brock Sr., who were hoping to develop a protoplasmic cure for severe illnesses. Bolivar Trask, who was funding the research, intended to weaponize it. It used Richard's DNA as the starting base; thus, himself and Peter are "related" to it. When bonding to a host, the organic matter that comprises the suit envelops the host, regardless of resistance, and temporarily blinds it, before encasing itself in a hard casing, similar to a pupa. When the host emerges, the suit then shifts its appearance and function to assist its host, such as creating eyes for it to see through; if bonded with an incompatible host, it tries to take it over, inducing a homicidal rage in the suit's attempt to feed itself. When bonded with a host and forcibly removed, the suit leaves trace amounts of itself in their bloodstream, which attracts other samples of Venom and allows it to overload Peter's spider-sense. In the video game Ultimate Spider-Man, absorbing the trace amounts in Peter's blood allowed Eddie to take complete control of the suit, giving him a greater ability to talk and adorning him with a spider symbol on his chest.
Venom's only known weakness is electricity. Larger amounts of the suit will need more electricity to kill, as varying amounts of the suit will be stunned or vaporized by electric shocks. This was first seen in Ultimate Spider-Man #38, when an electric wire got tangled around Venom's foot. An electrocution from live power-lines vaporized the smaller amount on Peter, while a similar amount disabled Eddie. Note that in the video game Ultimate Spider-Man, when Electro electrocutes Venom during a cutscene, the suit is not affected by the shock like it was by the live power-line in the "Venom" arc. The suit can take the Shocker's vibro-shocks, and can protect its host from a bullet, which feels like nothing more than a relaxing vibration. When worn by a host other than Richard's son Peter, the host is compelled to take the life energy of other human beings or else have their own be consumed by the suit. The original Spider-Man (Peter Parker) was able to control the suit to a greater extent than anyone else because of his powers and because the suit was designed for his father.
The Carnage symbiote also appears in the Ultimate universe as a parasite genetically engineered by Curt Conners and Ben Reilly from Peter's DNA based on Richard's research. Traces of the Venom suit remaining in Peter's blood give Carnage similar properties to those of the Venom suit. It also devours people, but does not require a host. When first introduced, the organism was a blob of instinct, with no intelligence or self-awareness, its only aim to feed on the DNA of others, including that of Gwen Stacy, to stabilize itself. After feeding on multiple people, Carnage turns into a damaged form of Richard and Peter, with the memories of itself as Spider-Man. Carnage tries to absorb Peter so it can become whole, but Peter throws Carnage into a smokestack, burning the beast, although it is revealed that the organism had survived and turned into a replica of Gwen's form with Gwen's memories. During an encounter with Eddie Brock, the Venom suit absorbs the Carnage suit into itself, making itself complete and leaving Gwen a normal human being.
In Spider-Gwen's universe, Dr. Elsa Brock creates a cure to Harry Osborn's Lizard DNA by using Spider-Gwen's radioactive isotopes, given to her by S.I.L.K. Leader Cindy Moon. When Gwen injects the isotopes into Harry, the Lizard serum combines with the Spider isotopes and transforms into Venom. Venom then bonds to Spider-Gwen, which gives her her powers back and she becomes Gwenom. This symbiote, in its natural form, is made up of some spiders working together and is weak to sonic attacks only when bonded to a host; without a host, it is not susceptible to this weakness.
In the Amalgam Comics universe, the facility which created Spider-Boy started experimenting on a substance that they obtained from an alien spaceship. They inadvertently created a crystalline symbiote named Bizarnage (amalgamation of Carnage and Bizarro). It had the powers of Spider-Boy and started attacking everyone, until Spider-Boy defeated it.
In the alternate universe of the Marvel Comics 2, or MC2 imprint, Norman Osborn obtained Eddie's blood (he was still bonded to Venom at the time) and extracted the symbiote codex. Norman then combined the codices with May's DNA and created a symbiote/human hybrid clone of Mayday Parker. The clone stayed in stasis inside a chamber until Peter, with Norman's mind, became Goblin God and awoke the hybrid. When Peter returned to normal, the hybrid, under the alias Mayhem/Spider-Girl, went to live with the Parker family, naming herself April Parker.
In a later timeline, Mayhem accidentally killed the real Spider-Girl and became a murderous vigilante after killing American Dream. The government, in an attempt to stop her, used pieces of the dead Carnage symbiote (after it had been killed by Mayday) to create living weapons dubbed Bio-Predators. The Bio-preds ran wild, decimating the world and its defenders. Mayhem, seeing the error of her ways, went back in time and sacrificed herself to stop her past self from killing Spider-Girl, ensuring the events that led to the Biopreds' creation never occurred, even though she may have survived.
During the 2014 "Spider-Verse" storyline, in Spider-Punk's universe, V.E.N.O.M, also known as Variable Engagement Neuro-sensitive Organic Mesh, was created by Oscorp and was worn by the Thunderbolt Department, the police and fire department of President Osborn, so that he could have full control over the city. However, they are all subsequently defeated by Spider-Punk using his guitar.
During the 2018 "Spider-Geddon" storyline, in the universe of Peni Parker, aka SP//dr, VEN#m is a giant mech-suit, powered by a Sym Engine and created to serve as back-up in case the SP//dr failed. It was piloted by Addy Brock until, in a battle against a technological monster named M.O.R.B.I.U.S., the suit gained a conscience and went rogue. Though SP//dr is able to defeat VEN#m, she is too late to stop it from consuming Addy, as well as her version of Aunt May, who flew in to fix the problem manually.
...Spider-Man had rejected the Spider?
"What if?: The Other", set during "The Other" storyline, features an alternative version of Peter who abandons the Spider when given the choice. Some time afterward, the Venom symbiote leaves its current host Mac Gargan and merges with Peter, who was inside a cocoon to become Poison. Poison, now calling himself "I", chooses Mary Jane to be his companion. He fails to gain her affection and digs up the grave of Gwen Stacy instead. The last images reveals Poison watching over a new cocoon like his own, as it bursts forth showing a hand similar to Carnage's, even though the normal symbiotes are unable to bond with dead hosts.
In Spider-Man: India, the symbiotes are parasitic demons with outward tusk-like fangs, who had ruled the world in the past but got trapped inside an amulet. The amulet was eventually found by Nalin Oberoi and transformed him into the Green Goblin. During a fight with Spider-Man, the Green Goblin releases a demon to possess Spider-Man, but is expelled. After the defeat of Green Goblin, the amulet is thrown into ocean, leaving Venom the only demon alive.
In the What The--?!, "The Bee-Yonder" gives Spider-Ham a version of the black uniform, but Spider-Ham likes his classic suit more, so he gets rid of it. In #20, Pork Grind, a pig version of Venom, is introduced as an enemy of Spider-Ham.
Contest of Champions
In the 2016 Contest of Champions series, where Maestro and Collector use the heroes of different worlds to battle with each other, when this version of Venom was killed by Punisher 2099, the remnants fused with the remains of the Void, creating the Symbioids.
In the universe of Earth-9997, the symbiotes, like all sentient life, were created by the Celestials as "antibodies" to protect the embryos which resided in the core of the planets. Like the Asgardians and Mephisto, the symbiotes eventually reached the third stage of metamorphosis and apotheosized into metaphysical entities, given physical form by what others believed them to be and required of them. The Venom symbiote was given form by Spider-Man, who believed it to be a symbiotic living costume; after being bonded to Eddie Brock for years, it bonded to Peter's daughter May Parker, who managed to tame and rehabilitate it to start her career as the superhero Venom.
In the Spider-Man Unlimited series, a Synoptic is introduced. Synoptics are parasites that can control organic beings via touch. Venom and Carnage, who act as double agents to the High Evolutionary, are able to revive the Synoptic.
Spider-Man: Spider's Shadow
In the 2021 miniseries Spider's Shadow, the symbiote manages to form a stronger bond with Peter after the Hobgoblin kills May Parker, which leads to Peter succumbing to its influence and killing several of his familiar rogues before the FF are able to expel the symbiote from him. Unfortunately, the symbiote is able to escape captivity and bond with Reed Richards, allowing its subsequent spawn to be altered so that they are immune to most of its traditional weaknesses. Despite these symbiotes managing to bond with various Avengers, X-Factor, and the rest of the FF, Peter and Johnny Storm are able to trick the original symbiote into trying to re-bond with Peter, only to reveal that it was pursuing Johnny while he was using an image inducer. The death of the prime symbiote destroys all of its spawn (although it kills Reed before its defeat). 
Venom and Carnage appear in the 1990s Spider-Man animated series. In the three-part episode, "The Alien Costume", the Venom symbiote arrives on Earth via John Jameson's space shuttle and temporarily bonds with Spider-Man until he eventually realizes it is a negative influence on him and rejects it, causing it to bond with Eddie Brock. Together, they seek revenge on Spider-Man, but he is able to defeat and separate them, before trapping the Venom symbiote in a rocket as it is launched into space. In the episode "Venom Returns", however, Dormammu and Baron Mordo divert it, allowing the symbiote to return to Earth so they could use its services, during which the Carnage symbiote split off from it. When Venom fails to get a Stark Industries portal device for them, they provide Cletus Kasady with Venom's offspring, which he names Carnage, and send him to assist Venom. In the episode "Carnage", with help from Iron Man, Eddie Brock willingly separates from Venom after having a change of heart. When Carnage kidnaps Ashley Kafka, Eddie's love interest, he re-bonds with Venom and helps Spider-Man, Iron Man, and War Machine fight him and Mordo. Carnage attempts to throw Kafka into limbo, a place in between dimensions, but Venom stops him and knocks them both into the portal, foiling Dormammu's plans. In the two-part series finale, "Spider Wars", the Carnage symbiote bonds with an angry alternate universe clone of Spider-Man and turns him into Spider-Carnage.
Venom and Carnage appear in the Spider-Man Unlimited animated series. In the pilot episode, they board a shuttle piloted by John Jameson and crash it on Counter-Earth to start a new empire of symbiotes. This series' incarnation of symbiotes are amorphous creatures that rely on their elastic bodies rather than webbing and adopt unique looks.
Venom appears in The Spectacular Spider-Man animated series, with Spider-Man's version voiced by Josh Keaton and Eddie Brock's version voiced by Benjamin Diskin. In the episode "The Uncertainty Principle", the symbiote arrives on Earth by stowing away on John Jameson's space shuttle and bonds with Spider-Man. After the web-slinger rejects it, it bonds with Eddie in the episode "Intervention" to become Venom, but they are defeated in the episode "Nature vs. Nurture". Venom re-bonds with Eddie in the episodes "First Steps", "Growing Pains" and "Identity Crisis", wherein they attempt to expose Spider-Man's secret identity, but their plans are foiled and they are separated once more; the symbiote retreats into the sewers. Carnage was also set to appear in the third season before the show was cancelled.
Venom, Carnage and Anti-Venom appear in the Ultimate Spider-Man animated series. Venom and Anti-Venom are created by Doctor Octopus for Oscorp, who made the former from an altered sample of Spider-Man's DNA and the latter from a sample of Venom as a countermeasure. In the series, Harry Osborn is depicted as the symbiote's host and initially uses it to become a black-suited Spider-Man, until his continued usage of it turns him into Venom. The Carnage symbiote is initially created by the Green Goblin after bonding the Venom symbiote to Peter Parker, before it was recreated by HYDRA scientist Michael Morbius from a sample of the Venom symbiote he obtained. Anti-Venom is also created from a sample of the Venom symbiote and bonds with Harry.
A variant of the Venom symbiote appears in the Hulk and the Agents of S.M.A.S.H. animated series episode "The Venom Within". Doctor Octopus creates a "Gamma Venom" variant of the symbiote by having the regular symbiote bond with the show's titular characters before it is destroyed by the agents of S.M.A.S.H., with Spider-Man's help.
The Klyntar appear in the 2015 Guardians of the Galaxy animated series. Though the titular characters first encountered them in the episode "Hitchin' a Ride", it is not until the three-part episode "Symbiote War", when they learn that Klyntar's original homeworld was destroyed by Thanos, who captured most of them and took them to Planet X so he could weaponize them by altering their genealogy. The Exolons are also referenced as inhabiting Wraith's body. Carnage and Venom both appear in the episodes "Back in the New York Groove" and "Drive My Carnage". In this series, Carnage is an original Klyntar and not an offspring of Venom.
The Klyntar appear in the 2017 Spider-Man animated series. Venom, initially referred to as the "V-252", arrives on Earth inside a meteor and is recovered by the Space Program, who leave it at Horizon High so Max Modell can analyze it. It first appeared in the episode "A Day in the Life", and bonded with Spider-Man in the episode "Sandman". In the episode "Stark Expo", Spider-Man rejects and returns it. In the episode "Venom", the V-252 briefly escaped and possessed Flash Thompson until Spider-Man defeated it and returned it once more. In the episode "Dead Man's Party", the V-252 merged with Eddie Brock, who renamed it Venom. In the episode "Venom Returns", Venom was incapacitated by an experimental sonic device during a failed attempt to publicly expose Spider-Man's secret identity. In the episode "Superior", Venom is reawakened by experimentation that alters its genealogy, enabling it to survive without a host, but was defeated by Spider-Man once again. Season three, subtitled Maximum Venom, reveals Venom's origins and introduces more symbiotes, most notably Anti-Venom, Scream, Scorn, and Mania. In the episode "Web of Venom" Pt. 2, Venom is released by Dr. Curt Connors and absorbs a synthetic copy that Max Modell had Spider-Man test before making its way to the meteor crash site. Once it got there, it used an energy seed to shoot a beacon into space before Spider-Man destroys it, seemingly killing Venom. In the episode "Amazing Friends", Venom's fellow Klyntar started making their way to Earth, capturing most of the Avengers and Star-Lord on the way, though the latter's friend Groot got to the planet first to warn Spider-Man of the impending invasion. In the episode "Vengeance Of Venom", the Klyntar sent an advance hunting party to capture Earth's remaining heroes. Spider-Man and Marc Spector rescued Modell so he could create a synthetic antithesis of Venom, dubbed "Anti-Venom", to counteract the invading Klyntar. Merging with Groot, Anti-Venom cures everyone on Earth infected by the symbiotes before Doctor Strange takes him to space to cure the Guardians of the Galaxy. Unbeknownst to everyone, the seed from Venom's meteor is retrieved by Dr. Connors. In the episode "Generations" Pt. 2, it is revealed that Connors has been using Venom's leftover DNA and seed to resurrect Norman Osborn as the Dark Goblin. In the series finale "Maximum Venom", Venom recuperates within Modell's bloodstream and possesses his body, summoning Scream, Scorn and Mania to Earth. Despite attempting to destroy Earth using the World-Killer (a dragon-like weapon powered by Venom's seed), Modell is able to overcome Venom's control long enough to destroy the seed and vanquish the Klyntar for good.
The Venom symbiote appears in the live-action film Spider-Man 3. This incarnation came from space after it landed on Earth inside a meteorite. The symbiote fused with the sleeping Spider-Man's suit, enhancing his powers, abilities and anger. However, when Spider-Man learns of its evil nature, he separates himself from the symbiote with difficulty. After being rejected by the web-slinger, the alien attaches itself to Eddie Brock, turning him into Venom. Later, Spider-Man exploits the symbiote's weakness to soundwaves to defeat Venom and free Brock from it. However, it becomes strong enough to survive without a host, leading to Parker destroying it with one of the New Goblin's pumpkin bombs. Brock attempts to bond with it again, mere seconds before the bomb's detonation, resulting in him being killed along with it.
Marc Webb films
Venom Symbiote shown in The Amazing Spider-Man 2 alternate final trailer
In trailers for The Amazing Spider-Man 2 live-action film, the Venom symbiote appears briefly among various elements of supervillain technology seen in the Gustav Fiers / The Gentleman's agency. In the final cut of the film, the symbiote is replaced by the Rhino's armor, although a file labelled "Venom" is seen earlier in the film alongside a photograph of the symbiote. Sony Pictures had plans to create a Spider-Man-centric cinematic universe with various spin-off films, including a Venom film, which were abandoned following the studio agreement reached with Marvel Studios.
In the live-action film Thor: Ragnarok, Hela uses a weapon called the Necrosword, which is based on All-Black the Necrosword. However, there is no mention of the weapon being a symbiote because (similar to the Exolons) All-Black was not originally intended to be a symbiote when it was introduced.
The mid-credits scene of Spider-Man: No Way Home features Tom Hardy reprising his role, uncredited, as Eddie Brock / Venom from the Sony's Spider-Man Universe (SSU) films Venom and Venom: Let There Be Carnage. Both Brock and Venom were left temporarily displaced in the MCU following the events of the latter film due to a miscast spell by Stephen Strange intended to wipe the world's knowledge of Peter Parker's secret identity, which Venom itself recognizes due to a shared hive mind of knowledge among the symbiotes across multiple universes. They are seen discussing events that transpired in this universe with a bartender who informs of them of notable figures such as Tony Stark, Bruce Banner and Thanos, while also learning about the events of The Blip. Upon Brock contemplating heading to New York City to meet Spider-Man himself, the two are instantaneously transported back to their home universe alongside the other displaced individuals from the multiverse as the spell is successfully recast, while unknowingly leaving a piece of the Venom symbiote behind at the bar, which begins to move.
In the 2000 Spider-Man video game, Doctor Octopus clones Carnage's symbiote as part of a plot to replace humanity with symbiotes under his command. The symbiotes become the main enemies towards the end of the game and are significantly tougher than regular enemies, although they can be easily killed using fire-imbued web cartridges hidden throughout the levels.
In Spider-Man: Web of Shadows, Venom infests New York with multiple types of symbiotes, including Snatchers, Zombies, Berserkers, Grapplers, and Slashers. The symbiotes also infect characters like Electro and Vulture, who go on to spawn Electrolings and Vulturelings with powers similar to theirs, and Symbiote Pods, which absorb civilians and convert them into one of the aforementioned symbiote variants.
In The Amazing Spider-Man 2, Cletus Kasady becomes Carnage after being injected with a nanite-based version of the Venom symbiote while he is imprisoned at Ravencroft. After escaping, he goes on to infect numerous Ravencroft inmates with his symbiote and take over the institute.
Various symbiote characters are featured in the mobile game Spider-Man Unlimited. There is also a bonus level set within the "Symbiote Dimension".
Symbiotes "connect together" in a Marvel Puzzle Quest storyline. Besides Venom and Carnage, the game features four original symbiotes: a green male named Carrier, an orange female named Horror, a teal toothy creature called Demolisher, and a magenta dog-like creature called Mutation.
In Marvel Avengers Academy, Oscorp take the symbiotes from their home world, forcing Spider-Man to try and save them. However, the symbiotes are bonded to various hosts and attempt to take over the Academy. While they fail to do so, they decide to remain on Earth.
The symbiotes appear in Marvel vs. Capcom Infinite. In the game's story, Jedah Dohma uses the Soul Stone to steal a million souls from Earth and feed them to a Giant Symbiote, planning to strengthen it and use it as a weapon against UltronSigma. He also gives pieces of the symbiote to A.I.M.brella to bond to virus-infected subjects to stabilize them. Spider-Man, Chris Redfield, Frank West, and Mike Haggar defeat Jedah, but he unleashes the creature on New Metro City. When Redfield tries attacking it, he accidentally causes part of the symbiote to bond to Spider-Man, forcing the latter to fight his teammates against his will until Frank uses car alarms to remove the symbiote. After getting three of the Infinity Stones, the heroes destroy the creature. Venom also appears as a playable character via downloadable content.
The Venom symbiote is featured throughout the Marvel's Spider-Man series developed by Insomniac Games:
The symbiote is first teased in the end-credits scene of Marvel's Spider-Man (2018), where it is revealed that Norman Osborn has been keeping his son Harry in a state of suspension following the revelation that he was falling terminally ill to the 'Oshtoran syndrome', a degenerative disease that was passed through hereditary genes from his mother Emily Osborn, who had succumbed to the disease prior to the game's events. As a last resort, Norman imbued Harry with the symbiote as a temporary cure, but promised his son he wouldn't rest until he had found a way to eliminate the disease completely and restore his health.
The end-credits scene of Marvel's Spider-Man: Miles Morales (2020) indirectly continues the events of the previous scenario, now showing Harry waking up from his period of stasis to witness the recent news of the apprehension of the terrorist group 'The Underground' by Spider-Man, and Rio Morales' successful election as councilwoman for the neighborhood of Harlem. Norman immediately enters the room and pleas with his medical assistant Dr. Curt Connors to release Harry, still imbued with the symbiote, from his cryochamber in spite of Connors' observation of his relatively unstable condition.
^Mike Costa (w), Mark Bagley (p), Andrew Hennessy (i), Dono Sánchez-Almara (col), VC's Clayton Cowles (let), Devin Lewis, Lauren Amaro and Nick Lowe (ed). Venom First Host #1-3 (29 August 2018), New York City: Marvel Comics
^Rick Remender (w), Tony Moore (p), Crimelab Studios (i), John Rauch (col), VC's Joe Caramagna (let), Alex Alonso (ed). Venom v2, #4 (29 June 2011), United States: Marvel Comics
^Robbie Thompson (w), Kim Jacinto (p), Java Tartaglia (col), VC's Joe Caramagna (let), Jake Thomas and Kathleen Wisneski (ed). Venom: Space Knight #8 (8 June 2016), United States: Marvel Comics
^ abcElliott Kalan (w), Marco Failla (p), Marco Failla (i), Ian Herring (col), VC's Clayton Cowles (let), Katie Kubert (ed). Spider-Man and the X-Men #5 (15 April 2015), United States: Marvel Comics
^Cullen Bunn (w), Ario Anindito and Edgar Salazar (p), Alan Martinez (i), Dono Sanchez-Almara (col), VC's Clayton Cowles (let), Edward Devin Lewis (ed). "Poison X" Venom #163 (7 March 2017), United States: Marvel Comics
^ abCullen Bunn (w), Iban Coello (p), Matt Yackey (col), VC's Joe Caramagna (let), Edward Devin Lewis (ed). Venomized #1-5 (4 April 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Donny Cates (w), Juanan Ramirez (p). "Ve'nam" Web of Venom #1 (29 August 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Donny Cates (w), Ryan Stegman (p), JP Mayer (i), Frank Martin (col), VC's Clayton Cowles (let), Edward Devin Lewis (ed). "Rex" Venom v4, #3 (27 June 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Donny Cates (w), Ryan Stegman (p), JP Mayer (i), Frank Martin (col), VC's Clayton Cowles (let), Edward Devin Lewis (ed). Venom v4, #6 (19 September 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^ abcDonny Cates (w), Iban Coello (p), VC's Clayton Cowles (let), Edward Devin Lewis (ed). "Project Oversight" Venom v4, #8 (14 November 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Donny Cates (w), Danilo S. Beyruth (p), Cristiane Peter (col), VC's Clayton Cowles (let). "Carnage Born" Web of Venom #1 (21 November 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Update #1. Marvel Comics.
^ abcdeDavid Michelinie (w), Mark Bagley (p), Randy Emberlin (i). "Savage Alliance" The Amazing Spider-Man #361-362 (April–May 1992), United States: Marvel Comics
^Tom DeFalco (w), Mark Bagley and Ron Lim (p), Sam de la Rosa and Jim Sanders III (i), John Kalisz (col), Chris Eliopoulos (let), Danny Fingeroth and Mike Lackey (ed). "Maximum Carnage" Spider-Man Unlimited #2 (August 1993), United States: Marvel Comics
^Tom DeFalco and Roger Stern (w), Ron Frenz (p), Brett Breeding (i), Glynis Wein (col), Joe Rosen (let), Danny Fingeroth (ed). "Homecoming" Amazing Spider-Man #252 (May 1984), United States: Marvel Comics
^Jim Shooter (w), Mike Zeck (p), John Beatty, Jack Abel and Mike Esposito (i), Christie Scheele (col), Joe Rosen (let), Tom DeFalco (ed). Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #8 (December 1984), United States: Marvel Comics
^Donny Cates (w), Iban Coello (a), Andres Mossa (col), Clayton Cowles (let), Devin Lewis, Lauren Amaro and Nick Lowe (ed). "Project Oversight" Venom v4, #7 (December 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Peter David (w), Andrew Wildman (p), Stephen Baskerville (i), Megan McDowell, Foodhammer! and Malibu Color (col), Ken Lopez (let), Joey Cavalieri and Lia Pelosi (ed). Spider-Man 2099 #35 (September 1995), United States: Marvel Comics
^Jason Aaron (w), Esad Ribic (a), Ive Svorcina (col), Joe Sabino (let), Wil Moss and Jon Moisan (ed). Thor: God of Thunder #23 (August 2014), United States: Marvel Comics
^Howard Mackie (w), Graham Nolan (p), Scott Koblish (i), Mark Bernardo (col), Benchmark Productions (let), Ralph Macchio (ed). "The Time Before" Web-Spinners: Tales of Spider-Man #14 (February 2000), United States: Marvel Comics
^Terry Kavanagh (w), Steven Butler (p), Randy Emberlin (i), Kevin Tinsley (col), Steve Dutro (let), Eric Fein and Danny Fingeroth (ed). Web of Spider-Man #118 (November 1994), United States: Marvel Comics
^ abDavid Michelinie (w), Mark Bagley (p), Sam de la Rosa and Al Milgrom (i), Marie Javins (col), Richard Starkings (let), Danny Fingeroth (ed). Venom Lethal Protector #1 (February 1993), United States: Marvel Comics
^Donny Cates (w), Ryan Stegman (p), JP Mayer (i), Frank Martin (col), Clayton Cowles (let), Devin Lewis, Lauren Amaro and Nick Lowe (ed). Venom v4, #5 (October 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Robbie Thompson (w), Ariel Olivetti (a), Ariel Olivetti (col), Joe Caramagna (let), Jake Thomas, Kathleen Wisneski and Tom Brevoort (ed). Venom: Space Knight #2 (February 2016), United States: Marvel Comics
^Donny Cates (w), Joshua Cassara (a), Rain Beredo (col), Clayton Cowles (let), Devin Lewis, Lauren Amaro, Danny Khazem and Nick Lowe (ed). "Abyss" Venom v4, #12 (May 2019), United States: Marvel Comics
^Howard Mackie (w), John Romita Jr. (p), Scott Hanna (i). "Cliché" Spider-Man v2, #16 (April 2000), United States: Marvel Comics
^Cullen Bunn (w), Edgar Salazar and Ario Anindito (p), Edgar Salazar and Ario Anindito (i), Dono Sánchez-Almara (col), Clayton Cowles (let), Devin Lewis, Thomas Groneman, Nick Lowe, Christina Harrington, Chris Robinson, Darren Shan and Mark Paniccia (ed). "Poison-X" Venom #162 (April 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Howard Mackie (w), Adam Kubert (p), Bill Reinhold (i), Gregory Wright (col), Michael Heisler (let), Bobbie Chase (ed). "Spirit of Venom" Ghost Rider/Blaze: Spirits of Vengeance #5 (December 1992), United States: Marvel Comics
^Christos N. Gage and Dan Slott (w), Jorge Molina (p), Jay Leisten, Craig Yeung and Roberto Poggi (i), David Curiel (col), Travis Lanham (let), Nick Lowe and Kathleen Wisneski (ed). Spider-Geddon #2 (December 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Tom DeFalco andRoger Stern (w), Ron Frenz (p), Brett Breeding (i), Glynis Wein (col), Joe Rosen (let), Danny Fingeroth (ed). Amazing Spider-Man #252 (May 1984), United States: Marvel Comics
^Zeb Wells (w), Clayton Crain (a), Clayton Cowles (let), Stephen Wacker and Alejandro Arbona (ed). "Family Feud" Carnage #4 (June 2011), United States: Marvel Comics
^'Nick Spencer (w), Daniel Acuña and Mike Choi (a), Joe Caramagna (let), Tom Brevoort, Katie Kubert and Alanna Smith (ed). Captain America: Sam Wilson #3 (January 2016), United States: Marvel Comics
^David Michelinie (w), Joe St. Pierre (p), Greg Adams (i), Tom Smith (col), Bill Oakley and NJQ (let), Tom Brevoort and Danny Fingeroth (ed). Amazing Spider-Man Super Special #1 (July 1995), United States: Marvel Comics
^Robbie Thompson (w), Gerardo Sandoval (p), Gerardo Sandoval (i), Dono Sánchez-Almara (col), Joe Caramagna (let), Jake Thomas and Kathleen Wisneski (ed). Venom: Space Knight #12 (November 2016), United States: Marvel Comics
^ abDan Slott (w), Nick Bradshaw, Humberto Ramos, Stuart Immonen and Mike Hawthorne (p), JP Mayer, Victor Olazaba, Wade Von Grawbadger, Marcos Martin and Cam Smith (i), Marte Gracia, Jordie Bellaire, Javier Tartaglia, Muntsa Vicente and Edgar Delgado (col), VC's Joe Caramagna (let), Nick Lowe (ed). "Go Down Swinging" Amazing Spider-Man #799-800 (30 May 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Jeff Christiansen, Mike O'Sullivan, Michael Hoskin, Sean McQuaid, Madison Carter, Rob London, Kevin Garcia, Gabriel Shechter, Ronald Byrd, David Wiltfong, Chris Biggs, Jeph York and Matt Forbeck (w), Gus Vazquez (p), Tom Chu (i), Tom Smith (col), Jeff Youngquis (ed). Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z Update #5 (February 2011), United States: Marvel Comics
^Cary Bates (w), Paul Gulacy (p), Paul Gulacy (i), Rain Beredo (col), Dave Lanphear (let), Molly Lazer and Bill Rosemann (ed). True Believers #1 (September 2008), United States: Marvel Comics
^Donny Cates (w), Ryan Stegman (p), JP Mayer (i), Frank Martin (col), Clayton Cowles (let), Devin Lewis, Lauren Amaro and Nick Lowe (ed). Venom v4, #4 (September 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Ryan Stegman (w), Kyle Hotz and Juan Gedeon (p), Marc Deering, Scott Hanna, Livesay, Roberto Poggi, Victor Olazaba and Juan Gedeon (i), Dan Brown, Matt Yackey, Andrew Crossley and Carlos Cabrera (col), Clayton Cowles (let), Devin Lewis, Lauren Amaro and Nick Lowe (ed). "Unleashed" Web of Venom #1 (March 2019), United States: Marvel Comics
^Jason Aaron (w), Esad Ribic (a), Ive Svorcina (col), Joe Sabino (let), Lauren Sankovitch (ed). Thor: God of Thunder #2 (January 2013), United States: Marvel Comics
^Brian Michael Bendis (w), Mark Bagley (p), Danny Miki, Allen Martinez and Victor Olazaba (i), Justin Ponsor and Stephane Peru (col), Dave Lanphear (let), Tom Brevoort (ed). Mighty Avengers #8 (30 January 2008), United States: Marvel Comics
^Larry Hama (w), Josh Hood (p), Derek Fisher (i). "On Trial : Part 1 – Law & Order" Venom #1 (March 1997), United States: Marvel Comics
^David Michelinie (w), Erik Larsen (p), Mike Machlan (i). "Stalking Feat!" The Amazing Spider-Man #333 (July 1990), Marvel Comics
^Jeff Lemire (w), Humberto Ramos (p), Victor Olazaba (i), Edgar Delgado and Dono Sánchez-Almara (col), Joe Caramagna (let), Daniel Ketchum, Chris Robinson and Mark Paniccia (ed). "Apocalypse Wars" Extraordinary X-Men #12 (27 July 2016), United States: Marvel Comics
^Len Kaminski (w), Ted Halsted (p), Scott Koblish (i), Tom Smith (col), Ken Lopez (let), Tom Brevoort (ed). Venom the Hunger #1 (August 1996), United States: Marvel Comics
^Javier Grillo-Marxuach (w), Kyle Hotz (p), Kyle Hotz (i), Gina Going (col), Cory Petit (let), Bill Rosemann (ed). Annihilation: Conquest - Wraith #2 (October 2007), United States: Marvel Comics
^David Michelinie (w), Todd McFarlane (p), Bob Sharen (col), Rick Parker (let), Jim Salicrup (ed). Amazing Spider-Man #317 (July 1989), United States: Marvel Comics
^Dan Slott and Mike Costa (w), Ryan Stegman (p), Brian Leber (col), Joe Caramagna (let), Devin Lewis, Nick Lowe, Allison Stock and Thomas Groneman (ed). "Venom Inc Alpha" Amazing Spider-Man and Venom #1 (6 December 2017), United States: Marvel Comics
^David Michelinie (w), Steve Lightle (p), Bill Oakley (i), Marie Javins (col), VC's Jonathan Babcock (let), Bob Budiansky (ed). "Planet of the Symbiotes; Growing Pain" Web of Spider-Man Super Special #1 (October 1995), United States: Marvel Comics
^Larry Hama (w), Duncan Rouleau (p), John Stangeland (i), Tom Smith and Malibu Color (col), VC's Ken Lopez (let), Tom Brevoort (ed). "He who Eats" Venom: The Hunted #1-3 (May 1996), United States: Marvel Comics
^Donny Cates (w), Ryan Stegman (p), JP Mayer (i), Frank Martin (col), Clayton Cowles (let), Edward Devin Lewis (ed). Venom v4, #2 (13 June 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Jay Faerber (w), Gregg Schigiel (p), Jose Marzan Jr. (i), Paul Tutrone (col), Chris Eliopoulos (let), Frank Pittarese (ed). "What if the heroes had remained on Battleworld?" What If... v2, #114 (November 1998), United States: Marvel Comics
^Dan Slott and Mike Costa (w), Ryan Stegman and Gerardo Sandoval (p), Jay Leisten (i), Brian Leber (col), VC's Joe Caramagna (let), Nick Lowe (ed). "Venom Inc Omega" Amazing Spider-Man and Venom #1 (17 January 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Cullen Bunn (w), Iban Coello (p), Matt Yackey (col), VC's Joe Caramagna (let), Edward Devin Lewis (ed). Venomized #3-4 (18 April 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Brian Michael Bendis (w), Mark Bagley (p), Art Thibert and Rodney Ramos (i), Transparency Digital (col), VC's Chris Eliopoulos (let), Ralph Macchio, Brian Smith, C.B. Cebulski and Stephanie Moore (ed). Ultimate Spider-Man #33-36 (April 2003), United States: Marvel Comics
^Brian Michael Bendis (w), Mark Bagley (p), Scott Hanna and John Dell (i), J.D. Smith (col), Virtual Calligr (let), Ralph Macchio (ed). Ultimate Spider-Man #62 (7 July 2004), United States: Marvel Comics
^Brian Michael Bendis (w), Stuart Immonen (p), Wade Von GrawBadger (i), Justin Ponsor (col), Cory Petit (let), Mark Paniccia and Lauren Sankovitch (ed). "War of the Symbiotes" Ultimate Spider-Man #128 (26 November 2008), United States: Marvel Comics
^Jason Latour (w), Robbie Rodriguez (p), Clayton Cowles (let), Nick Lowe, Kathleen Wisneski and Devin Lewis (ed). "Predators" Spider-Gwen v2, #24 (27 September 2017), United States: Marvel Comics
^Tom DeFalco and Ron Frenz (w), Ron Frenz (p), Sal Buscema (i), Bruno Hang and Impacto Studios (col), Dave Sharpe (let), Molly Razer (ed). Amazing Spider-Girl #20 (July 2008), United States: Marvel Comics
^Tom DeFalco and Ron Frenz (w), Tom DeFalco and Ron Frenz (p), Sal Buscema (i), Bruno Hang and Sotocolor (col), Dave Sharpe (let). Spider-Girl: The End (25 August 2010), United States: Marvel Comics
^Dan Slott and Kathryn Immonen (w), Mark Brooks and David Lafuente (a). Spider-Verse #2 (14 January 2015), United States: Marvel Comics
^Loonie Nadler, Zac Thompson and Gerard Way (w), Alberto Jimenez Alburquerque (a). Edge of Spider-Geddon #2 (29 August 2018), United States: Marvel Comics
^Rick Remender (w), Dave Wilkins (a), Anthony Washington (col), Nate Piekos (let), Mark Paniccia and Nathan Cosby (ed). "...What If Legion Had Killed Xavier and Magneto?" What If? X-Men Age of Apocalypse #1 (February 2007), United States: Marvel Comics
^Suresh Seetharaman, Sharad Devarajan and Jeevan J. Kang (w), Gotham Entertainment Group (col). Spider-Man: India #1-4 (17 November 2004), United States: Marvel Comics
^Mike Carlin (w), Joe Albelo (p), Pierre Fournier (i), Juliana Ferriter (col), Janice Chiang (let), Larry Hama (ed). "Pig's Out" Spider-Ham #17 (September 1987), United States: Star Comics
^Al Ewing (w), Paco Medina (p), Mark Paniccia (ed). Contest of Champions #6 (23 March 2016), United States: Marvel Comics
^Mike O'Sullivan, Rob Bock, Anthoney Cotilletta, Pat Duke, Mike Fichera, Daron Jensen, Rob London, Chris McCarver, Jacob Rougemont and Stuart Vandal (w), Wellinton Alves, Simone Bianchi, Nick Bradshaw, Sal Buscema, John Byrne, Roberto Castro, Paul Catling, Jim Cheung, Gene Colan, Gabriele Dell'Otto, Steve Ditko, Andrea Di Vito, Jack Dudman, Anthony Francisco, Javier Garrón, Adi Granov, Bob Hall, Scott Hepburn, Dave Johnson, Gil Kane, Jack Kirby, Nic Klein, José Ladrönn, Bob Larkin, Aaron Lopresti, Jorge Lucas, Chris Marrinan, Francesco Mattina, Mike Mayhew, Steve McNiven, Gray Morrow, Rudy Nebres, Ariel Olivetti, Paul Pelletier, George Pérez, Keith Pollard, Olivier Pron, Joe Quinones and Humberto Ramos (p), Mark D. Beazley, Jennifer Grunwald, Sarah Brunstad, Jeff Youngquist and Alex Starbuck (ed). Guidebook to the Marvel Cinematic Universe - Marvel's Guardians of the Galaxy 1 (September 2016), United States: Marvel Comics