Katy Perry performing during the Super Bowl XLIX halftime show at the University of Phoenix Stadium in February 2015. It is the most watched halftime show on network broadcast, with a TV audience of 118.5 million.[1]
Katy Perry performing during the Super Bowl XLIX halftime show at the University of Phoenix Stadium in February 2015. It is the most watched halftime show on network broadcast, with a TV audience of 118.5 million.[1]
The Super Bowl LIV halftime show starring Jennifer Lopez and Shakira is the most viewed Super Bowl halftime show on YouTube.[2]
The Super Bowl LIV halftime show starring Jennifer Lopez and Shakira is the most viewed Super Bowl halftime show on YouTube.[2]

Halftime shows are a tradition during American football games at all levels of competition. Entertainment during the Super Bowl, the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL), represents a fundamental link to pop culture, which helps broaden the television audience and nationwide interest.

Prior to the early 1990s, the halftime show featured university marching bands (the Grambling State University Marching Band has performed at the most Super Bowl halftime shows, featuring in six shows including at least one per decade from the 1960s to the 1990s), drill teams, and other performance ensembles such as Up with People. Beginning in 1991, the halftime show began to feature pop music acts such as New Kids on the Block and Gloria Estefan. In an effort to boost the prominence of the halftime show to increase viewer interest, Super Bowl XXVII featured a headlining performance by Michael Jackson. Since 2013, Pepsi has been the official sponsor of the halftime show.

Background

View of the halftime show at Super Bowl I
View of the halftime show at Super Bowl I

During most of the Super Bowl's first decade, the halftime show featured a college marching band. The show's second decade featured a more varied show, often featuring drill teams and other performance ensembles; the group Up with People produced and starred in four of the performances. The middle of the third decade, in an effort to counter other networks' efforts to counterprogram the game,[3] saw the introduction of popular music acts such as New Kids on the Block, Gloria Estefan, Michael Jackson, Clint Black, Patti LaBelle, and Tony Bennett. Starting with Super Bowl XXXII, commercial sponsors presented the halftime show; within five years, the tradition of having a theme—begun with Super Bowl III—ended, replaced by major music productions by arena rock bands and other high-profile acts. In the six years immediately following an incident at Super Bowl XXXVIII where Justin Timberlake exposed one of Janet Jackson's breasts in an alleged "wardrobe malfunction", all of the halftime shows consisted of a performance by one artist or group, with the musicians in that era primarily being rock artists from the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. These shows were considered "family friendly" and the time in which they took place has been described as "the age of reactionary halftime shows".[4] Since Super Bowl XLV, the halftime show has returned to featuring popular contemporary musicians, with the typical format featuring a single headline artist collaborating with a small number of guest acts.

The NFL does not pay the halftime show performers an appearance fee, though it covers all expenses for the performers and their entourage of band members management, technical crew, security personnel, family, and friends.[5] Super Bowl XXVII halftime show with Michael Jackson provided an exception, as the NFL and Frito-Lay agreed to make a donation and provide commercial time for Jackson's Heal the World Foundation.[6][7][8] According to Nielsen SoundScan data, the halftime performers regularly experience significant spikes in weekly album sales and paid digital downloads due to the exposure.[9] For Super Bowl XLIX, it was reported by the Wall Street Journal that league officials asked representatives of potential acts if they would be willing to provide financial compensation to the NFL in exchange for their appearance, in the form of either an up-front fee, or a cut of revenue from concert performances made after the Super Bowl. While these reports were denied by an NFL spokeswoman, the request had, according to the Journal, received a "chilly" response from those involved.[10][11]

History

The following is a list of the performers, producers, themes, and sponsors for each Super Bowl game's show. This list does not include national anthem performers, which are listed in the article List of national anthem performers at the Super Bowl. Names in bold are headline performers.

1960s

Super Bowl Date Location Theme Performer(s) Producer Setlist Ref.
I January 15, 1967 Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
(Los Angeles, California)
N/A Tommy Walker
(The University of Arizona Symphonic Marching Band)
[13][14][15]
II January 14, 1968 Miami Orange Bowl
(Miami, Florida)
Grambling State University Marching Band N/A N/A [13]
III January 12, 1969 Miami Orange Bowl
(Miami, Florida)
America Thanks
[13]

1970s

Super Bowl Date Location Theme Performer(s) Producer Sponsor Setlist Ref.
IV January 11, 1970 Tulane Stadium
(New Orleans, Louisiana)
Tribute to Mardi Gras N/A N/A [13]
V
(show)
January 17, 1971 Miami Orange Bowl
(Miami, Florida)
N/A Southeast Missouri State Marching Band
Anita Bryant
Up With People
N/A [13][16][17][18]
VI January 16, 1972 Tulane Stadium
(New Orleans, Louisiana)
Salute to Louis Armstrong Jim Skinner
[13][19]
VII January 14, 1973 Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
(Los Angeles, California)
Happiness Is Tommy Walker
(partial)
  • "Put on a Happy Face" (University of Michigan Marching Band)
  • "Woodchopper's Ball" (University of Michigan Marching Band with Woody Herman)
  • "La Virgen de la Macarena" (University of Michigan Marching Band)
  • "This Land Is Your Land" (University of Michigan Marching Band)
  • "Marmalade, Molasses & Honey" (Andy Williams)
  • "People" (Andy Williams)
[13][20][21]
VIII January 13, 1974 Rice Stadium
(Houston, Texas)
A Musical America
Jim Skinner N/A [13]
IX January 12, 1975 Tulane Stadium
(New Orleans, Louisiana)
Tribute to Duke Ellington Mercer Ellington & Grambling State University Marching Bands Jim Skinner [13][15]
X
(show)
January 18, 1976 Miami Orange Bowl
(Miami, Florida)
200 Years and Just a Baby: A Tribute to America's Bicentennial Up with People N/A
[22]
[13][23]
XI January 9, 1977 Rose Bowl
(Pasadena, California)
It's a Small World Los Angeles Unified All-City Band with the New Mouseketeers & Audience card stunt The Walt Disney Company
[24]
[13]
XII January 15, 1978 Louisiana Superdome
(New Orleans, Louisiana)
From Paris to Paris of America
N/A N/A [13]
XIII January 21, 1979 Miami Orange Bowl
(Miami, Florida)
Salute to Caribbean
Bob Jani Carnival [13]

1980s

Super Bowl Date Location Theme Performer(s) Producer Sponsor Setlist Ref.
XIV
(show)
January 20, 1980 Rose Bowl
(Pasadena, California)
A Salute to the Big Band Era N/A N/A [13][23]
XV January 25, 1981 Louisiana Superdome
(New Orleans, Louisiana)
Mardi Gras Festival Jim Skinner N/A [13]
XVI
(show)
January 24, 1982 Pontiac Silverdome
(Pontiac, Michigan)
Salute to the 1960s and Motown Up with People N/A [13][23]
XVII January 30, 1983 Rose Bowl
(Pasadena, California)
KaleidoSUPERscope Los Angeles Super Drill Team Bob Jani
[27]
[13]
XVIII January 22, 1984 Tampa Stadium
(Tampa, Florida)
Salute to Superstars of Silver Screen University of Florida and Florida State University Marching Bands The Walt Disney Company
XIX January 20, 1985 Stanford Stadium
(Stanford, California)
World of Children's Dreams Tops in Blue Air Force Entertainment N/A [13]
XX
(show)
January 26, 1986 Louisiana Superdome
(New Orleans, Louisiana)
Beat of the Future Up with People N/A
[28]
[13][23]
XXI January 25, 1987 Rose Bowl
(Pasadena, California)
Salute to Hollywood's 100th Anniversary – The World of Make Believe
The Walt Disney Company [13]
XXII January 31, 1988 Jack Murphy Stadium
(San Diego, California)
Something Grand
Radio City Music Hall
[29]
[13][14]
XXIII
(show)
January 22, 1989 Joe Robbie Stadium
(Miami Gardens, Florida)
1950's Rock and Roll (Be Bop Bamboozled in 3-D)
  • MagicCom Entertainment
  • Dan Witkowski
Diet Coke [13][30]

1990s

Super Bowl Date Location Theme Performer(s) Producer Sponsor Setlist Ref.
XXIV January 28, 1990 Louisiana Superdome
(New Orleans, Louisiana)
Salute to New Orleans & 40th Anniversary of Peanuts Select Productions N/A
XXV January 27, 1991 Tampa Stadium
(Tampa, Florida)
Small World Tribute to 25 Years of the Super Bowl The Walt Disney Company

[a]

[13]
XXVI January 26, 1992 Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome
(Minneapolis, Minnesota)
Winter Magic, salute to 1992 Winter Olympics Timberline Productions N/A

[b]

[13]
XXVII
(show)
January 31, 1993 Rose Bowl
(Pasadena, California)
N/A Michael Jackson

[c]

[13][14]
XXVIII January 30, 1994 Georgia Dome
(Atlanta, Georgia)
Rockin' Country Sunday Select Productions

[d]

[13]
XXIX January 29, 1995 Joe Robbie Stadium
(Miami Gardens, Florida)
Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Forbidden Eye The Walt Disney Company
[13]
XXX
(show)
January 28, 1996 Sun Devil Stadium
(Tempe, Arizona)
Take Me Higher: A Celebration of 30 Years of the Super Bowl Diana Ross Radio City Music Hall Oscar Mayer [13][14]
XXXI
(show)
January 26, 1997 Louisiana Superdome
(New Orleans, Louisiana)
Blues Brothers Bash
Oscar Mayer
[13]
XXXII January 25, 1998 Qualcomm Stadium
(San Diego, California)
Salute to Motown's 40th Anniversary Radio City Music Hall
[13][14][15][32]
XXXIII January 31, 1999 Pro Player Stadium
(Miami Gardens, Florida)
Celebration of Soul, Salsa and Swing Radio City Music Hall Progressive Auto Insurance
[13]

2000s

Super Bowl Date Location Theme Performer(s) Special guest(s) Producer Sponsor Setlist Ref.
XXXIV January 30, 2000 Georgia Dome
(Atlanta, Georgia)
Tapestry of Nations N/A Disney E-Trade
[13][33]
XXXV
(show)
January 28, 2001 Raymond James Stadium
(Tampa, Florida)
The Kings of Rock and Pop MTV E-Trade
[13][14]
XXXVI
(show)
February 3, 2002 Louisiana Superdome
(New Orleans, Louisiana)
Tribute to those killed in the September 11 attacks U2 N/A Clear Channel Entertainment E-Trade [13][14]
XXXVII
(show)
January 26, 2003 Qualcomm Stadium
(San Diego, California)
N/A Sting AT&T Wireless
[13]
XXXVIII
(show)
February 1, 2004 Reliant Stadium
(Houston, Texas)
Choose or Lose Spirit of Houston and Ocean of Soul marching bands MTV AOL TopSpeed
[34][35]
[13][14]
XXXIX February 6, 2005 Alltel Stadium
(Jacksonville, Florida)
N/A Paul McCartney N/A Don Mischer Productions Ameriquest Mortgage [13]
XL February 5, 2006 Ford Field
(Detroit, Michigan)
The Rolling Stones Don Mischer Productions Sprint Nextel [13][14]
XLI
(show)
February 4, 2007 Dolphin Stadium
(Miami Gardens, Florida)
Prince Florida A&M University Marching 100 Band
Pepsi [13][14]
XLII February 3, 2008 University of Phoenix Stadium
(Glendale, Arizona)
Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers N/A
Bridgestone [13]
XLIII February 1, 2009 Raymond James Stadium
(Tampa, Florida)
Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band The Miami Horns
Bridgestone [13]

2010s

Super Bowl Date Location Headliner(s) Special guest(s) Director Producer Sponsor Setlist Reviews Ref.
XLIV February 7, 2010 Sun Life Stadium
(Miami Gardens, Florida)
The Who N/A Hamish Hamilton White Cherry Entertainment Bridgestone N/A [13]
XLV
(show)
February 6, 2011 Cowboys Stadium
(Arlington, Texas)
The Black Eyed Peas
Ricky Kirshner
[36]
Negative [13]
XLVI
(show)
February 5, 2012 Lucas Oil Stadium
(Indianapolis, Indiana)
Madonna
[37]
Positive
XLVII
(show)
February 3, 2013 Mercedes-Benz Superdome
(New Orleans, Louisiana)
Beyoncé Destiny's Child Pepsi
[42]
XLVIII
(show)
February 2, 2014 MetLife Stadium
(East Rutherford, New Jersey)
Bruno Mars Red Hot Chili Peppers
Positive (Mars)

Mixed to Negative (Red Hot Chili Peppers)

[43]
XLIX
(show)
February 1, 2015 University of Phoenix Stadium
(Glendale, Arizona)
Katy Perry
Positive [44][45][46]
50
(show)
February 7, 2016 Levi's Stadium
(Santa Clara, California)
Coldplay
[47]
Mixed [48][49][50][51][52]
LI
(show)
February 5, 2017 NRG Stadium
(Houston, Texas)
Lady Gaga N/A Pepsi Zero Sugar Positive [53][54]
LII
(show)
February 4, 2018 U.S. Bank Stadium
(Minneapolis, Minnesota)
Justin Timberlake Pepsi
Mixed [55][56][57][58][59]
LIII
(show)
February 3, 2019 Mercedes-Benz Stadium
(Atlanta, Georgia)
Maroon 5
Negative

2020s

Super Bowl Date Location Headliner(s) Special guest(s) Director Producer Sponsor Setlist Reviews Ref.
LIV
(show)
February 2, 2020 Hard Rock Stadium
(Miami Gardens, Florida)
Hamish Hamilton Pepsi
Positive [60][61][62]
LV
(show)
February 7, 2021 Raymond James Stadium
(Tampa, Florida)
The Weeknd N/A Mixed [63]
LVI
(show)
February 13, 2022 SoFi Stadium
(Inglewood, California)
50 Cent
Anderson .Paak
Positive [64]

Details on specific shows

Super Bowl XXXVI

U2 performed 3 songs: "Beautiful Day", "MLK", and "Where the Streets Have No Name". During the beginning of "MLK" and continuing until the end of "Where the Streets Have No Name", a large banner behind the band displayed the names of all the people who lost their lives on the September 11 attacks. Bono ended the song by opening up his jacket, the inside of which displayed the American flag.

Super Bowl XL

For The Rolling Stones, the stage was in the form of the group's iconic tongue logo (John Pasche's design first used in 1971 on their Sticky Fingers album). It was the largest stage ever assembled for a Super Bowl halftime show, with 28 separate pieces assembled in five minutes by a 600-member volunteer stage crew. The group performed three songs: "Start Me Up", "Rough Justice", and "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction". The show was viewed by 89.9 million people, more than the audiences for the Oscars, Grammys and Emmy Awards combined.[65] In the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy with Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake, ABC and the NFL imposed a five-second delay and censored lyrics considered too sexually explicit in the first two songs by briefly turning off Mick Jagger's microphone—censoring to which the group had previously agreed.[66] However, the choice of The Rolling Stones sparked controversy in the Detroit community because the band did not represent the traditional Detroit "Motown Sound", and no artists from the area were included.[67]

Records

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The airing of this halftime show was delayed until after the conclusion of the game due to ABC News coverage of Operation Desert Storm.
  2. ^ During the halftime, rival network Fox aired a special live episode of In Living Color, one of the first deliberate attempts at counter-programming. The show drew over 22 million viewers away from the Super Bowl telecast.[citation needed] In mid-1992, citing this, Select Productions pitched the concept of exclusively featuring live concert-type performances from top contemporary musical artists.[citation needed] The concept and pitch is attributed to Select Productions' employee Rick Lewis and prompted the change of the 1993 halftime show to showcase Michael Jackson.[citation needed]
  3. ^ This halftime performance increased the TV ratings by a significant amount. It has been claimed to be one of the most watched events in American television history. After 1993, the NFL made a deliberate effort to attract top performers for the halftime shows.[31]
  4. ^ Travis Tritt of Atlanta, joined several other artists in history to perform in the halftime show in his own hometown. The special guests for the finale included: Stevie Wonder, Ashley Judd, Lisa Hartman Black, The Georgia Satellites, Joe Namath, Elijah Wood, and Charlie Daniels.

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