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This is a list of anarchist communities representing any society or portion thereof founded by anarchists that functions according to anarchist philosophy and principles. Anarchists have created and been involved in a plethora of community experiments since the 19th century. There are numerous instances in which a community organizes itself along philosophically anarchist lines to promote regional anarchist movements, counter-economics and countercultures. These have included intentional communities founded by anarchists as social experiments and community-oriented projects, such as collective organizations and cooperative businesses. There are also several instances of mass society "anarchies" that have come about from explicitly anarchist revolutions, including the Makhnovshchina in Ukraine, Revolutionary Catalonia in Spain and the Shinmin autonomous region in Manchuria.

Mass societies

Active societies

Flag Society Since Duration Location Ideology Ref.
Freetown Christiania 1971 (September 26) 52 years, 140 days Copenhagen, Denmark Anarchism [1][2]

Past societies

Flag Society From Until Duration Location Ideology Ref.
Strandzha Commune 18 August 1903 8 September 1903 21 days Strandzha, Ottoman Empire Libertarian communism [3]
Baja Rebellion 29 January 1911 22 June 1911 144 days Baja California, Mexico Magonism [4]
Soviet Republic of Naissaar 17 December 1917 26 February 1918 71 days Naissaar, present-day Estonia Anarcho-syndicalism [5]
Southern Fujian Protectorate [zh] 1 September 1918 12 August 1920 1 year, 346 days South Fujian, China Anarchism, Socialism [6]
Makhnovshchina 27 November 1918 28 August 1921 2 years, 274 days Ukraine Anarcho-communism, Platformism [7]
Korean People's Association in Manchuria 3 August 1929 18 September 1931 2 years, 46 days Manchuria, China Anarchism [8]
Revolutionary Catalonia 21 July 1936 10 February 1939 2 years, 204 days Catalonia, Spain Anarcho-syndicalism [9]
Regional Defence Council of Aragon 6 October 1936 11 August 1937 309 days Aragon, Spain Anarcho-communism [9]

Intentional communities

It has been suggested that this section be merged into List of intentional communities. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2024.

Active communities:

The Trumbullplex, an anarchist collective in Detroit, Michigan

Past communities:

Community projects

It has been suggested that this section be merged into List of self-managed social centers. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2024.
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Active Projects

Past Projects

See also


  1. ^ Bamyeh, Mohammed A. (May 2009). Anarchy as order. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7425-5673-7. [A]nti-authoritarian sentiments reemerged as part of a larger universe of visions of an alternative society, including antimilitarism, civil rights, more sexual freedom, and some communal experimentations with self-governance—a surviving example of which today is Freetown Christiania in Denmark.
  2. ^ Frater, Jamie (1 November 2010).'s Ultimate Book of Bizarre Lists. Berkeley, CA: Ulysses press. pp. 516, 517. ISBN 978-1-56975-817-5. Depending on who you talk to, Freetown Christiania is either "the world's first fully-functioning anarchist society" or an area overrun with squatters and drug dealers.
  3. ^ Khadzhiev, Georgi (1992). "The Transfiguration Uprising and the 'Strandzha Commune': The First Libertarian Commune in Bulgaria". Nat︠s︡ionalnoto osvobozhdenie i bezvlastnii︠a︡t federalizŭm [National Liberation and Libertarian Federalism] (in Bulgarian). Translated by Firth, Will. Sofia: Artizdat-5. pp. 99–148. OCLC 27030696. As far as the economic system of the Strandzha Commune was concerned, it can only be described as being libertarian communist.
  4. ^ "Uprising in Baja California" (PDF). Anarchist Federation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  5. ^ Popławski, Kazimierz (6 November 2017). "Naissar: the Estonian "Island of Women", Once an Independent Socialist Republic". Deep Baltic. Translated by Ostrowska, Martyna. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019. Soon after the outbreak of the October Revolution, on 17th December 1917, the crew of the warship Petropavlovsk (later named Marat) and the builders of the fortress seized power on the island. They announced the creation of an independent socialist republic. [...] An anarcho-syndicalist of Ukrainian origin, Stepan Maksimovich Petrichenko, became the leader of the Council of Peoples' Commissars. [...] The Council is said to have declared "in accordance with the law, Naissaar is now an independent (Soviet) republic." [...] The black and red banner of the anarcho-syndicalists became the flag of the new republic.
  6. ^ Chen, Leslie H. (2000). "Chen Jiongming: Anarchism and the Federalist State". Center for Chen Jiongming Studies. Alexandria, Virginia. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Chen continued to be the patron and protector of his anarchist friends and comrades who now engaged in a social and cultural reform movement in Canton. During the May Fourth period, Chen created with the help of anarchist intellectuals a "model" city of New Culture in Zhangzhou, Fujian, which won the critical acclaim both in China and abroad. Back in Guangdong in the 1920s, Chen actively promoted peaceful unification of the country through "Chinese federalism" - a "bottom-up" form of federalism that clearly has its anarchist origin.
  7. ^ Skirda, Alexandre (2004). Nestor Makhno: Anarchy's Cossack. AK Press. p. 3. ISBN 1-902593-68-5.
  8. ^ Hwang, Dongyoun (2016). "Experimenting Place-Based Anarchism in Manchuria". Anarchism in Korea: Independence, Transnationalism, and the Question of National Development, 1919-1984 (PDF). Albany, New York: SUNY Press. pp. 48–55. ISBN 978-1-4384-6167-0. OCLC 1039293708. The USAKP has been highly evaluated by Korean anarchists as the embodiment of anarchist principles, because it seemed to have its own seeming territorial jurisdiction. As shown in its two goals to improve the economic and political status of Koreans in Manchuria and to concentrate their capacity on completing saving the nation through resisting Japan, strictly speaking, it was not an anarchist organization. It rather defined itself in its platform as "an autonomous, self-ruling, cooperative organization" that had its own distinctive jurisdiction, similar to its predecessor, the LKAM. In particular, the USAKP's plans for agricultural development, education, and military training within its jurisdiction, as well as for its representative system along with its administrative body, have all been praised as a reflection of the anarchist ideal of "a government without [compulsory] government" that assured the principles of no-rule, no-naked power, and no-exploitation.
  9. ^ a b Dolgoff, Sam (1974). The Anarchist Collectives: Workers' Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936–1939.
  10. ^ Hardy, Dennis (2000). Utopian England: Community Experiments, 1900-1945. Psychology Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-419-24670-1.
  11. ^ "Awra Amba: the anarcho-feminist utopia that actually works". 3 October 2016. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  12. ^ "Searching For Happiness In 'Utopia'". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016. Acorn Community Farm [is] a self-described "farm-based, anarchist, eco-conscienced, secular, egalitarian community"
  13. ^ Osborne, Domenique (9 November 2002). "Radically wholesome". Metro Times. Archived from the original on 30 March 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. the Trumbullplex [is] a Cass Corridor anarchist collective
  14. ^ Martin, James J. (1970) [1953]. Men Against the State: The Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in America, 1827-1908. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher. ISBN 9780879260064. OCLC 8827896. [T]he second essay in anarchist community life, variously known as "Utopia" and "Trialville," was begun on a tract of land on the bank of the Ohio River about a mile from the site of the Clermont Phalanx. The labor exchange ideal prevailed from the beginning.
  15. ^ "An Experiment in Anarchy: Modern Times, the notorious and short-lived utopian village that preceded Brentwood". Archived from the original on 9 August 2014.
  16. ^ Marshall, Peter H. (1993). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. London: Fontana Press. pp. 507–508. ISBN 978-0-00-686245-1. OCLC 1042028128. [I]n 1890 Dr Giovanni Rossi, an Italian agronomist, founded in the famous Cecilia colony in Parana one of the first anarchist communities in Latin America.
  17. ^ a b LeWarne, Charles Pierce (1975). Utopias on Puget Sound: 1885–1915. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 168–226. ISBN 0295974443.
  18. ^ Franks, Benjamin (2006). Rebel Alliances: The Means and Ends of Contemporary British Anarchisms. AK Press/Dark Star. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-904859-40-6.
  19. ^ Headley, Gwyn; Meulenkamp, Wim (1999). Follies, grottoes & garden buildings. Aurum. p. 250. ISBN 9781854106254.
  20. ^ See "crass retirement cottage," nest magazine #21, summer 2003, pp 106-121

Further reading