The following is a list of marine ecoregions, as defined by the WWF and The Nature Conservancy

The WWF/Nature Conservancy scheme groups the individual ecoregions into 12 marine realms, which represent the broad latitudinal divisions of polar, temperate, and tropical seas, with subdivisions based on ocean basins. The marine realms are subdivided into 62 marine provinces, which include one or more of the 232 marine ecoregions.

The WWF/Nature Conservancy scheme currently encompasses only coastal and continental shelf areas.[a][b]

Arctic realm

(no provinces identified)

Temperate Northern Atlantic

Northern European Seas


Mediterranean Sea

Black Sea

Cold Temperate Northwest Atlantic

Warm Temperate Northwest Atlantic

Temperate Northern Pacific

Cold Temperate Northwest Pacific

Warm Temperate Northwest Pacific

Cold Temperate Northeast Pacific

Warm Temperate Northeast Pacific

Tropical Atlantic

Tropical Northwestern Atlantic

North Brazil Shelf

Tropical Southwestern Atlantic

St. Helena and Ascension Islands

West African Transition

Gulf of Guinea

Western Indo-Pacific

Red Sea and Gulf of Aden


Western Indian Ocean

West and South Indian Shelf

Central Indian Ocean Islands

Bay of Bengal

Andaman Sea

Central Indo-Pacific

South China Sea

Sunda Shelf

Java Transitional

South Kuroshio

Tropical Northwestern Pacific

Western Coral Triangle

Eastern Coral Triangle

Sahul Shelf

Northeast Australian Shelf

Northwest Australian Shelf

Tropical Southwestern Pacific

Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands

Eastern Indo-Pacific


Marshall, Gilbert, and Ellice Islands

Central Polynesia

Southeast Polynesia


Easter Island

Tropical Eastern Pacific

Tropical East Pacific


Temperate South America

Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific

Juan Fernandez and Desventuradas

Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic



Temperate Southern Africa



Amsterdam-St Paul

Temperate Australasia

Northern New Zealand

Southern New Zealand

East Central Australian Shelf

Southeast Australian Shelf

Southwest Australian Shelf

Western Central Australian Shelf

Southern Ocean

Subantarctic Islands

Scotia Sea

Continental High Antarctic

Subantarctic New Zealand

See also


  1. ^ One classification of the deep oceans is PPOW:
    Spalding, Mark D.; Agostini, Vera N.; Rice, Jake; Grant, Susie M. (2012). "Pelagic provinces of the world: A biogeographic classification of the world's surface pelagic waters". Ocean & Coastal Management. 60: 19–30. Bibcode:2012OCM....60...19S. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.12.016. Paid subscription required
  2. ^ Ocean-floor environments are examined in Watling, et al. 2013:
    Watling, Les; Guinotte, John; Clark, Malcolm R.; Smith, Craig R. (April 2013). "A proposed biogeography of the deep ocean floor" (PDF). Progress in Oceanography. 111: 91–112. Bibcode:2013PrOce.111...91W. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2012.11.003.