Following is a list of multimedia franchises originating in print publications, including literary works, comic books, and comic strips.

To qualify for purposes of this list, the original media must have originated from the work of an identifiable author or set of co-authors, and must have been adapted into works in at least three forms of media, and must have two or more separate works in at least two of those forms of media (a television series or comic book series is considered a single work for purposes of this list; multiple spin-off series or remakes of a previously ended series are considered multiple works). For example, a novel that spawned one film and one television series would not qualify; a series of novels made into a television series that had a spin-off series, or was remade as a new series, and which also spawned one film, does qualify.

In the following tables, the initial media through which the franchise characters or settings became known is shown in boldface. Only works of fiction are only considered part of the series; a book or a documentary film about the franchise is not itself an installment in the franchise.

Franchises originating in literary works

These franchises began as novels, short stories, and other forms of purely literary works.

Franchise
(Creator)
Literature Comics Animated films Live action films Animated TV series Live action TV series Video games Other media
A Song of Ice and Fire
(George R. R. Martin)
A Game of Thrones (1996)
several sequels
A Game of Thrones (comics) no no no Game of Thrones (2011-2019) several, beginning in 2007 board games, role-playing games
Arthur
(Marc Brown)
Arthur's Nose (1976)
several more books
no Arthur's Missing Pal (2006) no Arthur (1996-2022)
Postcards From Buster (2004-2012)
no yes children's album
American Psycho
(Bret Easton Ellis)
American Psycho (1991)
Budapesti skizo (1997)
no no American Psycho (2000)
American Psycho 2 (2002)
no no no musical
Babar
(Jean de Brunhoff)
The Story of Babar (1931)
various
no Babar and Father Christmas (1986)
Babar: The Movie (1989)
Babar: King of the Elephants (1999)
no Babar (1989-1991; 2000)
Babar and the Adventures of Badou (2010-2014)
2 TV specials
Les Aventures de Babar (1968) various various
Berenstain Bears
(Stan and Jan Berenstain)
The Big Honey Hunt (1962)
several more
no TV specials no The Berenstain Bears Show (1985-1987)
The Berenstain Bear (2003-2004)
no various -
Blade Runner
(Philip K. Dick)
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968)
three sequels by another writer
several no Blade Runner
(1982)
Blade Runner 2049 (2017)
no no Blade Runner (1985)
Blade Runner (1997)
-
Buck Rogers
(Philip Francis Nowlan)
Armageddon 2419 A.D. (1928)
several others
yes no Buck Rogers in the 25th Century (1979) ABC television series (1950–1951)
Buck Rogers in the 25th Century (1979–1981)
no Buck Rogers XXVC (1988)
several others
Captain Underpants
(Dav Pilkey)
The Adventures of Captain Underpants (1997)
several sequels
and activity books
in-universe graphic novel series, including Dog Man Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie (2017) no The Epic Tales of Captain Underpants (2018-2020) no no ?
The Cat in the Hat
(Dr. Seuss)
The Cat in the Hat (1957)
The Cat in the Hat (1958)
several subsequent appearances
? 1971 TV special of the same name
The Grinch Grinches the Cat in the Hat (1982)
The Cat in the Hat (2003) The Cat in the Hat Knows a Lot About That! (2010-) The Wubbulous World of Dr. Seuss yes theme park attractions
musical
The Chronicles of Narnia[1]
(C. S. Lewis)
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950)
several sequels
no The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1979) The Chronicles of Narnia film series (2005–present) no The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1967)
The Chronicles of Narnia (1988– 1990)
various radio dramatisation, audiobooks
Conan the Barbarian
(Robert E. Howard)
Original Robert E. Howard Conan stories (published from 1932–1936); various later publications Conan the Barbarian (comics) no Conan the Barbarian (1982), and several others Conan the Adventurer (1992–1993)
Conan and the Young Warriors (1994)
Conan The Adventurer (1997–1998) several, beginning with Conan: Hall of Volta (1984) -
Curious George
(Hans Augusto Rey and Margret Rey)
Curious George (1941); numerous sequels no Curious George (2006); various no Curious George TV series (2006); various no Curious George video game (2006) -
Die Hard
(Roderick Thorp)
The Detective (1966)
Nothing Lasts Forever (1979)
yes no Die Hard (1988)
Die Hard 2 (1992)
Die Hard with a Vengeance (1995)
Live Free or Die Hard (2007)
A Good Day to Die Hard (2013)
no no several
Discworld
(Terry Pratchett)
The Colour of Magic (1983); several sequels and spin-offs yes no Hogfather (2006)
The Colour of Magic (2008)
Going Postal (2010)
Soul Music (1997)
Wyrd Sisters (1998)
The Watch (2021) several stage and radio plays
board games
Dune
(Frank Herbert)
Dune (1965); numerous prequel and sequel novels Dune: The Official Comic Book no Dune (1984)
Dune (2021)
no Frank Herbert's Dune (2000)
Frank Herbert's Children of Dune (2003)
Dune (1992); several others Dune board game (1979); other games, soundtracks
Ender's Game
(Orson Scott Card)
Ender's Game (1985)
several prequels, sequels, and spinoffs
several no Ender's Game (2013) no no no audioplay
Gidget
(Frederick Kohner)
Gidget, the Little Girl with Big Ideas (1957)
seven sequels
yes, two issues published in 1966 Gidget Makes the Wrong Connection (1972; made for TV) Gidget (1965)
Gidget Goes Hawaiian (1961)
Gidget Goes to Rome (1963)
no Gidget (1965)
The New Gidget (1986–1988)
no Stage productions in 2000 and 2007
Greyfriars School
(Charles Hamilton)
The Magnet (1908)
Billy Bunter of Greyfriars School (1947)
yes no no no Billy Bunter of Greyfriars School (TV series) no Stage, Radio
The Godfather
(Mario Puzo)
The Godfather (1969)
several sequels
no no The Godfather (1972)
The Godfather Part II (1974)
The Godfather Part III (1990)
no The Godfather Saga (1977) The Godfather (1991)
The Godfather (2006)
The Godfather II (2010)
-
Hannibal Lecter
(Thomas Harris)
Red Dragon (1981)
several sequels
no no Manhunter (1986)
The Silence of the Lambs (1991)
Hannibal (2001)
Red Dragon (2002)
Hannibal Rising (2007)
no Hannibal (2013-2015)
Clarice (2021-)
no -
Harry Potter[1][2]
(J.K. Rowling)
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (1997)
several sequels
no no Harry Potter (film series) (eight films released between 2001 and 2011) no no yes The Wizarding World of Harry Potter theme parks
Warner Bros. Studio Tour London - The Making of Harry Potter
Hercule Poirot
(Agatha Christie)
The Mysterious Affair at Styles (1920)
several other novels and short stories
Great Detectives Poirot and Marple (2004–2005)
graphic novel adaptations
no yes Great Detectives Poirot and Marple (2004–2005) Poirot (1989–2013) Murder on the Orient Express (2006)
3 sequels
stage and radio plays
His Dark Materials
(Phillip Pullman)
Northern Lights (1995) no no The Golden Compass (2007) no His Dark Materials (2019) no His Dark Materials (2003), radio drama (2003), Lyra's Oxford
How to Train Your Dragon
(Cressida Cowell)
Hiccup the Viking who was Seasick (1999)
How to Train Your Dragon (2003)
several sequels
no How to Train Your Dragon (2010)
How to Train Your Dragon 2 (2014)
How to Train Your Dragon: The Hidden World (2019)
5 short films
no DreamWorks Dragons (2012–2018)
DreamWorks Dragons: Rescue Riders (2019-)
Dragons: The Nine Realms (2021-)
no yes live stage show
James Bond[3]
(Ian Fleming)
Casino Royale (1953)
13 additional novels
over 30 other novels and published stories by other authors
various no James Bond in film
over 20 films
James Bond Jr. (1991–1992) no James Bond in video games -
Bourne
(Robert Ludlum)
The Bourne Identity (1980)
several sequels
no no The Bourne Identity (1988 TV movie), The Bourne Identity (2002), and several sequels no no Robert Ludlum's The Bourne Conspiracy (2008) -
Jennings
(Anthony Buckeridge)
Jennings (1950-1994) no no Stompa no several no Stage, Radio
Jumanji
(Chris Van Allsburg)
Jumanji (1981)
Zathura (2002)
no no Jumanji (1995)
Zathura: A Space Adventure (2005)
Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle (2017)
Jumanji: The Next Level (2019)
Jumanji (TV series) (1996-1999) no various
Jurassic Park
(Michael Crichton)
Jurassic Park (1990)
The Lost World (1995)
various no Jurassic Park (1993)
The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)
Jurassic Park III (2001)
Jurassic World (2015)
Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018)
Jurassic World Camp Cretaceous (2020-present) no Jurassic Park video games List of Jurassic Park water rides
Left Behind
(Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins)
Left Behind (1995); 15 prequel and sequel novels
Left Behind: The Kids series
no no Left Behind: The Movie (2000)
Left Behind II: Tribulation Force (2002)
Left Behind: World at War (2004)
Left Behind (2014)
Vanished – Left Behind: Next Generation (2016)
no no Left Behind: Eternal Forces no
Legend of the Galactic Heroes

(Yoshiki Tanaka)

Legend of the Galactic Heroes (1982–1987) Legend of the Galactic Heroes (1986–2000) spinoffs to OVA series (1988–1993)

The Legend of the Galactic Heroes: Die Neue These Seiran trilogy (2019)

no The Legend of the Galactic Heroes: Die Neue These Kaikō (2018) no several Legend of the Galactic Heroes OVA series (1988–1997)

Legend of the Galactic Heroes Gaiden OVA series (1988–1997)

Mary Poppins
(P. L. Travers)
Mary Poppins (eight books; 1934-1988) no no Mary Poppins (1964)
Mary Poppins Returns (2018)
no no no Mary Poppins (musical)
Megami Tensei
(Aya Nishitani)
Digital Devil Story (1986)
two sequels and video game adaptations
List of Megami Tensei manga Persona 3 The Movie: Chapter 1, Spring of Birth (2013) no List of Megami Tensei anime no List of Megami Tensei video games various media
Miss Marple
(Agatha Christie)
The Royal Magazine (1927) Great Detectives Poirot and Marple (2004–2005)
graphic novel adaptations
no The Body in the Library (1984), The Moving Finger (1985), Nemesis (1987), A Caribbean Mystery (1989) The Mirror Cracked from Side to Side (1992) no Miss Marple#Television no Miss Marple#Stage
Monogatari
(Nisio Isin)
Monogatari (novel series with over 26 volumes; 2005–2021) Bakemonogatari (manga) Kizumonogatari no no Monogatari Series no Bakemonogatari Portable
Moomins
(Tove Jansson)
The Moomins and the Great Flood (1945)
several sequels and other books
Moomin comic strips
comic book
Comet in Moominland (1993)
Moomins on the Riviera (2014)
two compilation movies
no several several several Moomin World theme park
Moomin Museum
other merchandise
One Hundred and One Dalmatians
(Dodie Smith)
The Hundred and One Dalmatians (1956)
The Starlight Barking (1967)
- One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961)
101 Dalmatians II: Patch's London Adventure (2003)
101 Dalmatians (1996)
102 Dalmatians (2000)
Cruella (2021)
101 Dalmatians: The Series (1997–1998)
101 Dalmatian Street (debuting 2019)
no 101 Dalmatians: Escape from DeVil Manor (1997) The 101 Dalmatians Musical (2009)
Paddington Bear
(Michael Bond)
A Bear Called Paddington (1958) no Paddington (film) (2014)
Paddington 2 (2017)
Paddington (film) (2014)
Paddington 2 (2017)
Paddington (TV series) (1976)
Paddington Bear (TV series) (1989)
The Adventures of Paddington Bear (1997)
The Adventures of Paddington (2019 TV series) (2019)
no no no
Parasite Eve
(Hideaki Sena)
Parasite Eve (1995) yes no Parasite Eve

(1997)

no no Parasite Eve (1998)

Parasite Eve II (1999)
The 3rd Birthday (2010)

Soundtracks, guidebooks, figure action and various merchandise
Perry Mason
(Erle Stanley Gardner)
The Case of the Velvet Claws (1933); 81 other novels no no no no Perry Mason (1957–1966)
The New Perry Mason (1973–1974)
Perry Mason TV movies (1985–1995)
no Perry Mason radio show
Peter Rabbit
(Beatrix Potter)
The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1902)
several sequels
no Peter Rabbit (film) (2018),
Peter Rabbit 2: The Runaway (2021)
The Tales of Beatrix Potter (1971),
Peter Rabbit (film) (2018),
Peter Rabbit 2: The Runaway (2021)
The World of Peter Rabbit and Friends (1992),
Peter Rabbit (TV series) (2012)
no yes various
Planet of the Apes
(Pierre Boulle)
La Planète des singes (1963)
several sequels
Planet of the Apes (comics) no Planet of the Apes (1968); numerous sequels, and a reboot series. Return to the Planet of the Apes (1975) Planet of the Apes (1974) yes various
Professor Branestawm
(Norman Hunter)
The Incredible Adventures of Professor Branestawm (1933)
several sequels
no no yes no yes no no
Psycho
(Robert Bloch)
Psycho (1959) graphic novels (1992) no American Psycho (1960)
Various sequels and remakes
no Bates Motel (2013–2017) video game (1988) various
Rambo
(David Morrell)
First Blood (1972)
various others
several no First Blood (1982)
Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985)
Rambo III (1988)
Rambo (2008)
Rambo: Last Blood (2019)
Rambo: The Force of Freedom (1986) no various
Robert Langdon
(Dan Brown)
Angels & Demons (2000)
The Da Vinci Code (2003)
no no Robert Langdon (film series) no The Lost Symbol (TV series) no
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer
(Robert L. May)
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer (1939)
several sequels
yes Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer: The Movie (1998)
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and the Island of Misfit Toys (2001)
no various TV specials no no Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer (song, 1959)
Sex and the City
(Candace Bushnell)
Sex and the City (1997)
The Carrie Diaries (2010)
Summer and the City (2011)
no no Sex and the City
Sex and the City 2
no Sex and the City
The Carrie Diaries
no no
Shrek
(William Steig)
Shrek! (1990) yes Shrek (2001)
Shrek 2 (2004)
Shrek the Third (2007)
Shrek Forever After (2010)
no various TV specials no yes musical

theme park attraction

Starship Troopers
(Robert A. Heinlein)
Starship Troopers (1959) no Starship Troopers: Invasion (2012) Starship Troopers (1997)
2 direct-to-DVD sequels
Roughnecks: Starship Troopers Chronicles (1999–2000) no yes several table-top games
original video animation
Sword Art Online
(Reki Kawahara)
List of Sword Art Online light novels List of Sword Art Online manga volumes Sword Art Online The Movie: Ordinal Scale (2017) no Sword Art Online (2012)
Sword Art Online II (2014)
Sword Art Online: Alicization (2018 - ongoing)
no yes Figures
Middle-earth[1]
(J. R. R. Tolkien)
The Hobbit (1937)
The Fellowship of the Ring (1954)
The Two Towers (1954)
The Return of the King (1954)
other literature
various The Hobbit (1977)
The Lord of the Rings (1978)
The Return of the King (1980)
The Lord of the Rings film series (2001−2003)
The Hobbit film series (2012−2014)
no no Middle-earth in video games various media
Thomas & Friends
(Rev W. Awdry)
The Railway Series no yes Thomas and the Magic Railroad (2000) Thomas & Friends (1984-2021) Shining Time Station (1989-1993) yes Scale models
Tom Clancy media
(Tom Clancy)
The Hunt for Red October (1984) various no The Hunt for Red October (1990)
several others films and short films
no Tom Clancy's Jack Ryan (2018-) Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six (1998) several sequels and spin-off
Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon
(2001) several sequels
Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell (2002)
several sequels
Winnie-the-Pooh
(A. A. Milne)
When We Were Very Young (1924)
Winnie the Pooh and The House at Pooh Corner
Featured in two others
no various Christopher Robin (2018)
Outside of that film, not primarily. A bit of live-action was used in some of the animated films.
various yes various Consisted of audio stories, specials, songs and theme rides, etc. See also the Disney franchise.
The Witcher
(Andrzej Sapkowski)
The Witcher Stories
The Saga novels
various no The Hexer (2001) no The Hexer (2002)
The Witcher (TV series) (2019-present)
The Witcher (2007)
The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings (2011)
The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt (2014)
board and card games

Franchises originating in comics and printed cartoons

Franchise
(Creator)
Literature Comics Animated films Live action films Animated TV series Live action TV series Video games Other media
300
(Frank Miller)
no 300 (1998)
Xerxes (2018)
300 (2007)
300: Rise of an Empire (2014)
no no no 300: March to Glory (2007) -
The Addams Family
(Charles Addams)
several cartoons in The New Yorker (1938–1988)
The Addams Family (2019) The Addams Family (1991)
Addams Family Values (1993)
The Addams Family (1973–1975)
The Addams Family: The Animated Series (1992–1993)
The Addams Family (1964–1966)
The New Addams Family (1998–1999)
The Addams Family (video game series) The Addams Family, a Broadway musical
Alien vs. Predator[4]
(see Aliens and Predator sections below)
Aliens vs. Predator novel series Aliens vs. Predator comics (beginning 1989) no Alien vs. Predator (2004)
Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem (2007)
no no various -
Archie Comics
(John L. Goldwater)
no Archie Comics, various series, beginning in 1941 The Archies in Jugman (TV Movie) Archie: To Riverdale and Back Again (TV movie) The Archie Show (1968–1969)
Archie's Weird Mysteries (1999–2000) and many others
Riverdale (2017), Katy Keene (2020) no Radio show
Ashita no Joe

(Asao Takamori and Tetsuya Chiba)

no Ashita no Joe (1968–1973) Ashita no Joe (1980)

Ashita no Joe 2 (1981)

Ashita no Joe (1970)

Ashita no Joe (2011)

Ashita no Joe (1970–1971)

Ashita no Joe 2 (1980–1981)

Megalo Box (2018)

Megalo Box 2: Nomad (2021)

no yes Joe vs. Joe (2003)
Asterix
(René Goscinny)
no Asterix the Gaul (serialized in Pilote 1959-1960, collected volume published in 1961)
37 more volumes
List of Asterix films Asterix films (live action) no no yes Parc Astérix theme park
board games and gamebooks
Attack on Titan
(Hajime Isayama)
yes Attack on Titan (2009 - ongoing) yes yes Attack on Titan (2013 - ongoing) no yes Theme park
Action Figures and Toys
Bleach
(Tite Kubo)
2 light novels List of Bleach volumes Bleach: Memories of Nobody (2006)
Bleach: The DiamondDust Rebellion (2007)
Bleach: Fade to Black (2008)
Bleach: Hell Verse (2010)
Bleach Bleach (2004–2012) no several musicals
Bleach Trading Card Game
DC Universe[5]
(DC Comics)
(includes Superman,[6] Batman, and many others)
yes DC Comics yes Superman and the Mole Men (1951) and numerous others yes yes yes Vertigo. (Sandman, Hellblazer, etc.) Imprint of DC. Has connections to the universe sometimes.
Death Note
(Tsugumi Ohba)
several light novels Death Note (2003-2006) no Death Note (2006); several others yes yes several -
Detective Conan
(Gosho Aoyama)
no volumes 18 films no seasons 1-15
seasons 16-present
yes yes Trade cards
Diary of a Wimpy Kid
(Jeff Kinney)
Diary of a Wimpy Kid (2007)
several sequels
spin-off series
Diary of a Wimpy Kid webcomic (2004-2005) yes Diary of a Wimpy Kid (2010)
Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Rodrick Rules (2011)
Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Dog Days (2012)
Diary of a Wimpy Kid: The Long Haul (2017)
no no Poptropica tie-ins Toys
Action figures
Doraemon
(Fujiko Fujio)
no List of Doraemon chapters
The Doraemons
Dorabase
several no Doraemon (1973)
Doraemon (1979−2005)
Doremon (2005−ongoing)
no various musical
Dragon Ball
(Akira Toriyama)
yes List of Dragon Ball manga volumes yes Dragonball Evolution (2009); several others Dragon Ball (1986−1989)
Dragon Ball Z (1989−1996)
Dragon Ball GT (1996−1997)
Dragon Ball Super (2015−2018)
Dragon Ball Heroes (2018 - ongoing)
no List of Dragon Ball video games Toys
Action figures
Collectible Card Game
Dyesebel
(Mars Ravelo)
no Serialized in Pilipino Komiks (1952–53) no several (1953, 1964, 1973, 1978, 1990, and 1996) no Dyesebel (2008)
Dyesebel (2014)
no
Fullmetal Alchemist
(Hiromu Arakawa)
yes List of Fullmetal Alchemist chapters Fullmetal Alchemist the Movie: Conqueror of Shamballa (2012)
Fullmetal Alchemist: The Sacred Star of Milos (2017)
Fullmetal Alchemist (film) Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood Fullmetal Alchemist (TV series) (2003−2004) no yes -
Garfield
(Jim Davis)
no Garfield (comic strip) (syndicated in 1978) yes Garfield: The Movie (2004)
Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties (2006)
Garfield and Friends (1988–1994) The Garfield Show (2009–2016) no yes -
Ghost in the Shell
(Masamune Shirow)
no Ghost in the Shell (1989–1990) Ghost in the Shell (1995)
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence (2004)
Ghost in the Shell (2017) Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex (2002–2003) no Ghost in the Shell (1997)
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex (PS2) (2004)
original video animation
Hellboy
(Mike Mignola)
various List of Hellboy comics (1993−present) Hellboy: Sword of Storms (2006)
Hellboy: Blood and Iron (2007)
Hellboy (2004)
Hellboy II: The Golden Army (2008)
Hellboy (2019)
no no various -
Initial D

(Shuichi Shigeno)

no List of Initial D chapters (1995−2013) Initial D Third Stage (2001)

New Initial D the Movie

Initial D (2005) List of Initial D episodes no Several including Initial D Arcade Stage series toys

model kits

soundtrack albums

Judge Dredd
(John Wagner)
29 Novels List of Judge Dredd Comic Stories (1977−present) no Judge Dredd (film) (1995)
Dredd (2012)
no no various -
Lucky Luke
(Morris)
no Lucky Luke comics (1946 – ongoing)
Rantanplan (1987 - 2011)
Kid Lucky (1995 - 1997, 2011 - ongoing)
Daisy Town (1971)
La Ballade des Dalton (1978)
Les Dalton en cavale (1983)
Go West! A Lucky Luke Adventure (2017)
Lucky Luke (1991)
Les Dalton (2004)
Lucky Luke (2009)
Lucky Luke (1983)
Lucky Luke (1991)
The New Adventures of Lucky Luke (2001 - 2003)
Rintindumb (2006)
Lucky Luke (1992)
The Daltons (2010)
several
Lupin the Third
(Monkey Punch)
No List of Lupin III Manga (1977−present) Lupin III, The Castle of Cagliostro, Legend of the Gold of Babylon, Lupin the 3rd vs. Detective Conan: The Movie, Lupin III: The First: (see Lupin III Cinema Films) Lupin III: Strange Psychokinetic Strategy (2004)
Lupin III (film) (2008)
Dredd (2019)
Lupin III Anime Series Lupin (Philippine TV series) List of Lupin III video games Two stage Musicals, Music Soundtrack. Board game
Marsupilami
(André Franquin)
several Bibliothèque Rose books Marsupilami comic albums (1987 - ongoing)
Comics in Disney Adventures magazine (1993 - 1994)
no HOUBA! On the Trail of the Marsupilami (2012) Raw Toonage shorts (1992)
Marsupilami (1993)
Marsupilami (2000-)
no Marsupilami (1995)
Marvel Universe[7]
(Stan Lee, Jack Kirby, Steve Ditko, et al.)
(includes Spider-Man,[1] The Hulk,[1] Iron Man, X-Men, Fantastic Four, and many others)
yes Marvel Comics yes Captain America (1944); X-Men (2000); Spider-Man (2002); various
See also Marvel Cinematic Universe
The Marvel Super Heroes (1966), numerous others The Amazing Spider-Man (1977–1979); The Incredible Hulk (1977–1982)
several others
Spider-Man (1982) and numerous others Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark (Broadway musical)
Men in Black
(Lowell Cunningham)
no The Men in Black (comics) no Men in Black (film series) Men in Black: The Series no several Men In Black: The Roleplaying Game
Miffy
(Dick Bruna)
no Miffy, Miffy at the Zoo (1955) Miffy the Movie (2013) no Miffy's Adventures Big and Small (2015), Miffy and Friends (2003) no no Miffy's Bicycle (2017) play[8]
My Hero Academia
(Kohei Horikoshi)
yes List of My Hero Academia manga volumes My Hero Academia: Two Heroes (2018) no My Hero Academia (2016 – ongoing) no yes original video animations
Toys
Action figures
Naruto/Boruto
(Masashi Kishimoto, Mikio Ikemoto, Ukyō Kodachi)
several List of Naruto manga volumes yes no Naruto (2002–2007)
Naruto Shippuuden (2007 – 2017)
Rock Lee & His Ninja Pals (2012–2013)
Boruto: Naruto Next Generations (2017 – ongoing)
no several Original video animations
Trading card game
One Piece
(Eiichiro Oda)
several List of One Piece manga volumes (1997 - ongoing) 12 films no One Piece (1999 - ongoing) no several Original video animations
music
Trading card game
Peanuts
(Charles M. Schulz)
several Peanuts (1950–2000); numerous compilation books; comic books by Gold Key and KaBoom!; graphic novels by KaBoom! A Boy Named Charlie Brown (1969)
Snoopy Come Home (1972)
Race for Your Life, Charlie Brown (1977)
Bon Voyage, Charlie Brown (and Don't Come Back!!) (1980)
The Peanuts Movie (2015)
no several TV spiecials from 1965 to 2011, starting with A Charlie Brown Christmas
The Charlie Brown and Snoopy Show (1983–1986)
This Is America, Charlie Brown (1988–1989)
Peanuts (2014)
Snoopy in Space (2019–present)
The Snoopy Show (2021-present)
no several A Charlie Brown Christmas (1965 album) and several other albums
musicals
Popeye the Sailor
(Elzie Crisler Segar)
no Thimble Theatre comic strips;
various
yes Popeye (1980) numerous no yes -
Ranma ½
(Rumiko Takahashi)
no Ranma ½ (1987–1996) Three films TV special (2011) yes no List of Ranma ½ video games original video animations
Sailor Moon
(Naoko Takeuchi)
no List of Sailor Moon chapters (1993–1997) Sailor Moon R: The Movie (1993)
Sailor Moon S: The Movie (1994)
Sailor Moon Super S: The Movie (1995)
no Sailor Moon (1992–1996)
Sailor Moon Crystal (2014–2016)
Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon (2003–2004) several musicals
Saint Seiya
(Masami Kurumada)
yes List of Saint Seiya chapters (series)
several others
Five films no Saint Seiya (1986−1989)
Saint Seiya Omega (2012−2014)
no several Original video animations
musicals
discography
merchandise
Sgt. Frog
(Mine Yoshizaki)
several guide books List of Sgt. Frog chapters (1999–present)
various tie-ins and spinoffs
Keroro Gunsō the Super Movie (2006); four other films no Sgt. Frog/Sergeant Keroro (2004-2011)
Keroro (2014)
no several music CDs
Keroro Land magazine
Kerokero Ace magazine
The Smurfs
(Peyo)
yes Johan and Peewit
The Smurfs (comics)
Les Aventures des Schtroumpfs (1965)
The Smurfs and the Magic Flute (1976)
Smurfs: The Lost Village (2017)
The Smurfs (2011)
The Smurfs 2 (2013)
The Smurfs (1981–89) no yes yes
Spawn
(Todd McFarlane)
no Spawn (1992–present)
Shadows of Spawn (1998–1999) various spin-offs, one-shots, crossovers, mini series, and ongoing series
no Spawn (1997) Todd McFarlane's Spawn (1997–1999) no several The Dark Saga (1996)
Spirou/Spirou & Fantasio
(Rob-Vel)
yes Comics in Spirou magazine (1938–ongoing)
Spirou & Fantasio albums (1948–ongoing)
Le Petit Spirou (1990–ongoing) (spin-off)
no Les aventures de Spirou et Fantasio (2018)
Le Petit Spirou (2017) (spin-off adaption)
Spirou (1993–1994)
Two of a Kind: Spirou and Fantasio (2006–2009)
Spirou and co (series of animated shorts)
Le Petit Spirou (2012–ongoing) (spin-off adaption)
no Spirou (1995)
Spirou: The Robot Invasion (2000)
Parc Spirou theme park
audio plays
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
(Kevin Eastman and Peter Laird)
no Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1984–2009)
various
yes yes yes Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation (1997–1998) yes -
Tintin
(Hergé)
no cartoons in Le Vingtième Siècle (1929–1939)
The Adventures of Tintin series
five animated films Tintin and the Mystery of the Golden Fleece (1961)
Tintin and the Blue Oranges (1964)
Hergé's Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin
no yes radio shows
musical
stage play
Turok
(Rex Maxon)
4 novels Turok: Son of Stone (1956–1982; 2010–2011)
Turok: Dinosaur Hunter (1993–1996; 2014-)
Turok (1998)
yes no no no Turok (series) -
The Walking Dead
(Robert Kirkman and Tony Moore)
3 novels The Walking Dead (2003 – present) yes no no The Walking Dead TV series (2010 – present) The Walking Dead (2012)
The Walking Dead: Survival Instinct (2013)
-
Wangan Midnight

(Michiharu Kusunoki)

no Wangan Midnight (1990 – 2008)

Wangan Midnight: C1 Runner (2009 – 2012)

Ginkai no Speed Star (2014 – 2015)

Shutoko SPL - Ginkai no Speedster (2016 – present)

no 12 direct-to-video movies (1991 – 2001)

Wangan Midnight The Movie (2009)

Wangan Midnight (2007 – 2008) no Wangan Midnight (2001)

Wangan Midnight R (2001)

Wangan Midnight (2007)

Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune series [Wikidata] (2004 – present)

toys

model kits

Yu-Gi-Oh!
(Kazuki Takahashi)
yes Yu-Gi-Oh! (1996–2004)
Yu-Gi-Oh! R (2004–2008)
several
Yu-Gi-Oh! (1999)
Yu-Gi-Oh! The Movie: Pyramid of Light (2004)
Yu-Gi-Oh!: Bonds Beyond Time (2010)
Yu-Gi-Oh!: The Dark Side of Dimensions (2016)
no Yu-Gi-Oh! (1998)
Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters (2000–2004)
Yu-Gi-Oh! GX (2004–2008)
several
no several Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game
Yu Yu Hakusho
(Yoshihiro Togashi)
no List of Yu Yu Hakusho chapters (1990–1994) Yu Yu Hakusho (1993)
Yu Yu Hakusho - Chapter of Underworld's Carnage - Bonds of Fire (1994)
no Yu Yu Hakusho (1992–1995) no several CDs
Yu Yu Hakusho Trading Card Game
various merchandise

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Harry J. Brown, Videogames and Education (2008), p. 41, ISBN 0765629496:

    In one of the most celebrated ventures in media convergence, Larry and Andy Wachowski, creators of The Matrix trilogy, produced the game Enter the Matrix (2003) simultaneously with the last two films of the trilogy, shooting scenes for the game on the movie's sets with the movie s actors, and releasing the game on the same day as The Matrix: Reloaded. Likewise, on September 21, 2004, Lucasfilm jointly released a new DVD box set of the original Star Wars trilogy with Star Wars: Battlefront, a combat game in which players can reenact battles from all six Star Wars films. In 2005, Peter Jackson likewise produced his blockbuster film King Kong (2005) in tandem with a successful King Kong game designed by Michael Ancel and published by Ubisoft. In the last several years, numerous licensed videogame adaptations of major summer and holiday blockbusters were released a few days before or a few days after their respective films, including: all three Star Wars films (1999–2005); all five Harry Potter films (2001–2008); all three Spider-Man films (2002–2007); Hulk (2002); The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002); The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003); The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe (2005); Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006); Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End (2007); and Transformers (2007). These multimedia franchises have made it more difficult to distinguish the production of films and videogames as separate enterprises.

  2. ^ Nick Hunter, Popular Culture: 2000 and Beyond (2012), page 11, ISBN 1410946266: "The Harry Potter series was another huge multimedia franchise that triumphed at the box office".
  3. ^ John Sutherland, Lives of the Novelists: A History of Fiction in 294 Lives (2012), p. 195, ISBN 0300182430: "It was the films, beginning with Dr No in 1962, which made Bond into a multimedia franchise which continues to turn over more money per annum than any other literary creation of the twentieth century, with the possible exception of the Harry Potter films".
  4. ^ Note: Alien vs. Predator is a crossover franchise established from the existing Alien and Predator franchises
  5. ^ "Media crossovers have us asking, 'who's ripping off who?'", Edmonton Journal (July 14, 2000), p. E3: "Marvel Comics is already reaping an "X-cellent" multimedia bounty on the backs of the special effects-laden feature..."
  6. ^ Ian Gordon, Mark Jancovich, Matthew P. McAllister, Film and Comic Books (2007), p. 161, ISBN 160473809X: "[W]hen considering Superman as a multimedia franchise, and critical interpretations of him, it would seem that development and variety have been central to his longevity".
  7. ^ Gilbert A. Blouchard, "Mining comic books for movie gold is old hat", Edmonton Journal (July 14, 2000), p. E3: "Marvel Comics is already reaping an "X-cellent" multimedia bounty on the backs of the special effects-laden feature..."
  8. ^ "Miffy".