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This is a list of exceptional red dwarfs.

List of titleholding red dwarf stars

This is a list of red dwarfs that currently hold records.

List of red dwarf firsts

Firsts
Record Title Star Date Data Notes
First discovered Lacaille 8760 1753 Originally listed in a 1763 catalog that was published posthumously by Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille. [1]
First discovered with planet(s) Gliese 876 1998 Gliese 876 b

The Jovian planet was the first discovered around a red dwarf.

[2][3]
First discovered with giant planet(s) Gliese 876 1998 Gliese 876 b The giant planet was the first planet discovered around a red dwarf. [2][3]
First discovered with terrestrial planet(s) Kepler-42
(KOI-961)
2012 KOI-961 b
KOI-961 c
KOI-961 d
3 terrestrial planets were discovered around KOI-961 in 2012, the first terrestrial planets found to orbit a red dwarf. [4]

List of red dwarf extremes

Extremes
Record Title Star Date Data Notes
Least voluminous EBLM J0555-57Ab 2017 r= 59,000 km (37,000 mi) [5][6][7]
Most voluminous V358 Boo 2020 3.73 R [8]
Least massive 2MASS J0523-1403 2015 67.54±12.79 MJ [9]
Most massive Lacaille 8760 3.91 M [8]
Least distant Proxima Centauri 1917 4.2 ly (1.3 pc)

This is also known as Alpha Centauri C and is a member of the α Cen trinary system. It is the nearest neighbouring star to the Sun.

[10]
Most distant UDF 3561 2010 202,000 ly

(62,000 pc)

[11]
Least luminous 2MASS J0523-1403 [9]
Most luminous
Dimmest
Brightest Lacaille 8760 V= 6.69

Also called AX Microscopii. This is the 24th closest star to the Sun, and also intrinsically luminous for red dwarfs, having spectral class M0.

[12][13]
Youngest See T Tauri star
Oldest

List of named red dwarfs

This is a list of red dwarfs with names that are not systematically designated.

Star Naming Notes
Proxima Centauri Named for being the closest neighbouring star to Earth's Sun Lies within the Alpha Centauri star system [10]
Barnard's Star Named after its discoverer, E. E. Barnard Second closest neighbouring star system to Earth, after α Cen. Also the star with the highest proper motion. [14]
van Biesbroeck's star Named for its discoverer, George van Biesbroeck Was once the least luminous, and, lowest mass, known star. [15]
Kapteyn's star Named for the astronomer who discovered it had gone missing, Jacobus Kapteyn Was once the star with the highest proper motion, thus making it move away from its recorded position in the sky and go "missing". [14]
Teegarden's Star Named after the lead investigator astrophysicist who discovered it, Bonnard J. Teegarden, through a datacrunching search of archived data.

List of nearest red dwarfs

See also: List of nearest stars

Star Distance
ly (pc)
Notes
1 Proxima Centauri 4.2 ly (1.3 pc) Part of the α Cen trinary system, the closest neighbouring star system. It is also the nearest neighbouring star. [10]
2 Barnard's Star 5.95 ly (1.82 pc) Second closest neighbouring star system [16]
3 Wolf 359 7.86 ly (2.41 pc) Also called CN Leonis
4 Lalande 21185 8.3 ly (2.5 pc)
5 Luyten 726-8 8.7 ly (2.7 pc) This is a binary star system with two red dwarfs
6 Ross 154 9.68 ly (2.97 pc) [citation needed]

List of least voluminous red dwarfs

See also: List of least voluminous stars

Star Radius
Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Radius
Jupiter radii
(Jupiter = 1)
Radius
km
(mi)
Notes
1 EBLM J0555-57Ab 0.084 0.84 59,000 km (37,000 mi) This star is slightly larger than the planet Saturn. [5][6][7]
2 2MASS J0523-1403 0.086 0.86 60,000 km (37,000 mi) [17][18][19]

Timeline of smallest red dwarf recordholders

This is a list of titleholders of being the red dwarf with the smallest volume, and its succession over time.

List of smallest red dwarf titleholders
Star Date Radius
Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Radius
Jupiter radii
(Jupiter = 1)
Radius
km
(mi)
Notes
EBLM J0555-57Ab 2017— 0.084 0.84 59,000 km (37,000 mi) This star is slightly larger than the planet Saturn. [5][6][7]
2MASS J0523-1403 2013-2017 0.086 0.86 60,000 km (37,000 mi) [17][18][19]
OGLE-TR-122B 2005-2013 0.120 1.16 81,100 km (50,400 mi) [20][21][22]

See also

References

  1. ^ Croswell, Ken (July 2003), "The Brightest Red Dwarf", Sky & Telescope: 32, retrieved 2019-08-31.
  2. ^ a b Marietta DiChristina (September 1998). "Other Worlds". Popular Science. pp. 77–79.
  3. ^ a b Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Mayor, Michel; Perrier, Christian; Naef, Dominique; Queloz, Didier (1998). "The closest extrasolar planet. A giant planet around the M4 dwarf GL 876". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 338: L67–L70. arXiv:astro-ph/9808026. Bibcode:1998A&A...338L..67D.
  4. ^ Deborah Williams-Hedges (13 January 2012). "Tiny planet triplets orbit dwarf star". Futurity.
  5. ^ a b c Eric Mack (11 July 2017). "Saturn-sized star is the smallest ever discovered". cnet.
  6. ^ a b c "Smallest-ever star discovered by astronomers". University of Cambridge. 2017.
  7. ^ a b c Alexander von Boetticher, Amaury H.M.J. Triaud, Didier Queloz, Sam Gill, Monika Lendl, Laetitia Delrez, David R. Anderson, Andrew Collier Cameron, Francesca Faedi, Michaël Gillon, Yilen Gómez Maqueo Chew, Leslie Hebb, Coel Hellier, Emmanuël Jehin, Pierre F.L. Maxted, David V. Martin, Francesco Pepe, Don Pollacco, Damien Ségransan, Barry Smalley, Stéphane Udry, Richard West (12 June 2017). "The EBLM project; III. A Saturn-size low-mass star at the hydrogen-burning limit". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 604 (6): L6. arXiv:1706.08781. Bibcode:2017A&A...604L...6V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201731107. S2CID 54610182. EBLM_III.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ a b Cifuentes, C.; Caballero, J. A.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Montes, D.; Abellán, F. J.; Dorda, R.; Holgado, G.; Osorio, M. R. Zapatero; Morales, J. C.; Amado, P. J.; Passegger, V. M. (2020-10-01). "CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs - V. Luminosities, colours, and spectral energy distributions". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 642: A115. arXiv:2007.15077. Bibcode:2020A&A...642A.115C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038295. ISSN 0004-6361. S2CID 220871254.
  9. ^ a b Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Rice, Emily L.; Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle L.; Gordon, Mollie M. Van; Looper, Dagny L. (September 2015). "Fundamental Parameters and Spectral Energy Distributions of Young and Field Age Objects with Masses Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Regime". The Astrophysical Journal. 810 (2): 158. arXiv:1508.01767. Bibcode:2015ApJ...810..158F. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/158. ISSN 0004-637X. S2CID 89611607.
  10. ^ a b c I.S. Glass (2007). "The Discovery of the Nearest Star". Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa (published December 2007). 66 (11 and 12): 244–262. Bibcode:2007MNSSA..66..244G.
  11. ^ Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros; von Hippel, Ted (2013-08-19). "Moving Objects in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field". The Astrophysical Journal. 774 (1): 88. arXiv:1307.5067. Bibcode:2013ApJ...774...88K. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/774/1/88. ISSN 0004-637X. S2CID 118470451.
  12. ^ Ken Croswell (July 2002). "The Brightest Red Dwarf". Sky and Telescope. p. 38.
  13. ^ David Tytell (2013). "Lalande 21185: The Brightest Red Dwarf for the Rest of Us" (PDF). ((cite magazine)): Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  14. ^ a b Liz Kruesi (28 November 2005). "The discoverers of Kapteyn's Star". Astronomy Magazine (published January 2006).
  15. ^ Peter van de Kamp (April 1953). "Stars Nearer than Five Parsecs". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 65 (383): 73–77. Bibcode:1953PASP...65...73V. doi:10.1086/126538.
  16. ^ "Barnard's star | Distance, Facts, & Planet". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-11-13.
  17. ^ a b Garmany, Katy. "NOAO/SOAR: Where do stars end and brown dwarfs begin?". National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  18. ^ a b John Bochanski (23 December 2013). "New Cutoff for Star Sizes". Sky and Telescope.
  19. ^ a b Sergio B. Dieterich; Todd J. Henry; Wei-Chun Jao; Jennifer G. Winters; Altonio D. Hosey; Adric R. Riedel; John P. Subasavage (May 2014). "The Solar Neighborhood XXXII. The Hydrogen Burning Limit". The Astronomical Journal. 147 (5): 25. arXiv:1312.1736. Bibcode:2014AJ....147...94D. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/147/5/94. S2CID 21036959. 94.
  20. ^ Robert Roy Britt (3 March 2005). "Newfound Star Smaller than Some Planets". Space.com.
  21. ^ Jonathan O'Callaghan; Josh Barker (National Space Centre) (22 March 2013). "What is the smallest star?". SpaceAnswers.com.
  22. ^ Pont, F.; Melo, C. H. F.; Bouchy, F.; Udry, S.; Queloz, D.; Mayor, M.; Santos, N. C. (27 January 2005). "A planet-sized transiting star around OGLE-TR-122. Accurate mass and radius near the hydrogen-burning limit". Astronomy and Astrophysics (published April 2005). 433 (2): L21–L24. arXiv:astro-ph/0501611. Bibcode:2005A&A...433L..21P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200500025. S2CID 14799999.