Color composite JWST NIRCam image of distant galaxy JADES-GS-z13-0. An initial sample of four z>10 galaxies was spectroscopically confirmed by Curtis-Lake et al. at redshifts z~10.4-13.2. The most distant galaxies at z=13.20 and z=12.63 are newly discovered by JADES NIRCam imaging, while the z=10.38 and z=11.58 galaxies confirm previous photometric redshift estimates from the literature. The yellow-orange-red colours reflect the absorption of the F115W and F150W fluxes of these distant galaxies by the intervening intergalactic medium.
JADES-GS-z13-0 is a distant galaxy.

This article documents the most distant astronomical objects discovered and verified so far, and the time periods in which they were so classified.

For comparisons with the light travel distance of the astronomical objects listed below, the age of the universe since the Big Bang is currently estimated as 13.787±0.020 Gyr.[1]

Distances to remote objects, other than those in nearby galaxies, are nearly always inferred by measuring the cosmological redshift of their light. By their nature, very distant objects tend to be very faint, and these distance determinations are difficult and subject to errors. An important distinction is whether the distance is determined via spectroscopy or using a photometric redshift technique. The former is generally both more precise and also more reliable, in the sense that photometric redshifts are more prone to being wrong due to confusion with lower redshift sources that may have unusual spectra. For that reason, a spectroscopic redshift is conventionally regarded as being necessary for an object's distance to be considered definitely known, whereas photometrically determined redshifts identify "candidate" very distant sources. Here, this distinction is indicated by a "p" subscript for photometric redshifts.

The proper distance provides a measurement of how far a galaxy is at a fixed moment in time. At the present time the proper distance equals the comoving distance since the cosmological scale factor has value one: . The proper distance represents the distance obtained as if one were able to freeze the flow of time (set in the FLRW metric) and walk all the way to a galaxy while using a meter stick.[2] For practical reasons, the proper distance is calculated as the distance traveled by light (set in the FLRW metric) from the time of emission by a galaxy to the time an observer (on Earth) receives the light signal. It differs from the “light travel distance” since the proper distance takes into account the expansion of the universe, i.e. the space expands as the light travels through it, resulting in numerical values which locate the most distant galaxies beyond the Hubble sphere and therefore with recession velocities greater than the speed of light c.[3]   

Most distant spectroscopically-confirmed objects

Most distant astronomical objects with spectroscopic redshift determinations
Image Name Redshift
(z)
Light travel distance§
(Gly)[4][5][6][7]
Proper distance

(Gly)

Type Notes
JADES-GS-z13-0 z = 13.20+0.04
−0.07
13.576[4] / 13.596[5] / 13.474[6] / 13.473[7] 33.6 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy, detection of the Lyman break with JWST/NIRSpec.[8] Possibly a dark star.[9]
UNCOVER-z13 z = 13.079+0.014
−0.001
13.51 32.56 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy, detection of the Lyman break with JWST/NIRSpec.[10]
JADES-GS-z12-0 z = 12.63+0.24
−0.08
13.556[4] / 13.576[5] / 13.454[6] / 13.453[7] 32.34 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy, detection of the Lyman break with JWST/NIRSpec.[8] Possibly a dark star.[9]
UNCOVER-z12 z = 12.393+0.004
−0.001
13.48 32.21 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy, detection of the Lyman break with JWST/NIRSpec.[10]
GLASS-z12 z = 12.117+0.01
−0.01
13.536[4] / 13.556[5] / 13.434[6] / 13.433[7] 33.2 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST/NIRCam, confirmed by ALMA detection of [O III] emission[11]
UDFj-39546284 z = 11.58+0.05
−0.05
13.512[4] / 13.532[5] / 13.410[6] / 13.409[7] 31.77 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy, detection of the Lyman break with JWST/NIRSpec.[8] Possibly a dark star.[9]
CEERS J141946.36+525632.8
(Maisie's Galaxy)

[12]

z = 11.44+0.09
−0.08
13.4 31.69 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST
CEERS2 588

[13]

z = 11.04 13.45 31.45 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST
GN-z11 z = 10.6034 ± 0.0013 13.481[4] / 13.501[5] / 13.380[6] / 13.379[7] 31.18 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy; detection of the Lyman break with HST at 5.5σ[14] and carbon emission lines with Keck/MOSFIRE at 5.3σ.[15] Conclusive redshift by JWST in February 2023[16]
JADES-GS-z10-0 UDFj-39546284 z = 10.38+0.07
−0.06
13.449[4] / 13.469[5] / 13.348[6] / 13.347[7] 31.04 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy, detection of the Lyman break with JWST/NIRSpec[8]
JD1 z = 9.793±0.002 13.409[4] / 13.429[5] / 13.308[6] / 13.307[7] 30.12 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy, detection of the Lyman break with JWST/NIRSpec[17]
MACS1149-JD1 z = 9.1096±0.0006 13.361[4] / 13.381[5] / 13.261[6] / 13.260[7] 30.37 Galaxy Detection of hydrogen emission line with the VLT, and oxygen line with ALMA[18]
EGSY8p7 z = 8.683+0.001
−0.004
13.325[4] / 13.345[5] / 13.225[6] / 13.224[7] 30.05 Galaxy Lyman-alpha emitter; detection of Lyman-alpha with Keck/MOSFIRE at 7.5σ confidence[19]
SMACS-4590 z = 8.496 13.308[4] / 13.328[5] / 13.208[6] / 13.207[7] 29.71 Galaxy Detection of hydrogen, oxygen, and neon emission lines with JWST/NIRSpec[20][21][22][23]
A2744 YD4 z = 8.38 13.297[4] / 13.317[5] / 13.197[6] / 13.196[7] 29.50 Galaxy Lyman-alpha and [O III] emission detected with ALMA at 4.0σ confidence[24]
MACS0416 Y1 z = 8.3118±0.0003 13.290[4] / 13.310[5] / 13.190[6] / 13.189[7] 29.44 Galaxy [O III] emission detected with ALMA at 6.3σ confidence[25]
GRB 090423 z = 8.23+0.06
−0.07
13.282[4] / 13.302[5] / 13.182[6] / 13.181[7] 30 Gamma-ray burst Lyman-alpha break detected[26]
RXJ2129-11002 z = 8.16±0.01 13.175[4] 29.31 Galaxy [O III] doublet, Hβ, and [O II] doublet as well as Lyman-alpha break detected with JWST/NIRSpec prism[27]
RXJ2129-11022 z = 8.15±0.01 13.174[4] 29.30 Galaxy [O III] doublet and Hβ as well as Lyman-alpha break detected with JWST/NIRSpec prism[27]
EGS-zs8-1 z = 7.7302±0.0006 13.228[4] / 13.248[5] / 13.129[6] / 13.128[7] 29.5 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy[28]
SMACS-6355 z = 7.665 13.221[4] / 13.241[5] / 13.121[6] / 13.120[7] 28.83 Galaxy Detection of hydrogen, oxygen, and neon emission lines with JWST/NIRSpec[20][21][22][23]
z7_GSD_3811 z = 7.6637±0.0011 13.221[4] / 13.240[5] / 13.121[6] / 13.120[7] 28.83 Galaxy Lyman-alpha emitter[29]
SMACS-10612 z = 7.658 13.221[4] / 13.241[5] / 13.120[6] / 13.119[7] 28.83 Galaxy Detection of hydrogen, oxygen, and neon emission lines with JWST/NIRSpec[20][21][22]>[23]
QSO J0313–1806 z = 7.6423±0.0013 13.218[4] / 13.238[5] / 13.119[6] / 13.118[7] 30 Quasar Lyman-alpha break detected[30]
ULAS J1342+0928 z = 7.5413±0.0007 13.206[4] / 13.226[5] / 13.107[6] / 13.106[7] 29.36 Quasar Redshift estimated from [C II] emission[31]
z8_GND_5296 z = 7.51 13.202[4] / 13.222[5] / 13.103[6] / 13.102[7] 30.01 Galaxy Lyman-alpha emitter[32]
A1689-zD1 z = 7.5±0.2 13.201[4] / 13.221[5] / 13.102[6] / 13.101[7] 30 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy[33]
GS2_1406 z = 7.452±0.003 13.195[4] / 13.215[5] / 13.096[6] / 13.095[7] 28.62 Galaxy Lyman-alpha emitter[34]
GN-108036 z = 7.213 13.164[4] / 13.184[5] / 13.065[6] / 13.064[7] 29 Galaxy Lyman alpha emitter[35]
SXDF-NB1006-2 z = 7.2120±0.0003 13.164[4] / 13.184[5] / 13.065[6] / 13.064[7] 29 Galaxy [O III] emission detected[36]
BDF-3299 z = 7.109±0.002 13.149[4] / 13.169[5] / 13.051[6] / 13.050[7] 28.25 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy[37]
ULAS J1120+0641 z = 7.085±0.003 13.146[4] / 13.166[5] / 13.048[6] / 13.047[7] 29.85 Quasar Redshift estimated from Si III]+C III] and Mg II emission lines[38]
A1703 zD6 z = 7.045±0.004 13.140[4] / 13.160[5] / 13.042[6] / 13.041[7] 29 Galaxy Gravitationally-lensed Lyman-alpha emitter[39]
BDF-521 z = 7.008±0.002 13.135[4] / 13.155[5] / 13.037[6] / 13.036[7] 28.43 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy[37]
G2_1408 z = 6.972±0.002 13.130[4] / 13.150[5] / 13.032[6] / 13.030[7] 28.10 Galaxy Lyman-alpha emitter[40]
IOK-1 z = 6.965 13.129[4] / 13.149[5] / 13.030[6] / 13.029[7] 28.09 Galaxy Lyman-alpha emitter[35]
LAE J095950.99+021219.1 z = 6.944 13.126[4] / 13.146[5] / 13.028[6] / 13.027[7] 28.07 Galaxy Lyman-alpha emitter[41]
SDF-46975 z = 6.844 13.111[4] / 13.131[5] / 13.013[6] / 13.012[7] 27.95 Galaxy Lyman-alpha emitter[35]
PSO J172.3556+18.7734 z = 6.823+0.003
−0.001
13.107[4] / 13.127[5] / 13.010[6] / 13.009[7] 27.93 Quasar
(astrophysical jet)
Redshift estimated from Mg II emission[42]

§ The tabulated distance is the light travel distance, which has no direct physical significance. See discussion at distance measures and Observable Universe

† Numeric value obtained using Wright (2006)[5] with = 70, = 0.30, = 0.70.

Candidate most distant objects

Since the beginning of the James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) science operations in June 2022, numerous distant galaxies far beyond what could be seen by the Hubble Space Telescope (z = 11) have been discovered thanks to the JWST's capability of seeing far into the infrared.[43][44] Previously in 2012, there were about 50 possible objects z = 8 or farther, and another 100 candidates at z = 7, based on photometric redshift estimates released by the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) project from observations made between mid-2002 and December 2012.[45] Some objects included here have been observed spectroscopically, but had only one emission line tentatively detected, and are therefore still considered candidates by researchers.[46][47]

Notable candidates for most distant astronomical objects
Name Redshift
(z)
Light travel distance§
(Gly)
Type Notes
F200DB-045 zp = 20.4+0.3
−0.3
[44]
or 0.70+0.19
−0.55
[43] or 0.40+0.15
−0.26
[48]
13.725[4] / 13.745[5] / 13.623[6] / 13.621[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
NOTE: The redshift value of the galaxy presented by the procedure in one study[43] may differ from the values presented in other studies using different procedures.[44][49][48]
F200DB-175 zp = 16.2+0.3
−0.0
13.657[4] / 13.677[5] / 13.555[6] / 13.554[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
S5-z17-1 z = 16.0089±0.0004
or 4.6108±0.0001
13.653[4] / 13.673[5] / 13.551[6] / 13.550[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST; tentative (5.1σ) ALMA detection of a single emission line possibly attributed to either [C II] (z = 4.6108±0.0001) or [O III] (z = 16.0089±0.0004).[46][47]
F150DB-041 zp = 16.0+0.2
−0.2
[44]
or 3.70+0.02
−0.59
[43]
13.653[4] / 13.673[5] / 13.551[6] / 13.549[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44][43]
SMACS-z16a zp = 15.92+0.17
−0.15
[50]
or 2.96+0.73
−0.21
[43]
13.651[4] / 13.671[5] / 13.549[6] / 13.548[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[50][43]
F200DB-015 zp = 15.8+3.4
−0.1
13.648[4] / 13.668[5] / 13.546[6] / 13.545[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F200DB-181 zp = 15.8+0.5
−0.3
13.648[4] / 13.668[5] / 13.546[6] / 13.545[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F200DB-159 zp = 15.8+4.0
−15.2
13.648[4] / 13.668[5] / 13.546[6] / 13.545[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F200DB-086 zp = 15.4+0.6
−14.6
[44]
or 3.53+10.28
−1.84
[43]
13.639[4] / 13.659[5] / 13.537[6] / 13.536[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44][43]
SMACS-z16b zp = 15.32+0.16
−0.13
[50]
or 15.39+0.18
−0.26
[43]
13.637[4] / 13.657[5] / 13.535[6] / 13.534[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[50][43]
F150DB-048 zp = 15.0+0.2
−0.8
13.629[4] / 13.649[5] / 13.527[6] / 13.526[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DB-007 zp = 14.6+0.4
−0.4
13.619[4] / 13.639[5] / 13.517[6] / 13.516[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DB-004 zp = 14.0+0.4
−2.0
13.602[4] / 13.622[5] / 13.500[6] / 13.499[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DB-079 zp = 13.8+0.5
−1.9
13.596[4] / 13.616[5] / 13.494[6] / 13.493[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DA-007 zp = 13.4+0.6
−2.0
13.583[4] / 13.603[5] / 13.481[6] / 13.480[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DA-053 zp = 13.4+0.3
−2.3
13.583[4] / 13.603[5] / 13.481[6] / 13.480[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DA-050 zp = 13.4+0.6
−10.0
13.583[4] / 13.603[5] / 13.481[6] / 13.480[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DA-058 zp = 13.4+0.6
−12.5
[44]
3.42+0.30
−0.20
[43]
13.583[4] / 13.603[5] / 13.481[6] / 13.480[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44][43]
F150DA-038 zp = 13.4+0.4
−13.2
13.583[4] / 13.603[5] / 13.481[6] / 13.480[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
HD1 z = 13.27 13.579[4] / 13.599[5] / 13.477[6] / 13.476[7] Galaxy Not yet spectroscopically confirmed. Guinness World Record of the most distant confirmed galaxy
Lyman-break galaxy (5σ confidence) followed with a tentative ALMA detection of a single [O III] oxygen emission line only (4σ confidence)[51]
F150DA-010 zp = 12.8+0.6
−1.5
13.562[4] / 13.582[5] / 13.460[6] / 13.459[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
S5-z12-1 zp = 12.57+1.23
−0.46
13.553[4] / 13.573[5] / 13.452[6] / 13.451[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[46]
CEERS-27535 4 zp = 12.56+1.75
−0.27
13.553[4] / 13.573[5] / 13.452[6] / 13.451[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
SMACS-1566 zp = 12.29+1.50
−0.44
13.542[4] / 13.562[5] / 13.441[6] / 13.440[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
SMACS-z12b
(F150DA-077)
zp = 12.26+0.17
−0.16
[50][43]
or 13.4+0.4
−1.7
[44]
13.541[4] / 13.561[5] / 13.440[6] / 13.439[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[50][43][44]
SMACS-z12a zp = 12.20+0.21
−0.12
13.539[4] / 13.559[5] / 13.437[6] / 13.436[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[50][43]
CR2-z12-4 zp = 12.08+2.11
−1.25
13.534[4] / 13.554[5] / 13.432[6] / 13.431[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[46]
SMACS-10566 zp = 12.03+0.57
−0.26
13.532[4] / 13.552[5] / 13.430[6] / 13.429[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
XDFH-2395446286 zp = 12.0+0.1
−0.2
13.530[4] / 13.550[5] / 13.429[6] / 13.428[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy detected by JWST and Hubble[53]
CR2-z12-2 zp = 11.96+1.44
−0.87
13.529[4] / 13.549[5] / 13.427[6] / 13.426[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[46]
9-BUSCAR zp = 11.91+0.10
−0.22
13.527[4] / 13.547[5] / 13.425[6] / 13.424[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[54]
SMACS-8347 zp = 11.90+0.27
−0.39
13.526[4] / 13.546[5] / 13.425[6] / 13.424[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
CEERS-26409 4 zp = 11.90+1.60
−0.70
13.526[4] / 13.546[5] / 13.425[6] / 13.424[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
F150DB-069 zp = 11.8+1.7
−0.2
13.522[4] / 13.542[5] / 13.420[6] / 13.419[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
XDFH-2334046578 zp = 11.8+0.4
−0.5
13.522[4] / 13.542[5] / 13.420[6] / 13.419[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy detected by JWST and Hubble[53]
CR2-z12-3 zp = 11.66+0.69
−0.71
13.515[4] / 13.535[5] / 13.414[6] / 13.413[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[46]
CR2-z12-1 zp = 11.63+0.51
−0.53
13.514[4] / 13.534[5] / 13.413[6] / 13.412[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[46]
F150DB-088 zp = 11.6+0.3
−0.2
13.513[4] / 13.533[5] / 13.411[6] / 13.410[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DB-084 zp = 11.6+0.4
−0.4
13.513[4] / 13.533[5] / 13.411[6] / 13.410[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DB-044 zp = 11.4+0.4
−11.3
13.503[4] / 13.523[5] / 13.402[6] / 13.401[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
XDFH-2404647339 zp = 11.4+0.4
−0.5
13.503[4] / 13.523[5] / 13.402[6] / 13.401[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy detected by JWST and Hubble[53]
F150DB-075 zp = 11.4+0.4
−0.1
[44]
0.04+0.01
−0.01
[43]
13.503[4] / 13.523[5] / 13.402[6] / 13.401[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44][43]
F150DA-062 zp = 11.4+0.3
−0.3
[44]
1.78+0.20
−0.08
[43]
13.503[4] / 13.523[5] / 13.402[6] / 13.401[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44][43]
CEERS-127682 zp = 11.40+0.59
−0.51
13.503[4] / 13.523[5] / 13.402[6] / 13.401[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
CEERS-5268 2 zp = 11.40+0.30
−1.11
13.503[4] / 13.523[5] / 13.402[6] / 13.401[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
F150DA-060 zp = 11.4+0.6
−8.2
13.503[4] / 13.523[5] / 13.402[6] / 13.401[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DA-031 zp = 11.4+1.0
−8.2
13.503[4] / 13.523[5] / 13.402[6] / 13.401[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DA-052 zp = 11.4+0.8
−10.6
13.503[4] / 13.523[5] / 13.402[6] / 13.401[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DB-054 zp = 11.4+0.5
−10.8
13.503[4] / 13.523[5] / 13.402[6] / 13.401[7] Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
SMACS-z11d zp = 11.28±0.32
or 2.35+0.30
−0.67
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[43]
CEERS-77241 zp = 11.27+0.39
−0.70
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
CEERS-6647 zp = 11.27+0.58
−0.28
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
CEERS-622 4 zp = 11.27+0.48
−0.60
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
SMACS-z11c zp = 11.22±0.32
or 3.84+0.05
−0.04
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[43]
SMACS-z11b zp = 11.22±0.56
or 6.94+0.07
−0.07
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[43]
F150DA-005 zp = 11.2+0.4
−0.3
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DA-020 zp = 11.2+0.2
−7.9
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
CEERS-61486 zp = 11.15+0.37
−0.35
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[52]
SMACS-z11e
(F150DA-081)
zp = 11.10+0.21
−0.34
[43]
or 13.4+0.6
−2.2
[44]
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[43][44]
SMACS-z11a zp = 11.05+0.09
−0.08
[50]
or 1.73+0.18
−0.04
[43]
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[50][43]
CR3-z12-1 zp = 11.05+2.24
−0.47
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[46]
F150DA-026 zp = 11.0+0.5
−0.3
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
F150DA-036 zp = 11.0+0.4
−7.8
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
SMACS-z10e zp = 10.89+0.16
−0.14
[50]
or 1.38+1.37
−0.24
[43]
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[50][43]
F150DB-040 zp = 10.8+0.3
−0.2
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[44]
EGS-14506 zp = 10.71+0.34
−0.62
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[55]
MACS0647-JD zp = 10.6±0.3 Galaxy Gravitationally lensed into three images by a galaxy cluster; detected by JWST and Hubble[56][57]
GLASS-z10
(GLASS-1698)[52]
z = 10.38 Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST; tentative (4.4σ) ALMA detection of [O III] emission line only[58][59]
EGS-7860 zp = 10.11+0.60
−0.82
Galaxy Lyman-break galaxy discovered by JWST[55]
SPT0615-JD zp = 9.9+0.8
−0.6
13.419[4] Galaxy [60]
A2744-JD zp≅9.8 13.412[4] Galaxy Galaxy is being magnified and lensed into three multiple images, geometrically supporting its redshift.[61][62]
MACS1149-JD1 zp≅9.6 13.398[4][63] Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy [64]
GRB 090429B zp≅9.4 13.383[4][65] Gamma-ray burst [66] The photometric redshift in this instance has quite large uncertainty, with the lower limit for the redshift being z>7.
UDFy-33436598 zp≅8.6 13.317[4] Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy [67]
UDFy-38135539 zp≅8.6 13.317[4] Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy A spectroscopic redshift of z = 8.55 was claimed for this source in 2010,[68] but has subsequently been shown to be mistaken.[69]
BoRG-58 zp≅8 13.258[4] Galaxy cluster or protocluster Protocluster candidate[70]

§ The tabulated distance is the light travel distance, which has no direct physical significance. See discussion at distance measures and Observable Universe

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.

List of most distant objects by type

This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2023)
Most distant object by type
Type Object Redshift
(distance)
Notes
Any astronomical object, no matter what type JADES-GS-z13-0 z = 13.20 Most distant galaxy with a spectroscopically-confirmed redshift as of December 2022.[8] These are data from Webb science in progress as of 9 December 2022, which has not yet been through the peer-review process. The estimated light-travel distance is about 13.6 billion light-years (and a proper distance of approximately 33.6 billion light-years (10.3 billion parsecs) from Earth due to the Universe's expansion since the light we now observe left it about 13.6 billion years ago).[5]
Galaxy or protogalaxy
Galaxy cluster CL J1001+0220 z ≅ 2.506 As of 2016[71]
Galaxy supercluster Hyperion proto-supercluster z = 2.45 This supercluster at the time of its discovery in 2018 was the earliest and largest proto-supercluster found to date.[72]
Galaxy protocluster A2744z7p9OD z = 7.88 This protocluster at the time of its discovery in 2023 was the most distant protocluster found and spectroscopically confirmed to date.[73]
Quasar UHZ1 z ~ 10.0 [74]
Black hole [74]
Star or protostar or post-stellar corpse
(detected by an event)
Progenitor of GRB 090423 z = 8.2 [75][26] Note, GRB 090429B has a photometric redshift zp≅9.4,[76] and so is most likely more distant than GRB 090423, but is lacking spectroscopic confirmation. Estimated an approximate distance of 13 billion lightyears from Earth
Star or protostar or post-stellar corpse
(detected as a star)
WHL0137-LS (Earendel) z = 6.2 ± 0.1
(12.9 Gly)
Most distant individual star detected (March, 2022).[77][78]

Previous records include SDSS J1229+1122[79] and MACS J1149 Lensed Star 1.[80]

Star cluster The Sparkler z = 1.378
(13.9 Gly)
Galaxy with globular clusters gravitationally lensed in SMACS J0723.3-7327[81]
System of star clusters
X-ray jet PJ352–15 quasar jet z = 5.831
(12.7 Gly)[82]
The previous recordholder was at 12.4 Gly.[83][84]
Microquasar XMMU J004243.6+412519 (2.5 Mly) First extragalactic microquasar discovered[85][86][87]
Nebula-like object Himiko z = 6.595 Possibly one of the largest objects in the early universe.[88][89]
Magnetic field 9io9 z = 2.554 (11.1 Gly) Observations from ALMA has shown that the lensed galaxy 9io9 contains a magnetic field.
Planet SWEEPS-11 / SWEEPS-04 (27,710 ly) [90]
  • An analysis of the lightcurve of the microlensing event PA-99-N2 suggests the presence of a planet orbiting a star in the Andromeda Galaxy.[91]
  • A controversial microlensing event of lobe A of the double gravitationally lensed Q0957+561 suggests that there is a planet in the lensing galaxy lying at redshift 0.355 (3.7 Gly).[92][93]
Most distant event by type
Type Event Redshift Notes
Gamma-ray burst GRB 090423 z = 8.2 [75][26] Note, GRB 090429B has a photometric redshift zp≅9.4,[76] and so is most likely more distant than GRB 090423, but is lacking spectroscopic confirmation.
Core collapse supernova SN 1000+0216 z = 3.8993 [94]
Type Ia supernova SN UDS10Wil z = 1.914 [95]
Type Ia supernova SN SCP-0401
(Mingus)
z = 1.71 First observed in 2004, it was not until 2013 that it could be identified as a Type-Ia SN.[96][97]
Cosmic Decoupling Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation creation z~1000 to 1089 [98][99]

Timeline of most distant astronomical object recordholders

Objects in this list were found to be the most distant object at the time of determination of their distance. This is frequently not the same as the date of their discovery.

Distances to astronomical objects may be determined through parallax measurements, use of standard references such as cepheid variables or Type Ia supernovas, or redshift measurement. Spectroscopic redshift measurement is preferred, while photometric redshift measurement is also used to identify candidate high redshift sources. The symbol z represents redshift.

Most Distant Object Titleholders (not including candidates based on photometric redshifts)
Object Type Date Distance
(z = Redshift)
Notes
JADES-GS-z13-0 Galaxy 2022 - present z = 13.20 [8]
GN-z11 Galaxy 2016–2022 z = 10.6 [14][15]
EGSY8p7 Galaxy 2015 − 2016 z = 8.68 [100][101][102][103]
Progenitor of GRB 090423 / Remnant of GRB 090423 Gamma-ray burst progenitor / Gamma-ray burst remnant 2009 − 2015 z = 8.2 [26][104]
IOK-1 Galaxy 2006 − 2009 z = 6.96 [104][105][106][107]
SDF J132522.3+273520 Galaxy 2005 − 2006 z = 6.597 [107][108]
SDF J132418.3+271455 Galaxy 2003 − 2005 z = 6.578 [108][109][110][111]
HCM-6A Galaxy 2002 − 2003 z = 6.56 The galaxy is lensed by galaxy cluster Abell 370. This was the first non-quasar galaxy found to exceed redshift 6. It exceeded the redshift of quasar SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 of z = 6.28[109][110][112][113][114][115]
SDSS J1030+0524
(SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0)
Quasar 2001 − 2002 z = 6.28 [116][117][118][119][120][121]
SDSS 1044–0125
(SDSSp J104433.04–012502.2)
Quasar 2000 − 2001 z = 5.82 [122][123][120][121][124][125][126]
SSA22-HCM1 Galaxy 1999 − 2000 z>=5.74 [127][128]
HDF 4-473.0 Galaxy 1998 − 1999 z = 5.60 [128]
RD1 (0140+326 RD1) Galaxy 1998 z = 5.34 [129][130][131][128][132]
CL 1358+62 G1 & CL 1358+62 G2 Galaxies 1997 − 1998 z = 4.92 These were the most remote objects discovered at the time. The pair of galaxies were found lensed by galaxy cluster CL1358+62 (z = 0.33). This was the first time since 1964 that something other than a quasar held the record for being the most distant object in the universe.[130][133][134][131][128][135]
PC 1247–3406 Quasar 1991 − 1997 z = 4.897 [122][136][137][138][139]
PC 1158+4635 Quasar 1989 − 1991 z = 4.73 [122][139][140][141][142][143]
Q0051–279 Quasar 1987 − 1989 z = 4.43 [144][140][143][145][146][147]
Q0000–26
(QSO B0000–26)
Quasar 1987 z = 4.11 [144][140][148]
PC 0910+5625
(QSO B0910+5625)
Quasar 1987 z = 4.04 This was the second quasar discovered with a redshift over 4.[122][140][149][150]
Q0046–293
(QSO J0048–2903)
Quasar 1987 z = 4.01 [144][140][149][151][152]
Q1208+1011
(QSO B1208+1011)
Quasar 1986 − 1987 z = 3.80 This is a gravitationally-lensed double-image quasar, and at the time of discovery to 1991, had the least angular separation between images, 0.45″.[149][153][154]
PKS 2000-330
(QSO J2003–3251, Q2000–330)
Quasar 1982 − 1986 z = 3.78 [149][155][156]
OQ172
(QSO B1442+101)
Quasar 1974 − 1982 z = 3.53 [157][158][159]
OH471
(QSO B0642+449)
Quasar 1973 − 1974 z = 3.408 Nickname was "the blaze marking the edge of the universe".[157][159][160][161][162]
4C 05.34 Quasar 1970 − 1973 z = 2.877 Its redshift was so much greater than the previous record that it was believed to be erroneous, or spurious.[159][163][164][165]
5C 02.56
(7C 105517.75+495540.95)
Quasar 1968 − 1970 z = 2.399 [135][165][166]
4C 25.05
(4C 25.5)
Quasar 1968 z = 2.358 [135][165][167]
PKS 0237–23
(QSO B0237–2321)
Quasar 1967 − 1968 z = 2.225 [163][167][168][169][170]
4C 12.39
(Q1116+12, PKS 1116+12)
Quasar 1966 − 1967 z = 2.1291 [135][170][171][172]
4C 01.02
(Q0106+01, PKS 0106+1)
Quasar 1965 − 1966 z = 2.0990 [135][170][171][173]
3C 9 Quasar 1965 z = 2.018 [170][174][175][176][177][178]
3C 147 Quasar 1964 − 1965 z = 0.545 [179][180][181][182]
3C 295 Radio galaxy 1960 − 1964 z = 0.461 [128][135][183][184][185]
LEDA 25177 (MCG+01-23-008) Brightest cluster galaxy 1951 − 1960 z = 0.2
(V = 61000 km/s)
This galaxy lies in the Hydra Supercluster. It is located at B1950.0 08h 55m 4s +03° 21′ and is the BCG of the fainter Hydra Cluster Cl 0855+0321 (ACO 732).[128][185][186][187][188][189][190]
LEDA 51975 (MCG+05-34-069) Brightest cluster galaxy 1936 – z = 0.13
(V = 39000 km/s)
The brightest cluster galaxy of the Bootes Cluster (ACO 1930), an elliptical galaxy at B1950.0 14h 30m 6s +31° 46′ apparent magnitude 17.8, was found by Milton L. Humason in 1936 to have a 40,000 km/s recessional redshift velocity.[189][191][192]
LEDA 20221 (MCG+06-16-021) Brightest cluster galaxy 1932 – z = 0.075
(V = 23000 km/s)
This is the BCG of the Gemini Cluster (ACO 568) and was located at B1950.0 07h 05m 0s +35° 04′[191][193]
BCG of WMH Christie's Leo Cluster Brightest cluster galaxy 1931 − 1932 z =
(V = 19700 km/s)
[193][194][195][196]
BCG of Baede's Ursa Major Cluster Brightest cluster galaxy 1930 − 1931 z =
(V = 11700 km/s)
[196][197]
NGC 4860 Galaxy 1929 − 1930 z = 0.026
(V = 7800 km/s)
[197][198][199]
NGC 7619 Galaxy 1929 z = 0.012
(V = 3779 km/s)
Using redshift measurements, NGC 7619 was the highest at the time of measurement. At the time of announcement, it was not yet accepted as a general guide to distance, however, later in the year, Edwin Hubble described redshift in relation to distance, which became accepted widely as an inferred distance.[198][200][201]
NGC 584
(Dreyer nebula 584)
Galaxy 1921 − 1929 z = 0.006
(V = 1800 km/s)
At the time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. However, in 1923, galaxies were generally recognized as external to the Milky Way.[189][198][200][202][203][204][205]
M104 (NGC 4594) Galaxy 1913 − 1921 z = 0.004
(V = 1180 km/s)
This was the second galaxy whose redshift was determined; the first being Andromeda – which is approaching us and thus cannot have its redshift used to infer distance. Both were measured by Vesto Melvin Slipher. At this time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. NGC 4594 was measured originally as 1000 km/s, then refined to 1100, and then to 1180 in 1916.[198][202][205]
Arcturus
(Alpha Bootis)
Star 1891 − 1910 160 ly
(18 mas)
(this is very inaccurate, true=37 ly)
This number is wrong; originally announced in 1891, the figure was corrected in 1910 to 40 ly (60 mas). From 1891 to 1910, it had been thought this was the star with the smallest known parallax, hence the most distant star whose distance was known. Prior to 1891, Arcturus had previously been recorded of having a parallax of 127 mas.[206][207][208][209]
Capella
(Alpha Aurigae)
Star 1849-1891 72 ly
(46 mas)
[210][211][212]
Polaris
(Alpha Ursae Minoris)
Star 1847 - 1849 50 ly
(80 mas)
(this is very inaccurate, true=~375 ly)
[213][214]
Vega
(Alpha Lyrae)
Star (part of a double star pair) 1839 - 1847 7.77 pc
(125 mas)
[213]
61 Cygni Binary star 1838 − 1839 3.48 pc
(313.6 mas)
This was the first star other than the Sun to have its distance measured.[213][215][216]
Uranus Planet of the Solar System 1781 − 1838 18 AU This was the last planet discovered before the first successful measurement of stellar parallax. It had been determined that the stars were much farther away than the planets.
Saturn Planet of the Solar System 1619 − 1781 10 AU From Kepler's Third Law, it was finally determined that Saturn is indeed the outermost of the classical planets, and its distance derived. It had only previously been conjectured to be the outermost, due to it having the longest orbital period, and slowest orbital motion. It had been determined that the stars were much farther away than the planets.
Mars Planet of the Solar System 1609 − 1619 2.6 AU when Mars is diametrically opposed to Earth Kepler correctly characterized Mars and Earth's orbits in the publication Astronomia nova. It had been conjectured that the fixed stars were much farther away than the planets.
Sun Star 3rd century BC — 1609 380 Earth radii (very inaccurate, true=16000 Earth radii) Aristarchus of Samos made a measurement of the distance of the Sun from the Earth in relation to the distance of the Moon from the Earth. The distance to the Moon was described in Earth radii (20, also inaccurate). The diameter of the Earth had been calculated previously. At the time, it was assumed that some of the planets were further away, but their distances could not be measured. The order of the planets was conjecture until Kepler determined the distances from the Sun of the five known planets that were not Earth. It had been conjectured that the fixed stars were much farther away than the planets.
Moon Moon of a planet 3rd century BC 20 Earth radii (very inaccurate, true=64 Earth radii) Aristarchus of Samos made a measurement of the distance between the Earth and the Moon. The diameter of the Earth had been calculated previously.
  • z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion
  • mas represents parallax, a measure of angle and distance can be determined through trigonometry

List of objects by year of discovery that turned out to be most distant

This list contains a list of most distant objects by year of discovery of the object, not the determination of its distance. Objects may have been discovered without distance determination, and were found subsequently to be the most distant known at that time. However, object must have been named or described. An object like OJ 287 is ignored even though it was detected as early as 1891 using photographic plates, but ignored until the advent of radiotelescopes.

Examples
Year of record Modern
light travel distance (Mly)
Object Type Detected using First record by (1)
964 2.5[217] Andromeda Galaxy Spiral galaxy naked eye Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi[218]
1654 3 Triangulum Galaxy Spiral galaxy refracting telescope Giovanni Battista Hodierna[219]
1779 68[220] Messier 58 Barred spiral galaxy refracting telescope Charles Messier[221]
1785 76.4[222] NGC 584 Galaxy William Herschel
1880s 206 ± 29[223] NGC 1 Spiral galaxy Dreyer, Herschel
1959 2,400[224] 3C 273 Quasar Parkes Radio Telescope Maarten Schmidt, Bev Oke[225]
1960 5,000[226] 3C 295 Radio galaxy Palomar Observatory Rudolph Minkowski
Data missing from table
2009 13,000[227] GRB 090423 Gamma-ray burst progenitor Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission Krimm, H. et al.[228]

See also

References

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