Michael Walzer
Walzer in 2002
Michael Laban Walzer

(1935-03-03) March 3, 1935 (age 89)
Judith Borodovko Walzer
(m. 1956)
Academic background
Alma mater
ThesisThe Revolution of the Saints
Doctoral advisorSamuel Beer
Academic work
School or tradition
InstitutionsInstitute for Advanced Study
Main interests
Notable works
Notable ideas

Michael Laban Walzer[a] (born March 3, 1935) is an American political theorist and public intellectual. A professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, he is editor emeritus of the left-wing magazine Dissent, which he has been affiliated with since his years as an undergraduate at Brandeis University, an advisory editor of the Jewish journal Fathom, and sits on the editorial board of the Jewish Review of Books.

He has written books and essays on a wide range of topics—many in political ethics—including just and unjust wars, nationalism, ethnicity, Zionism, antisemitism, economic justice, social criticism, radicalism, tolerance, and political obligation. He is also a contributing editor to The New Republic. To date, he has written 27 books and published over 300 articles, essays, and book reviews in Dissent, The New Republic, The New York Review of Books, The New Yorker, The New York Times, Harpers, Quillette, and many philosophical and political science journals.[3][4]

Early life and education

Born to a Jewish family[5] on March 3, 1935, Walzer graduated summa cum laude from Brandeis University in 1956 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history. He then studied at the University of Cambridge on a Fulbright Fellowship (1956–1957) and completed his doctoral work at Harvard University, earning his Doctor of Philosophy degree in government under Samuel Beer in 1961.[3]


Walzer is usually identified as one of the leading proponents of the communitarian position in political theory, along with Alasdair MacIntyre and Michael J. Sandel. Like Sandel and MacIntyre, Walzer is not completely comfortable with this label.[6] However, he has long argued that political theory must be grounded in the traditions and culture of particular societies, and has long opposed what he sees to be the excessive abstraction of political philosophy.

His most important intellectual contributions include Just and Unjust Wars (1977), a revitalization of just war theory that insists on the importance of "ethics" in wartime while eschewing pacifism;[7] the theory of "complex equality", which holds that the metric of just equality is not some single material or moral good, but rather that egalitarian justice demands that each good be distributed according to its social meaning, and that no good (like money or political power) be allowed to dominate or distort the distribution of goods in other spheres;[8][9] and an argument that justice is primarily a moral standard within particular nations and societies, not one that can be developed in a universalized abstraction.

In On Toleration, he describes various examples of (and approaches to) toleration in various settings, including multinational empires such as Rome; nations in past and current-day international society; "consociations" such as Switzerland; nation-states such as France; and immigrant societies such as the United States. He concludes by describing a "post-modern" view, in which cultures within an immigrant nation have blended and inter-married to the extent that toleration becomes an intra-familial affair.[10]


Walzer was first employed in 1962 in the politics department at Princeton University. He stayed there until 1966, when he moved to the government department at Harvard. He taught at Harvard until 1980, when he became a permanent faculty member in the School of Social Science at the Institute for Advanced Study.[3]

In 1971, Walzer taught a semester-long course at Harvard with Robert Nozick called "Capitalism and Socialism". The course was a debate between the two philosophers: Nozick's side is delineated in Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), and Walzer's side is expressed in his Spheres of Justice (1983), in which he argues for "complex equality".[11]

Awards and honors

In April 2008, Walzer received the prestigious Spinoza Lens, a bi-annual prize for ethics in the Netherlands. He has also been honoured with an emeritus professorship at the prestigious Institute for Advanced Study. He was elected to a Fellowship of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1971,[12] a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1990,[13] and to a Corresponding Fellowship of the British Academy in 2016.[14]

Personal life

Walzer is married to Judith Borodovko Walzer. They are parents of two daughters: Sarah Esther Walzer (born 1961) and Rebecca Leah Walzer (born 1966). His grandchildren are Joseph and Katya Barrett and Jules and Stefan Walzer-Goldfeld.

Walzer is the older brother of historian Judith Walzer Leavitt.


See also


  1. ^ Pronounced /ˈwɔːlzər/.[2]


  1. ^ Howard, Michael W. (1986). "Walzer's Socialism". Social Theory and Practice. 12 (1): 103–113. doi:10.5840/soctheorpract198612117. JSTOR 23556625.
  2. ^ Michael Walzer: The Free Market and Morality on YouTube
  3. ^ a b c "Michael Laban Walzer". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved 2021-11-29.
  4. ^ "From the River to the Sea".
  5. ^ Arkush, Allan (August 8, 2012). "Michael Walzer's Secular Jewish Thought". Journal of Modern Jewish Studies. 11 (2): 221–241. doi:10.1080/14725886.2012.684859. S2CID 144959296.
  6. ^ Communitarianism > Notes (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  7. ^ Cuddihy, John Murray (1978-02-05). "What Is the Good Fight?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-02-17.
  8. ^ Spheres of Justice (1983); see criticism, Young Kim, Justice as Right Actions: An Original Theory of Justice in Conversation with Major Contemporary Accounts (Lexington Books, 2015), ch. 11 (ISBN 978-1-4985-1651-8)
  9. ^ Mounk, Yascha (2019-03-14). "Why the College Scandal Touched a Nonpartisan Nerve". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2022-02-17.
  10. ^ Walzer, Michael (1997). On Toleration. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07600-4.
  11. ^ Interview with E. J. Dionne
  12. ^ "Michael Laban Walzer". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved 2022-04-19.
  13. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 2022-04-19.
  14. ^ "Laureates - Michael Walzer". www.spinozalens.nl. 24 November 2008. Retrieved 2021-11-29.
Academic offices Preceded by Tanner Lecturer on Human Valuesat Harvard University 1985–1986 Succeeded byJürgen Habermas