Coronation of Celestine V, the only pope to be crowned twice.[1]

A papal coronation is the formal ceremony of the placing of the papal tiara on a newly elected pope. The first recorded papal coronation was of Pope Nicholas I in 858.[2] The most recent was the 1963 coronation of Paul VI, who soon afterwards abandoned the practice of wearing the tiara. To date, none of his successors have used the tiara, and their papal inauguration celebrations have included no coronation ceremony, although any future pope may elect to restore the use of the tiara at any point during his pontificate.

The papal inauguration celebration, with or without a coronation, has only symbolic significance, as a pope assumes office immediately on giving his consent to a valid election.

In Spanish, the term coronación pontificia (English: "pontifical coronation") is sometimes used for the canonical coronation of religious images through a formal, expressed decree by a reigning pope.

Ritual

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When a conclave elects a new pope, he assumes all of the rights and authority of the papacy immediately upon his acceptance of election; however, popes traditionally numbered their regnal years from the date of their coronation.[3] If a newly elected pope is not a bishop, he is consecrated at once. In accordance with tradition, the right of consecration belongs to the dean of the College of Cardinals, in his absence to the subdean, and in the absence of both of these to the senior cardinal bishop.[4] If the new pope is already a bishop, as is normally the case, his election is announced immediately to the people gathered in Saint Peter's Square and he gives them his blessing.

The episcopal enthronement of the pope takes place in his cathedral, the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran. This ceremony was once combined with the coronation. During the Avignon papacy, the pope, being in France, could not be enthroned in his cathedral in Rome. The coronations continued, while enthronements had to await a return to Rome. When Gregory XI did return to Rome, the Lateran Palace was badly in need of repair, so the popes made the Vatican their residence and transferred coronations to Saint Peter's Basilica. The Lateran Basilica remains the cathedral of Rome, and the enthronement occurs there.[5] During the "prisoner in the Vatican" period, the enthronement did not take place.

Coronation Mass

The coronation took place on the first Sunday or Holy Day following the election. It began with a solemn Papal Mass. During the chanting of Terce, he sat on a throne and all of the cardinals made what was called their "first obeisance" to him, approaching one by one and kissing his hand. Then the archbishops and bishops approached and kissed his feet.

Following this, at least from the beginning of the 16th century, the newly elected pope was carried in state through St. Peter's Basilica on the sedia gestatoria under a white canopy, with the papal flabella (ceremonial fans) to either side. Instead of the papal tiara, he wore a jewelled mitre (the episcopal mitra pretiosa). Three times, the procession was stopped, and a bundle of flax lashed to a gilded staff was burnt before the newly elected pontiff, while a master of ceremonies said: Pater Sancte, sic transit gloria mundi (Holy Father, thus passes the glory of the world) as a symbolic reminder to set aside materialism and vanity.[6] Once at the high altar, he would begin to celebrate Solemn High Mass with full papal ceremonial.

After the Confiteor, the pope was seated on the sedia gestatoria, which was resting on the ground, and the three senior cardinal bishops approached him wearing mitres. Each in turn placed his hands above him and said the prayer, Super electum Pontificem (over the elected pope). First the Cardinal Bishop of Albano said:

God, who are present without distinction whenever the devout mind invokes you, be present, we ask you, we and this your servant, __, who to the summit of the apostolic community has been chosen as the judge of your people, infuse with the highest blessings that he experience your gift who has reached this point.[7]

Then the Cardinal Bishop of Porto said:

We supplicate you, Almighty God, effect your customary devotion and pour out on this your servant, __, the grace of the Holy Spirit that he who is constituted at the head of our church as the servant of the mystery, you would strengthen with the fullness of virtue.[8]

Finally the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia said:

God, who willed your Apostle Peter to hold first place in the inner fellowship of the apostles, that universal Christianity overcome evil, look propitiously we ask on this your servant, __, who from a humble position has suddenly been enthroned with the apostles on this same principal sublimity, that just as he has been raised to this exalted dignity, so may he likewise merit to accumulate virtue; in bearing the burden of the universal church, help him, make him worthy and for thee who are blessed may merits replace vices.[9]

Then, the senior cardinal deacon placed the pallium on his shoulders saying:

Accept the pallium, representing the plenitude of the Pontifical office, to the honour of Almighty God, and the most glorious Virgin Mary, his Mother, and the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and the Holy Roman Church.[10][11]

In the 11th and 12th centuries, the immantatio, or bestowal of the mantum (a papal vestment consisting of a very long red cope fastened with an elaborate morse) on the newly elected pope was regarded as especially symbolic of investiture with papal authority, and was conferred with the words: "I invest thee with the Roman papacy, that thou rule over the city and the world."[12]

After the investiture with the pallium, the pope incensed the high altar and then went to the throne, placed on the choir side, between the Altar of the Confession and the Altar of the Chair, and there, during the singing of the Kyrie, he received again the obeisance of the cardinals, archbishops and bishops. Then the Mass continued. After the Gloria in excelsis and the Pax vobis, the pope said the Collect for the day and then secretly a prayer for himself.[13] After the pope had returned again to his seat the Papal Laudes were chanted:

Cantors: Response:
Hear, O Christ[14] Life to our lord, __, decreed by God as Supreme Pontiff and Universal Father[15]
Savior of the world[16] Grant him aid.[17]
Savior of the world Grant him aid.
Savior of the world Grant him aid.
Saint Mary[18] Grant him aid.
Saint Mary Grant him aid.
Saint Michael[19] Grant him aid.
Etc. etc.[20]

As with all Papal High Masses, the Epistle and the Gospel were read in both Greek[21] and Latin and the pope communicated at his throne.[22]

Coronation

Photograph showing the moment of the coronation of Pope Benedict XV in the Sistine Chapel, 1914
The Humeston New Era (Iowa newspaper)

After the Mass, the new pope was crowned with the papal tiara. This frequently took place on the balcony of St. Peter's Basilica, overlooking the crowds gathered in St. Peter's Square. The pope was seated on a throne with the flabella to either side of him. After the Dean of the College of Cardinals recited a few prayers, including the Lord's Prayer and a collect, the senior cardinal deacon, the protodeacon, removed the pope's mitre and placed the tiara on his head with the words:

Accipe tiaram tribus coronis ornatam, et scias te esse patrem principum et regum, rectorem orbis in terra vicarium Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi, cui est honor et gloria in saecula saeculorum.
Receive the tiara adorned with three crowns, and know that you are the father of princes and kings, the ruler of the world, the vicar of our Savior Jesus Christ on earth, to whom be all honor and glory, world without end.[23][24]

Following his coronation, the pope imparted the solemn papal blessing Urbi et Orbi. Following 1929, the new pope would have received a salute by a guard of honour of the Italian Armed Forces and the Swiss Guards together with the Noble Guard, as military bands play the Pontifical Anthem and Il Canto degli Italiani (until 1946 the Marcia Reale and S'hymnu sardu nationale).

Taking possession of the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome

Procession for the possessio of Pope Benedict XIII

The last act of the inauguration of a new pope is still the formal taking possession (possessio) of his cathedra as Bishop of Rome in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran. This is the final ceremony mentioned in Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Constitution on the vacancy of the Apostolic See and the election of the Roman pontiff.[25] The pope is enthroned in the same manner as other bishops. He is solemnly conducted to the episcopal throne, and takes possession by seating himself on it. He receives the kiss of peace and listens to the reading of a passage of Holy Scripture, whereupon he pronounces an address that used to be called the sermo inthronisticus.

In ancient times, the letters that the pope sent to the patriarchs in token of being in communion with them in the same faith were called litterae inthronisticae or syllabai enthronistikai.[26]

Location of the ceremony

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Consecration of Antipope Benedict XIII at Avignon, 28 September 1394

The earliest papal coronations took place in St. John Lateran, the pope's cathedral. However, for hundreds of years papal coronations have traditionally taken place in the environs of St. Peter's Basilica, though a number of coronations took place in Avignon, during the Avignon papacy. Earlier, Pope Celestine V was twice crowned in L'Aquila.[1] In 1800 Pope Pius VII was crowned in the crowded church of the Benedictine island monastery of San Giorgio, Venice, after his late predecessor, Pope Pius VI, had been forced into temporary exile during Napoleon Bonaparte's capture of Rome. Since the French seized the tiara along with the previous pope, he was crowned with a papier-mâché tiara, for which the ladies of Venice gave up their jewels.

All coronations after 1800 took place in Rome. Leo XIII was crowned in the Sistine Chapel,[27] due to fears that anti-clerical mobs, inspired by Italian unification, might attack the Basilica and disrupt the ceremony. Benedict XV was also crowned in the chapel in 1914. Pius XI was crowned at the dais in front of the High Altar in St. Peter's Basilica. Popes Pius IX, Pius XII, and John XXIII all were crowned in public on the balcony of the basilica, facing crowds assembled below in St. Peter's Square. Paul VI was crowned in front of St Peter's on a special dais with the entire coronation ceremony outdoors, as St Peter's was filled with special seating for the Vatican Council sessions.

Pius XII's 1939 coronation broke new ground by being the first to be filmed and the first to be broadcast live on radio.[28] The ceremony, which lasted for six hours, was attended by leading dignitaries; these included the heir to the Italian throne, the Prince of Piedmont, former kings Ferdinand I of Bulgaria and Alfonso XIII of Spain, the 16th Duke of Norfolk (representing King George VI of the United Kingdom), and the Irish Taoiseach, Éamon de Valera, the last two being in evening dress (white tie and tails).

Paul VI and the coronation

Main article: Coronation of Pope Paul VI

Pope Paul VI is crowned by Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, 30 June 1963

The last pope to be crowned was Pope Paul VI. He decided to cease wearing a papal tiara and laid his own on the altar of St. Peter's Basilica in a gesture of "humility." His 1975 apostolic constitution, Romano Pontifici Eligendo prescribed that "the new pontiff is to be crowned by the senior cardinal deacon".[29]

His successor, Pope John Paul I, opted not to be crowned and to have instead a less elaborate "solemn Mass to mark the start of his ministry as Supreme Pastor" in September 1978.[30][31]

John Paul II and the coronation

Main article: Papal inauguration

After John Paul I's sudden death following a thirty-three-day reign, the new pope, John Paul II, opted to copy his predecessor's ceremony without coronation. In his homily at his inauguration Mass, he said that Paul VI had "left his successors free to decide" whether to wear the papal tiara.[32] He went on:

Pope John Paul I, whose memory is so vivid in our hearts, did not wish to have the tiara; nor does his Successor wish it today. This is not the time to return to a ceremony and an object considered, wrongly, to be a symbol of the temporal power of the Popes.

John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic Constitution, Universi Dominici gregis, now in force, does not specify the form that the "solemn ceremony of the inauguration of the pontificate"[33] of a new pope should take, whether with or without a coronation.[citation needed]

A number of papal tiaras are available for a future pope to use.[34]

List of papal coronations 1143–1963

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Date Location Pope Cardinal Deaconry Notes
3 October 1143 Rome Pope Celestine II Gregorio Tarquini SS. Sergio e Bacco On 26 September he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Alberic de Beauvais, bishop of Ostia.
12 March 1144 Rome Pope Lucius II Gregorio Tarquini SS. Sergio e Bacco On the same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Alberic de Beauvais, bishop of Ostia.
14 March 1145 Abbey of Farfa Pope Eugenius III Odone Bonecase S. Giorgio in Velabro On 18 February he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Corrado della Suburra, bishop of Sabina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
12 July 1153 Rome Pope Anastasius IV Odone Bonecase S. Giorgio in Velabro
5 December 1154 Rome Pope Adrian IV Probably by Cardinal Rodolfo S. Lucia in Septisolio Odone Fattiboni was absent (see papal election, 1154)
20 September 1159 Nympha Pope Alexander III Odone Bonecase S. Giorgio in Velabro On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ubaldo Allucingoli, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
4 October 1159 Abbey of Farfa Antipope Victor IV (1159-1164) Cardinal Icmar, bishop of Tusculum and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals
22 July 1167 Rome Antipope Paschal III On 22 April 1164 he was consecrated bishop of Rome at Lucca by Henry II of Leez prince-bishop of Liège (not a cardinal).
1168 Rome Antipope Callistus III (?)[35]
6 September 1181 Velletri Pope Lucius III Teodino de Arrone, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.[36]
1 December 1185 Verona Pope Urban III (?) (probably by Cardinal Ardicio Rivoltella deacon of S. Teodoro[37])
25 October 1187 Ferrara Pope Gregory VIII Giacinto Bobone Orsini S. Maria in Cosmedin On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome, probably by Cardinal Thibaud, bishop of Ostia e Velletri (?).
7 January 1188 Pisa Pope Clement III Giacinto Bobone Orsini S. Maria in Cosmedin
14 April 1191 Rome Pope Celestine III Graziano da Pisa SS. Cosma e Damiano On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ottaviano di Paoli, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals
22 February 1198 Rome Pope Innocent III Graziano da Pisa SS. Cosma e Damiano On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ottaviano di Paoli, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals
31 August 1216 Rome Pope Honorius III Guido Pierleone S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano On 24 July, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ugolino Conti di Segni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
11 April 1227 Rome Pope Gregory IX Ottaviano dei Conti di Segni SS. Sergio e Bacco
28 June 1243 Anagni Pope Innocent IV Rainiero Capocci S. Maria in Cosmedin On that same day, he was consectrated bishop of Rome, probably by Cardinal Rinaldo Conti di Segni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (?).
20 December 1254 Naples Pope Alexander IV Riccardo Annibaldeschi S. Angelo in Pescheria
4 September 1261 Viterbo Pope Urban IV Riccardo Annibaldeschi S. Angelo in Pescheria
20 September 1265 Viterbo Pope Clement IV Riccardo Annibaldeschi S. Angelo in Pescheria
23 March 1272 Rome Pope Gregory X Giovanni Gaetano Orsini Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano On 19 March he was consecrated bishop of Rome by (?) (possibly by Cardinal Odo of Châteauroux, bishop of Frascati and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals).
22 February 1276 Rome Pope Innocent V Giovanni Gaetano Orsini S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano
20 September 1276 Viterbo Pope John XXI Giovanni Gaetano Orsini S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano
26 December 1277 Rome Pope Nicholas III Giacomo Savelli S. Maria in Cosmedin On 19 December he was consecrated bishop of Rome by (?) (possibly by Cardinal Bertrand de Saint-Martin, bishop of Sabina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals).
23 March 1281 Orvieto Pope Martin IV Giacomo Savelli S. Maria in Cosmedin On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Latino Malabranca Orsini, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
19 May 1285 Rome Pope Honorius IV Goffredo da Alatri S. Giorgio in Velabro On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Latino Malabranca Orsini, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
22 February 1288 Rome Pope Nicholas IV Matteo Orsini Rosso S. Maria in Portico
29 August 1294 Aquila Pope Celestine V Probably by Cardinal Matteo Orsini Rosso S. Maria in Portico On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome probably by Cardinal Hugh Aycelin, bishop of Ostia e Velletri. He was crowned again a few days later (the only instance of a double papal coronation).[1]
23 January 1295 Rome Pope Boniface VIII Matteo Orsini Rosso S. Maria in Portico On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Hugh Aycelin, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
27 October 1303 Rome Pope Benedict XI Matteo Orsini Rosso S. Maria in Portico
14 November 1305 Lyon Pope Clement V Napoleone Orsini Frangipani S. Adriano
5 September 1316 Lyon Pope John XXII Napoleone Orsini Frangipani S. Adriano
15 May 1328 Rome Antipope Nicholas V Giacomo Alberti pseudocardinal-bishop of Ostia e Velletri On 12 May he was consecrated bishop of Rome also by Giacomo Alberti, at that time bishop of Castello.
8 January 1335 Avignon Pope Benedict XII Napoleone Orsini Frangipani S. Adriano
19 May 1342 Avignon Pope Clement VI Raymond Guillaume des Farges S. Maria Nuova
30 December 1352 Avignon Pope Innocent VI Gaillard de la Mothe S. Lucia in Septisolio
6 November 1362 Avignon Pope Urban V Probably by Cardinal Guillaume de la Jugié S. Maria in Cosmedin On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Andouin Aubert, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
3 January 1371 Avignon Pope Gregory XI Cardinal Rinaldo Orsini S. Adriano On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Guy de Boulogne, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
18 April 1378 Rome Pope Urban VI Giacomo Orsini S. Giorgio in Velabro
31 October 1378 Fondi Antipope Clement VII Count Onorato I Caetani (not a Cardinal)
9 November 1389 Rome Pope Boniface IX Tommaso Orsini S. Maria in Domnica On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Francesco Moricotti Prignano, bishop of Palestrina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
11 October 1394 Avignon Antipope Benedict XIII Hugues de Saint-Martial S. Maria in Portico On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Jean de Neufchâtel, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
11 November 1404 Rome Pope Innocent VII Rinaldo Brancaccio SS. Vito e Modesto
19 December 1406 Rome Pope Gregory XII Probably by Cardinal Rinaldo Brancaccio SS. Vito e Modesto
7 July 1409 Pisa Antipope Alexander V Amedeo Saluzzo S. Maria Nuova
25 May 1410 Bologna Antipope John XXIII Rinaldo Brancaccio SS. Vito e Modesto On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Jean Allarmet de Brogny, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
21 November 1417 Constance Pope Martin V Amedeo Saluzzo S. Maria Nuova On 14 November he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Jean Allarmet de Brogny, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
19 May 1426 Peñíscola Antipope Clement VIII crowned by (?)
11 March 1431 Rome Pope Eugenius IV Alfonso Carillo de Albornoz S. Eustachio
24 June 1440 Basle Antipope Felix V Cardinal Louis Aleman S. Cecilia
19 March 1447 Rome Pope Nicholas V Prospero Colonna S. Giorgio in Velabro
20 April 1455 Rome Pope Callistus III Prospero Colonna S. Giorgio in Velabro
3 September 1458 Rome Pope Pius II Prospero Colonna S. Giorgio in Velabro
16 September 1464 Rome Pope Paul II Niccolò Fortiguerra S. Cecilia
25 August 1471 Rome Pope Sixtus IV Rodrigo Borgia S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
12 September 1484 Rome Pope Innocent VIII Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini S. Eustachio
26 August 1492 Rome Pope Alexander VI Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini S. Eustachio
8 October 1503 Rome Pope Pius III Raffaele Riario S. Giorgio in Velabro On 1 October he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
26 November 1503 Rome Pope Julius II Raffaele Riario S. Giorgio in Velabro
19 March 1513 Rome Pope Leo X Alessandro Farnese S. Eustachio On 17 March he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Raffaele Riario, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
31 August 1522 Rome Pope Adrian VI Marco Cornaro Santa Maria in Via Lata
26 November 1523 Rome Pope Clement VII Marco Cornaro S. Maria in Via Lata
3 November 1534 Rome Pope Paul III Innocenzo Cibo S. Maria in Domnica
22 February 1550 Rome Pope Julius III Innocenzo Cibo S. Maria in Domnica
10 April 1555 Rome Pope Marcellus II Jean du Bellay, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
26 May 1555 Rome Pope Paul IV Francesco Pisani S. Marco
6 January 1560 Rome Pope Pius IV Alessandro Farnese S. Lorenzo in Damaso
17 January 1566 Rome Pope Pius V Giulio Feltre della Rovere S. Pietro in Vincoli
25 May 1572 Rome Pope Gregory XIII Girolamo Simoncelli SS. Cosma e Damiano
1 May 1585 Rome Pope Sixtus V Ferdinando de' Medici S. Maria in Domnica
8 December 1590 Rome Pope Gregory XIV Andreas von Austria S. Maria Nuova
3 November 1591 Rome Pope Innocent IX Andreas von Austria S. Maria Nuova
9 February 1592 Rome Pope Clement VIII Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora S. Maria in Via Lata On 2 February he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
10 April 1605 Rome Pope Leo XI Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora S. Maria in Via Lata
29 May 1605 Rome Pope Paul V Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora S. Maria in Via Lata
14 February 1621 Rome Pope Gregory XV Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto S. Maria in Via Lata
29 September 1623 Rome Pope Urban VIII Alessandro d'Este S. Maria in Via Lata
4 October 1644 Rome Pope Innocent X Carlo de Medici S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano
16 April 1655 Rome Pope Alexander VII Gian Giacomo Teodoro Trivulzio S. Maria in Via Lata
26 June 1667 Rome Pope Clement IX Rinaldo d'Este S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano
11 May 1670 Rome Pope Clement X Francesco Maidalchini S. Maria in Via Lata
4 October 1676 Rome Pope Innocent XI Francesco Maidalchini S. Maria in Via Lata
16 October 1689 Rome Pope Alexander VIII Francesco Maidalchini S. Maria in Via Lata
15 July 1691 Rome Pope Innocent XII Urbano Sacchetti S. Maria in Via Lata
8 December 1700 Rome Pope Clement XI Benedetto Pamphilj S. Maria in Via Lata On 30 November he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal de Bouillon, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
18 May 1721 Rome Pope Innocent XIII Benedetto Pamphilj S. Maria in Via Lata
4 June 1724 Rome Pope Benedict XIII Benedetto Pamphilj S. Maria in Via Lata
16 July 1730 Rome Pope Clement XII Lorenzo Altieri S. Maria in Via Lata
21 August 1740 Rome Pope Benedict XIV Carlo Maria Marini S. Maria in Via Lata
16 July 1758 Rome Pope Clement XIII Alessandro Albani S. Maria in Via Lata
4 June 1769 Rome Pope Clement XIV Alessandro Albani S. Maria in Via Lata On 28 May he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Federico Marcello Lante, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
22 February 1775 Rome Pope Pius VI Alessandro Albani S. Maria in Via Lata On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
21 March 1800 Venice Pope Pius VII Antonio Doria Pamphili S. Maria ad Martyres
5 October 1823 Rome Pope Leo XII Fabrizio Ruffo S. Maria in Via Lata
5 April 1829 Rome Pope Pius VIII Giuseppe Albani S. Maria in Via Lata
6 February 1831 Rome Pope Gregory XVI Giuseppe Albani S. Maria in Via Lata On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
21 June 1846 Rome Pope Pius IX Tommaso Riario Sforza S. Maria in Via Lata
3 March 1878 Rome Pope Leo XIII Teodolfo Mertel S. Eustachio Teodolfo Mertel as the second senior cardinal-deacon, assumed the protodeacon's responsibilities at the coronation due to the illness of Prospero Caterini the incumbent protodeacon[38][39]
9 August 1903 Rome Pope Pius X Luigi Macchi S. Maria in Via Lata
6 September 1914 Rome Pope Benedict XV Francesco Salesio Della Volpe S. Maria in Aquiro
12 February 1922 Rome Pope Pius XI Gaetano Bisleti S. Agata in Suburra
12 March 1939 Rome, Vatican City Pope Pius XII Camillo Caccia-Dominioni S. Maria in Domnica
4 November 1958 Rome, Vatican City Pope John XXIII Nicola Canali S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano
30 June 1963 Rome, Vatican City Pope Paul VI Alfredo Ottaviani S. Maria in Domnica

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Catholic Encyclopedia, "Pope Celestine V, Saint"". Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  2. ^ Kazimierz Dopierała, Księga Papieży, Poznań 1996, p. 104.
  3. ^ Dowling, Austin (1908), "Conclave", The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. IV, New York: Robert Appleton Company
  4. ^ "Universi Dominici Gregis (February 22, 1996) | John Paul II". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  5. ^ "Universi Dominici Gregis (February 22, 1996) | John Paul II". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  6. ^ Oliger, Livarius (1912), "Sedia Gestatoria", The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. XIII, New York: Robert Appleton Company
  7. ^ "Deus qui adesse non delignaris ubicumque devota mente invocaris, adesto quaesumus invocationibus nostris et huic famulo tuo N. quem ad culmen apostolicum commune iudicium tuae plebis elegit ubertatem supernae benedictionis infunde, ut sentiat se tuo munere ad hunc apicem pervenisse." Coronation Rites, Reginald Maxwell Woolley, B.D. (Cambridge: at the University Press, 1915), pp. 160-161.
  8. ^ "Supplicationibus, omnipotens Deus, effectum consuetae pietatis impende, et gratia Spiritus Sancti hunc famulum tuum N. perfunde; ut qui in capite ecclesiarum nostrae servitutis mysterio constituitur, tuae virtutis soliditate roboretur." Ibid., p. 161.
  9. ^ "Deus qui Apostolum tuum Petrum inter caeteros coapostolos primatum tenere voluisti, eique universae Christianitatis molem superimpostuisti; respice propitius quaesumus hunc famulum tuum N. quem de humili cathedra violenter sublimatum in thronum eiusdem apostolorum principis sublimamus: ut sicut profectibus tantae dignitatis augetur, ita virtutum meritis cumuletur; quatenus ecclesiasticae universitatis onus, te adiuvante, digne ferat, et a te qui es beatitudo tuorum meritam vicem recipiat." Ibid.
  10. ^ Papal Coronation[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ “Accipe pallium, plenitudinem scilicet pontificalis officii, ad honorem omnipotentis Dei et gloriosissimae Virginis eius genitricis et beatorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli et sanctae Romanae ecclesiae.”
  12. ^ Thurston, Herbert (1908), "Cope", The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. IV, New York: Robert Appleton Company
  13. ^ This prayer is from the form for the Consecration of a bishop. Woolley. p. 163.
  14. ^ "Exaudi Christe"
  15. ^ ”Domino Nostro __ a Deo decreto summo Pontifici et universali Papae vita.”
  16. ^ "Salvador mundi"
  17. ^ "Tu illum adiuva"
  18. ^ "Sancta Maria"
  19. ^ "Sancte Michael"
  20. ^ Woolley, p. 163. The Papal Laudes were most recently chanted during the opening procession of the inauguration Mass of Pope Benedict XVI on 24 April 2005.
  21. ^ The Greek Epistle and Gospel were traditionally read by a subdeacon and a deacon from the Byzantine monastery of Grottaferrata east of Rome
  22. ^ I.e., the Sacrament was brought to the Pope by the deacon and the subdeacon at his throne and he consumed a portion of the Host and drank from the Chalice by means of a narrow gold or silver-gilt tube called a fistula.
  23. ^ Francis Patrick Henrick, The Primacy of the Apostolic See Vindicated (Baltimore, London and Pittsburgh 1857), p. 252
  24. ^ According to the Encyclopaedia Americana, article "Tiara", the words were "... scias te esse patrem, principem et regem ... (know that you are a father, a prince and a king).
  25. ^ Universi Dominici gregis, 92
  26. ^ Van Hove, A. (1909), "Enthronization", The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. V, New York: Robert Appleton Company
  27. ^ Collections, Digital Contents and (March 2020). "Humanities Text Initiative Home Page". deepblue.lib.umich.edu. hdl:2027.42/154116?c=moajrnl%3Bcc=moajrnl%3Bsid=48d32595ff5c5a25aefaa35705092d3c%3Bq1=Coronation%3Brgn=full%20text%3Bidno=bac8387.0027.158%3Bview=image%3Bseq=0284. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  28. ^ John Cornwell, Hitler's Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII (Viking, 1999) pp. 211-212.
  29. ^ Romano Pontifici Eligendo Section 92.
  30. ^ "How Pope John Paul I Won". Time. 11 September 1978. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  31. ^ "National Catholic Register: 33 Days of the Smiling Pope". Archived from the original on 9 January 2009. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  32. ^ Papal Inauguration Homily of Pope John Paul II, L'Osservatore Romano (Text of the Homily)
  33. ^ Universi Dominici gregis, 92
  34. ^ Bunson, Matthew (6 September 2023). "Tiara". OSV's Encyclopedia of Catholic History. Our Sunday Visitor. p. 900. ISBN 9781592760268.[permanent dead link]
  35. ^ No information has been found about his coronation
  36. ^ Regesta Imperii[permanent dead link]
  37. ^ S. Miranda: Cardinal Uberto Crivelli (Pope Urban III) says that Urban III was crowned by protodeacon Giacinto Bobone Orsini but this is unlikely because this cardinal was absent from the papal court at that time (see papal election, 1185). Cardinal Rivoltella was the most senior cardinal-deacon present.
  38. ^ "The Coronation of Pope Leo XIII". Catholic World. 27 (158): 280–285. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  39. ^ "Caterini, Prospero". Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.

Further reading