Generic depiction of a cardinal's choir dress
Choir dress of a cardinal, in scarlet

Cardinals are senior members of the clergy of the Catholic Church. They are almost always bishops and generally hold important roles within the church, such as leading prominent archdioceses or heading dicasteries within the Roman Curia. Cardinals are created in consistories by the pope, and one of their foremost duties is the election of a new pope – invariably from among their number, although not strictly a requirement – when the Holy See is vacant (sede vacante), following the death or resignation of a pope. The body of all cardinals is collectively known as the College of Cardinals.[1][2]

Under current ecclesiastical law, as defined by the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis, only cardinals who have not passed their 80th birthdays on the day on which the Holy See becomes vacant are eligible to take part in a papal conclave to elect a new pope.[3] The same apostolic constitution specifies that no more than 120 cardinal electors can take part in a conclave, but makes no provision for there being more than 120 eligible cardinals;[3] as of 2023 there had never been more at the time of a conclave, though it has happened frequently at other times. Cardinals may be created in pectore ('in the breast'), in which case their identities are not publicly revealed by the pope; they are not entitled to the privileges of a cardinal until their names are published. The creations of any such cardinals who have not been revealed at the pope's death or resignation automatically lapse.[1][4]

As of 29 January 2024, there are 239 cardinals, 131 of whom are cardinal electors. The most recent consistory for the creation of cardinals was held on 30 September 2023, when Pope Francis created 21 cardinals, including 18 cardinal electors.[5] John Onaiyekan was the most recent cardinal elector to turn 80, on 29 January 2024; and Pedro Barreto will be the next cardinal elector to turn 80, on 12 February 2024. The most recent death of a cardinal was that of Sergio Sebastiani, on 16 January 2024, at the age of 92.[6]

Cardinals

The College of Cardinals is divided into three orders, with formal precedence in the following sequence:[1]

  1. Cardinal bishops (CB): the six cardinals who are assigned the titles of the seven suburbicarian dioceses in the vicinity of Rome by the pope,[a] plus a few other cardinals who have been exceptionally co-opted into the order,[9][10] as well as patriarchs who head one of the Eastern Catholic Churches.[8][11] The two most senior cardinal bishops, who are elected by the cardinal bishops from among themselves (excluding the Eastern Catholic patriarchs) and approved by the pope, are the dean and the vice dean,[1] currently Giovanni Battista Re and Leonardo Sandri, respectively; among the cardinal electors, the senior cardinal bishop is Pietro Parolin.[b]
  2. Cardinal priests (CP): bishops typically in charge of dioceses around the world, as well as former cardinal deacons who have opted to be elevated to the order.[12] The most senior cardinal priest is the protopriest, currently Michael Michai Kitbunchu; among the cardinal electors, the senior cardinal priest is Vinko Puljić.[b]
  3. Cardinal deacons (CD): bishops who work in the Roman Curia or the diplomatic service of the Holy See, and all other clergy, including priests who have been granted a dispensation not to be consecrated a bishop. They have the choice (Latin: optatio) of opting to become cardinal priests after having been cardinal deacons for ten years.[1][13] The most senior cardinal deacon is the protodeacon, currently Renato Martino; among the cardinal electors, the senior cardinal deacon is James Michael Harvey and the junior cardinal deacon is Ángel Fernández Artime.[b]

For cardinal bishops (excluding the Eastern Catholic patriarchs), the dean is first in precedence, followed by the vice-dean and then, in order of appointment as cardinal bishops, by the remainder. For cardinal bishops who are Eastern Catholic patriarchs, for cardinal priests and for cardinal deacons, precedence is determined by the date of the consistory in which they were created cardinals and then by the order in which they appeared in the official announcement or bulletin.

All cardinals listed are members of the Latin Church unless otherwise stated. Cardinals belonging to institutes of consecrated life or to societies of apostolic life are indicated by the relevant post-nominal letters. Cardinals in charge of dioceses are classified under the country where their diocese is located, although they may be citizens of a different country.

This list is complete and up to date as of 29 January 2024.

* Cardinals ineligible to participate in a papal conclave
Rank Name Country Born Order Consistory Office Ref.
1 Giovanni Battista Re* Italy 30 January 1934
(age 90)
CB 21 February 2001[i]
John Paul II
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops [15]
2 Leonardo Sandri* Argentina 18 November 1943
(age 80)
CB 24 November 2007[ii]
Benedict XVI
Prefect emeritus of the Dicastery for the Eastern Churches [16]
3 Francis Arinze* Nigeria 1 November 1932
(age 91)
CB 25 May 1985[iii]
John Paul II
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [17]
4 Tarcisio Bertone SDB* Italy 2 December 1934
(age 89)
CB 21 October 2003[iv]
John Paul II
Secretary of State emeritus of His Holiness and Camerlengo emeritus of the Holy Roman Church [18]
5 José Saraiva Martins CMF* Portugal 6 January 1932
(age 92)
CB 21 February 2001[v]
John Paul II
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints [19]
6 Pietro Parolin Italy 17 January 1955
(age 69)
CB 22 February 2014[vi]
Francis
Secretary of State of His Holiness [20]
7 Marc Ouellet PSS Canada 8 June 1944
(age 79)
CB 21 October 2003[vi]
John Paul II
Prefect emeritus of the Dicastery for Bishops [21]
8 Fernando Filoni Italy 15 April 1946
(age 77)
CB 18 February 2012[vii]
Benedict XVI
Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre [22]
9 Beniamino Stella* Italy 18 August 1941
(age 82)
CB 22 February 2014[viii]
Francis
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy [23]
10 Luis Antonio Tagle Philippines 21 June 1957
(age 66)
CB 24 November 2012[ix]
Benedict XVI
Pro-Prefect of the Dicastery for Evangelization [24]
11 Bechara Boutros al-Rahi OMM* Lebanon 25 February 1940
(age 83)
CB 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Patriarch of Antioch
(Maronite Church)
[25]
12 Louis Raphaël I Sako Iraq 4 July 1948
(age 75)
CB 28 June 2018
Francis
Patriarch of Baghdad
(Chaldean Church)
[26]
13 Michael Michai Kitbunchu* Thailand 25 January 1929
(age 95)
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Bangkok [27]
14 Alexandre do Nascimento* Angola 1 March 1925
(age 98)
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Luanda [28]
15 Paul Poupard* France 30 August 1930
(age 93)
CP 25 May 1985[x]
John Paul II
President emeritus of the Pontifical Councils for Culture and for Interreligious Dialogue [29]
16 Friedrich Wetter* Germany 20 February 1928
(age 95)
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Munich and Freising [30]
17 Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez* Dominican Republic 31 October 1936
(age 87)
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Santo Domingo [31]
18 Roger Mahony* United States 27 February 1936
(age 87)
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles [32]
19 Camillo Ruini* Italy 19 February 1931
(age 92)
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Vicar General emeritus for Rome and Archpriest emeritus of the Papal Basilica of Saint John Lateran [33]
20 Julius Darmaatmadja SJ* Indonesia 20 December 1934
(age 89)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Jakarta [34]
21 Emmanuel Wamala* Uganda 15 December 1926
(age 97)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Kampala [35]
22 Adam Maida* United States 18 March 1930
(age 93)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Detroit [36]
23 Vinko Puljić Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 September 1945
(age 78)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Vrhbosna [37]
24 Juan Sandoval Íñiguez* Mexico 28 March 1933
(age 90)
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Guadalajara [38]
25 James Stafford* United States 26 July 1932
(age 91)
CP 21 February 1998[xi]
John Paul II
Major Penitentiary emeritus [39]
26 Salvatore De Giorgi* Italy 6 September 1930
(age 93)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Palermo [40]
27 Antonio María Rouco Varela* Spain 20 August 1936
(age 87)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Madrid [41]
28 Polycarp Pengo Tanzania 5 August 1944
(age 79)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Dar-es-Salaam [42]
29 Christoph Schönborn OP Austria[c] 22 January 1945
(age 79)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop of Vienna [43]
30 Norberto Rivera Carrera* Mexico 6 June 1942
(age 81)
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Mexico [44]
31 Jānis Pujats* Latvia 14 November 1930
(age 93)
CP 21 February 1998[d]
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Riga [45]
32 Crescenzio Sepe* Italy 2 June 1943
(age 80)
CP 21 February 2001[xii]
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Naples [46]
33 Walter Kasper* Germany 5 March 1933
(age 90)
CP 21 February 2001[xiii]
John Paul II
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity [47]
34 Pedro Rubiano Sáenz* Colombia 13 September 1932
(age 91)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Bogotá [48]
35 Audrys Bačkis* Lithuania 1 February 1937
(age 87)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Vilnius [49]
36 Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa ISch* Chile 5 September 1933
(age 90)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Santiago de Chile [50]
37 Wilfrid Napier OFM* South Africa 8 March 1941
(age 82)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Durban [51]
38 Óscar Rodríguez Maradiaga SDB* Honduras 29 December 1942
(age 81)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Tegucigalpa and Coordinator emeritus of the Council of Cardinals [52]
39 Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne* Peru 28 December 1943
(age 80)
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Lima [53]
40 Julián Herranz Casado* Spain 31 March 1930
(age 93)
CP 21 October 2003[xiv]
John Paul II
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts [54]
41 Angelo Scola* Italy 7 November 1941
(age 82)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Milan [55]
42 Anthony Olubunmi Okogie* Nigeria 16 June 1936
(age 87)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Lagos [56]
43 Gabriel Zubeir Wako* Sudan 27 February 1941
(age 82)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Khartoum [57]
44 Justin Rigali* United States 19 April 1935
(age 88)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia [58]
45 Ennio Antonelli* Italy 18 November 1936
(age 87)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family [59]
46 Peter Turkson Ghana 11 October 1948
(age 75)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Chancellor of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences [60]
47 Josip Bozanić Croatia 20 March 1949
(age 74)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Zagreb [61]
48 Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn* Vietnam 5 March 1934
(age 89)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Ho Chi Minh City [62]
49 Philippe Barbarin France 17 October 1950
(age 73)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop emeritus of Lyon [63]
50 Péter Erdő Hungary 25 June 1952
(age 71)
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Archbishop of Esztergom–Budapest [64]
51 Franc Rodé CM* Slovenia 23 September 1934
(age 89)
CP 24 March 2006[xv]
Benedict XVI
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life [65]
52 Agostino Vallini* Italy 17 April 1940
(age 83)
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Pontifical Legate for the Basilicas of Saint Francis and Saint Mary of the Angels in Assisi [66]
53 Gaudencio Borbon Rosales* Philippines 10 August 1932
(age 91)
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Manila [67]
54 Jean-Pierre Ricard France 25 September 1944
(age 79)
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Bordeaux [68]
55 Antonio Cañizares Llovera Spain 15 October 1945
(age 78)
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Valencia [69]
56 Seán Patrick O'Malley OFMCap United States 29 June 1944
(age 79)
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of Boston and President of the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors [70]
57 Stanisław Dziwisz* Poland 27 April 1939
(age 84)
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Kraków [71]
58 Joseph Zen Ze-kiun SDB* China
(Hong Kong)[e]
13 January 1932
(age 92)
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong [72]
59 Giovanni Lajolo* Italy 3 January 1935
(age 89)
CP 24 November 2007[xvi]
Benedict XVI
President emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State [73]
60 Paul Josef Cordes* Germany 5 September 1934
(age 89)
CP 24 November 2007[xvi]
Benedict XVI
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum [74]
61 Angelo Comastri* Italy 17 September 1943
(age 80)
CP 24 November 2007[xvi]
Benedict XVI
Vicar General emeritus for Vatican City, Archpriest emeritus of the Papal Basilica of Saint Peter and President emeritus of the Fabric of Saint Peter [75]
62 Stanisław Ryłko Poland 4 July 1945
(age 78)
CP 24 November 2007[xvi]
Benedict XVI
Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major [76]
63 Raffaele Farina SDB* Italy 24 September 1933
(age 90)
CP 24 November 2007[xvi]
Benedict XVI
Archivist and Librarian emeritus of the Holy Roman Church [77]
64 Seán Brady* Ireland[f] 16 August 1939
(age 84)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Armagh [78]
65 Lluís Martínez i Sistach* Spain 29 April 1937
(age 86)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Barcelona [79]
66 André Vingt-Trois* France 7 November 1942
(age 81)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Paris [80]
67 Angelo Bagnasco* Italy 14 January 1943
(age 81)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Genoa [81]
68 Théodore-Adrien Sarr* Senegal 28 November 1936
(age 87)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Dakar [82]
69 Oswald Gracias India 24 December 1944
(age 79)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of Bombay [83]
70 Francisco Robles Ortega Mexico 2 March 1949
(age 74)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of Guadalajara [84]
71 Daniel DiNardo United States 23 May 1949
(age 74)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of Galveston–Houston [85]
72 Odilo Scherer Brazil 21 September 1949
(age 74)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of São Paulo [86]
73 John Njue Kenya 1944[g]
(age 79–80)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Nairobi [87]
74 Estanislao Esteban Karlic* Argentina 7 February 1926
(age 97)
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Paraná [89]
75 Angelo Amato SDB* Italy 8 June 1938
(age 85)
CP 20 November 2010[xvii]
Benedict XVI
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints [90]
76 Robert Sarah Guinea 15 June 1945
(age 78)
CP 20 November 2010[xvii]
Benedict XVI
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [91]
77 Francesco Monterisi* Italy 28 May 1934
(age 89)
CP 20 November 2010[xvii]
Benedict XVI
Archpriest emeritus of the Papal Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls [92]
78 Raymond Leo Burke United States 30 June 1948
(age 75)
CP 20 November 2010[xvii]
Benedict XVI
Patron emeritus of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta [93]
79 Kurt Koch Switzerland 15 March 1950
(age 73)
CP 20 November 2010[xvii]
Benedict XVI
Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Christian Unity [94]
80 Mauro Piacenza Italy 15 September 1944
(age 79)
CP 20 November 2010[xvii]
Benedict XVI
Major Penitentiary [95]
81 Gianfranco Ravasi* Italy 18 October 1942
(age 81)
CP 20 November 2010[xvii]
Benedict XVI
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Culture [96]
82 Paolo Romeo* Italy 20 February 1938
(age 85)
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Palermo [97]
83 Donald Wuerl* United States 12 November 1940
(age 83)
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Washington [98]
84 Raymundo Damasceno Assis* Brazil 15 February 1937
(age 86)
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Aparecida [99]
85 Kazimierz Nycz Poland 1 February 1950
(age 74)
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of Warsaw [100]
86 Malcolm Ranjith Sri Lanka 15 November 1947
(age 76)
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of Colombo [101]
87 Reinhard Marx Germany 21 September 1953
(age 70)
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of Munich and Freising and Coordinator of the Council for the Economy [102]
88 Walter Brandmüller* Germany 5 January 1929
(age 95)
CP 20 November 2010[xvii]
Benedict XVI
President emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences [103]
89 Manuel Monteiro de Castro* Portugal 29 March 1938
(age 85)
CP 18 February 2012[xviii]
Benedict XVI
Major Penitentiary emeritus [104]
90 Santos Abril y Castelló* Spain 21 September 1935
(age 88)
CP 18 February 2012[xviii]
Benedict XVI
Archpriest emeritus of the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major [105]
91 Antonio Maria Vegliò* Italy 3 February 1938
(age 86)
CP 18 February 2012[xviii]
Benedict XVI
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People [106]
92 Giuseppe Bertello* Italy 1 October 1942
(age 81)
CP 18 February 2012[xviii]
Benedict XVI
President emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State [107]
93 Francesco Coccopalmerio* Italy 6 March 1938
(age 85)
CP 18 February 2012[xviii]
Benedict XVI
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts [108]
94 João Braz de Aviz Brazil 24 April 1947
(age 76)
CP 18 February 2012[xviii]
Benedict XVI
Prefect of the Dicastery for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life [109]
95 Edwin Frederick O'Brien* United States 8 April 1939
(age 84)
CP 18 February 2012[xviii]
Benedict XVI
Grand Master emeritus of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre [110]
96 Domenico Calcagno* Italy 3 February 1943
(age 81)
CP 18 February 2012[xviii]
Benedict XVI
President emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See [111]
97 Giuseppe Versaldi* Italy 30 July 1943
(age 80)
CP 18 February 2012[xviii]
Benedict XVI
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Catholic Education [112]
98 George Alencherry India 19 April 1945
(age 78)
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Major Archbishop emeritus of Ernakulam–Angamaly
(Syro-Malabar Church)
[113]
99 Thomas Collins Canada 16 January 1947
(age 77)
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Toronto [114]
100 Dominik Duka OP* Czech Republic 26 April 1943
(age 80)
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Prague [115]
101 Wim Eijk Netherlands 22 June 1953
(age 70)
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of Utrecht [116]
102 Giuseppe Betori Italy 25 February 1947
(age 76)
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of Florence [117]
103 Timothy M. Dolan United States 6 February 1950
(age 74)
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of New York [118]
104 Rainer Woelki Germany 18 August 1956
(age 67)
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Archbishop of Cologne [119]
105 John Tong Hon* China
(Hong Kong)[e]
31 July 1939
(age 84)
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong [120]
106 Lucian Mureșan* Romania 23 May 1931
(age 92)
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Major Archbishop of Făgăraș and Alba Iulia
(Romanian Greek Church)
[121]
107 Baselios Cleemis India 15 June 1959
(age 64)
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Major Archbishop of Trivandrum
(Syro-Malankara Church)
[122]
108 John Onaiyekan* Nigeria 29 January 1944
(age 80)
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Abuja [123]
109 Rubén Salazar Gómez* Colombia 22 September 1942
(age 81)
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Archbishop emeritus of Bogotá [124]
110 Vincent Nichols United Kingdom 8 November 1945
(age 78)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop of Westminster [125]
111 Leopoldo Brenes Nicaragua 7 March 1949
(age 74)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop of Managua [126]
112 Gérald Lacroix ISPX Canada 27 July 1957
(age 66)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop of Quebec [127]
113 Jean-Pierre Kutwa Ivory Coast 22 December 1945
(age 78)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop of Abidjan [128]
114 Orani João Tempesta OCist Brazil 23 June 1950
(age 73)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro [129]
115 Gualtiero Bassetti* Italy 7 April 1942
(age 81)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Perugia–Città della Pieve [130]
116 Mario Aurelio Poli Argentina 29 November 1947
(age 76)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Buenos Aires [131]
117 Andrew Yeom Soo-jung* South Korea 5 December 1943
(age 80)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Seoul [132]
118 Ricardo Ezzati SDB* Chile[h] 7 January 1942
(age 82)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Santiago de Chile [133]
119 Philippe Ouédraogo Burkina Faso 25 January 1945
(age 79)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Ouagadougou [134]
120 Orlando Quevedo OMI* Philippines 11 March 1939
(age 84)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Cotabato [135]
121 Chibly Langlois Haiti 29 November 1958
(age 65)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Bishop of Les Cayes [136]
122 Kelvin Edward Felix* Saint Lucia[i] 15 February 1933
(age 90)
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Castries [137]
123 Manuel Clemente Portugal 16 July 1948
(age 75)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Patriarch emeritus of Lisbon [138]
124 Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel CM Ethiopia 14 July 1948
(age 75)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop of Addis Abeba
(Ethiopian Church)
[139]
125 John Dew New Zealand 5 May 1948
(age 75)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Wellington [140]
126 Edoardo Menichelli* Italy 14 October 1939
(age 84)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Ancona–Osimo [141]
127 Pierre Nguyễn Văn Nhơn* Vietnam 1 April 1938
(age 85)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Hanoi [142]
128 Alberto Suárez Inda* Mexico 30 January 1939
(age 85)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Morelia [143]
129 Charles Maung Bo SDB Myanmar 29 October 1948
(age 75)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop of Yangon [144]
130 Kriengsak Kovitvanit Thailand 27 June 1949
(age 74)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop of Bangkok [145]
131 Francesco Montenegro Italy 22 May 1946
(age 77)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Agrigento [146]
132 Daniel Sturla SDB Uruguay 4 July 1959
(age 64)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop of Montevideo [147]
133 Ricardo Blázquez* Spain 13 April 1942
(age 81)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Valladolid [148]
134 José Luis Lacunza Maestrojuán OAR Panama[j] 24 February 1944
(age 79)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Bishop of David [149]
135 Arlindo Gomes Furtado Cape Verde 15 November 1949
(age 74)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde [150]
136 Soane Patita Paini Mafi Tonga 19 December 1961
(age 62)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Bishop of Tonga [151]
137 Luis Héctor Villalba* Argentina 11 October 1934
(age 89)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Tucumán [152]
138 Júlio Duarte Langa* Mozambique 27 October 1927
(age 96)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Bishop emeritus of Xai-Xai [153]
139 Dieudonné Nzapalainga CSSp Central African Republic 14 March 1967
(age 56)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Archbishop of Bangui [154]
140 Carlos Osoro Sierra Spain 16 May 1945
(age 78)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Madrid [155]
141 Sérgio da Rocha Brazil 21 October 1959
(age 64)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia [156]
142 Blase J. Cupich United States 19 March 1949
(age 74)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Archbishop of Chicago [157]
143 Patrick D'Rozario CSC* Bangladesh 1 October 1943
(age 80)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Dhaka [158]
144 Baltazar Enrique Porras Cardozo Venezuela 10 October 1944
(age 79)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Archbishop of Caracas [159]
145 Jozef De Kesel Belgium 17 June 1947
(age 76)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Mechelen–Brussels [160]
146 Maurice Piat CSSp* Mauritius 19 July 1941
(age 82)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Bishop emeritus of Port-Louis [161]
147 Carlos Aguiar Retes Mexico 9 January 1950
(age 74)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Archbishop of Mexico [162]
148 John Ribat MSC Papua New Guinea 9 February 1957
(age 66)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Archbishop of Port Moresby [163]
149 Joseph W. Tobin CSsR United States 3 May 1952
(age 71)
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Archbishop of Newark [164]
150 Jean Zerbo* Mali 27 December 1943
(age 80)
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Archbishop of Bamako [165]
151 Juan José Omella Spain 21 April 1946
(age 77)
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Archbishop of Barcelona [166]
152 Anders Arborelius OCD Sweden 24 September 1949
(age 74)
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Bishop of Stockholm [167]
153 Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun IVD Laos 8 April 1944
(age 79)
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Apostolic Vicar of Vientiane [168]
154 Gregorio Rosa Chávez* El Salvador 3 September 1942
(age 81)
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Auxiliary Bishop emeritus of San Salvador [169]
155 Angelo De Donatis Italy 4 January 1954
(age 70)
CP 28 June 2018
Francis
Vicar General for Rome and Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint John Lateran [170]
156 Joseph Coutts Pakistan 21 July 1945
(age 78)
CP 28 June 2018
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Karachi [171]
157 António Marto Portugal 5 May 1947
(age 76)
CP 28 June 2018
Francis
Bishop emeritus of Leiria–Fátima [172]
158 Pedro Barreto SJ Peru 12 February 1944
(age 79)
CP 28 June 2018
Francis
Archbishop of Huancayo [173]
159 Désiré Tsarahazana Madagascar 13 June 1954
(age 69)
CP 28 June 2018
Francis
Archbishop of Toamasina [174]
160 Giuseppe Petrocchi Italy 19 August 1948
(age 75)
CP 28 June 2018
Francis
Archbishop of L'Aquila [175]
161 Thomas Aquino Manyo Maeda Japan 3 March 1949
(age 74)
CP 28 June 2018
Francis
Archbishop of Osaka–Takamatsu [176]
162 Toribio Ticona Porco* Bolivia 25 April 1937
(age 86)
CP 28 June 2018
Francis
Bishop Prelate emeritus of Corocoro [177]
163 Ignatius Suharyo Hardjoatmodjo Indonesia 9 July 1950
(age 73)
CP 5 October 2019
Francis
Archbishop of Jakarta [178]
164 Juan García Rodríguez Cuba 11 July 1948
(age 75)
CP 5 October 2019
Francis
Archbishop of San Cristóbal de la Habana [179]
165 Fridolin Ambongo Besungu OFMCap Democratic Republic of the Congo 24 January 1960
(age 64)
CP 5 October 2019
Francis
Archbishop of Kinshasa [180]
166 Jean-Claude Hollerich SJ Luxembourg 9 August 1958
(age 65)
CP 5 October 2019
Francis
Archbishop of Luxembourg [181]
167 Álvaro Leonel Ramazzini Imeri Guatemala 16 July 1947
(age 76)
CP 5 October 2019
Francis
Bishop of Huehuetenango [182]
168 Matteo Zuppi Italy 11 October 1955
(age 68)
CP 5 October 2019
Francis
Archbishop of Bologna [183]
169 Cristóbal López Romero SDB Morocco[k] 19 May 1952
(age 71)
CP 5 October 2019
Francis
Archbishop of Rabat [184]
170 Sigitas Tamkevičius SJ* Lithuania 7 November 1938
(age 85)
CP 5 October 2019
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Kaunas [185]
171 Eugenio Dal Corso PSDP* Angola[l] 16 May 1939
(age 84)
CP 5 October 2019
Francis
Bishop emeritus of Benguela [186]
172 Antoine Kambanda Rwanda 10 November 1958
(age 65)
CP 28 November 2020
Francis
Archbishop of Kigali [187]
173 Wilton Daniel Gregory United States 7 December 1947
(age 76)
CP 28 November 2020
Francis
Archbishop of Washington [188]
174 Jose Advincula OP Philippines 30 March 1952
(age 71)
CP 28 November 2020
Francis
Archbishop of Manila [189]
175 Celestino Aós Braco OFMCap Chile[m] 6 April 1945
(age 78)
CP 28 November 2020
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Santiago de Chile [190]
176 Augusto Paolo Lojudice Italy 1 July 1964
(age 59)
CP 28 November 2020
Francis
Archbishop of Siena–Colle di Val d'Elsa–Montalcino and Bishop of Montepulciano–Chiusi–Pienza [191]
177 Felipe Arizmendi Esquivel* Mexico 1 May 1940
(age 83)
CP 28 November 2020
Francis
Bishop emeritus of San Cristóbal de Las Casas [192]
178 Jean-Marc Aveline France 26 December 1958
(age 65)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Archbishop of Marseille [193]
179 Peter Okpaleke Nigeria 1 March 1963
(age 60)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Bishop of Ekwulobia [194]
180 Leonardo Ulrich Steiner OFM Brazil 6 November 1950
(age 73)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Archbishop of Manaus [195]
181 Filipe Neri Ferrão India 20 January 1953
(age 71)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Archbishop of Goa and Daman and Patriarch of the East Indies [196]
182 Robert W. McElroy United States 5 February 1954
(age 70)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Bishop of San Diego [197]
183 Virgílio do Carmo da Silva SDB East Timor 27 November 1967
(age 56)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Archbishop of Díli [198]
184 Oscar Cantoni Italy 1 September 1950
(age 73)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Bishop of Como [199]
185 Anthony Poola India 15 November 1961
(age 62)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Archbishop of Hyderabad [200]
186 Paulo Cezar Costa Brazil 20 July 1967
(age 56)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Archbishop of Brasília [201]
187 William Goh Singapore 25 June 1957
(age 66)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Archbishop of Singapore [202]
188 Adalberto Martínez Flores Paraguay 8 July 1951
(age 72)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Archbishop of Asunción [203]
189 Giorgio Marengo IMC Mongolia[n] 7 June 1974
(age 49)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Apostolic Prefect of Ulaanbaatar [204]
190 Jorge Enrique Jiménez Carvajal CJM* Colombia 29 March 1942
(age 81)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Cartagena [205]
191 Arrigo Miglio* Italy 18 July 1942
(age 81)
CP 27 August 2022
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Cagliari [206]
192 Pierbattista Pizzaballa OFM Jerusalem[o] 21 April 1965
(age 58)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem [208]
193 Stephen Brislin South Africa 24 September 1956
(age 67)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Archbishop of Cape Town [209]
194 Ángel Sixto Rossi SJ Argentina 11 August 1958
(age 65)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Archbishop of Córdoba [210]
195 Luis José Rueda Aparicio Colombia 3 March 1962
(age 61)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Archbishop of Bogotá [211]
196 Grzegorz Ryś Poland 9 February 1964
(age 59)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Archbishop of Łódź [212]
197 Stephen Ameyu Martin Mulla South Sudan 10 January 1964
(age 60)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Archbishop of Juba [213]
198 José Cobo Cano Spain 20 September 1965
(age 58)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Archbishop of Madrid [214]
199 Protase Rugambwa Tanzania 31 May 1960
(age 63)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Archbishop of Tabora [215]
200 Sebastian Francis Malaysia 11 November 1951
(age 72)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Bishop of Penang [216]
201 Stephen Chow Sau-yan SJ China
(Hong Kong)[e]
7 August 1959
(age 64)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Bishop of Hong Kong [217]
202 François-Xavier Bustillo OFMConv France[p] 23 November 1968
(age 55)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Bishop of Ajaccio [218]
203 Américo Aguiar Portugal 12 December 1973
(age 50)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Bishop of Setúbal [219]
204 Diego Rafael Padrón Sánchez* Venezuela 17 May 1939
(age 84)
CP 30 September 2023
Francis
Archbishop emeritus of Cumaná [220]
205 Renato Martino* Italy 23 November 1932
(age 91)
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
President emeritus of the Pontifical Councils for Justice and Peace and for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People [221]
206 James Michael Harvey United States 20 October 1949
(age 74)
CD 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls [222]
207 Lorenzo Baldisseri* Italy 29 September 1940
(age 83)
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Secretary-General emeritus of the Synod of Bishops [223]
208 Gerhard Ludwig Müller Germany 31 December 1947
(age 76)
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith [224]
209 Dominique Mamberti France 7 March 1952
(age 71)
CD 14 February 2015
Francis
Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura [225]
210 Mario Zenari Italy 5 January 1946
(age 78)
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Apostolic Nuncio to Syria [226]
211 Kevin Farrell United States[q] 2 September 1947
(age 76)
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Prefect of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church [227]
212 Ernest Simoni* Albania 18 October 1928
(age 95)
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Priest of the Archdiocese of Shkodër–Pult[r] [228]
213 Luis Ladaria Ferrer SJ Spain 19 April 1944
(age 79)
CD 28 June 2018
Francis
Prefect emeritus of the Dicastery for the Doctrine of the Faith [229]
214 Giovanni Angelo Becciu*[s] Italy 2 June 1948
(age 75)
CD 28 June 2018
Francis
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints [232]
215 Konrad Krajewski Poland 25 November 1963
(age 60)
CD 28 June 2018
Francis
Almoner of His Holiness [233]
216 Aquilino Bocos Merino CMF* Spain 17 May 1938
(age 85)
CD 28 June 2018
Francis
Superior General emeritus of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary [234]
217 Miguel Ángel Ayuso Guixot MCCJ Spain 17 June 1952
(age 71)
CD 5 October 2019
Francis
Prefect of the Dicastery for Interreligious Dialogue [235]
218 José Tolentino de Mendonça Portugal 15 December 1965
(age 58)
CD 5 October 2019
Francis
Prefect of the Dicastery for Culture and Education [236]
219 Michael Czerny SJ Canada[t] 18 July 1946
(age 77)
CD 5 October 2019
Francis
Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development [237]
220 Michael Fitzgerald MAfr* United Kingdom 17 August 1937
(age 86)
CD 5 October 2019
Francis
Apostolic Nuncio emeritus to Egypt [238]
221 Mario Grech Malta 20 February 1957
(age 66)
CD 28 November 2020
Francis
Secretary-General of the Synod of Bishops [239]
222 Marcello Semeraro Italy 22 December 1947
(age 76)
CD 28 November 2020
Francis
Prefect of the Dicastery for the Causes of Saints [240]
223 Mauro Gambetti OFMConv Italy 27 October 1965
(age 58)
CD 28 November 2020
Francis
Vicar General for Vatican City, Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint Peter and President of the Fabric of Saint Peter [241]
224 Silvano Maria Tomasi CS* Italy 12 October 1940
(age 83)
CD 28 November 2020
Francis
Special Delegate to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta [242]
225 Raniero Cantalamessa OFMCap* Italy 22 July 1934
(age 89)
CD 28 November 2020
Francis
Preacher of the Papal Household[r] [243]
226 Enrico Feroci* Italy 27 August 1940
(age 83)
CD 28 November 2020
Francis
Pastor of the Shrine of Our Lady of Divine Love in Castel di Leva, Rome [244]
227 Arthur Roche United Kingdom 6 March 1950
(age 73)
CD 27 August 2022
Francis
Prefect of the Dicastery for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [245]
228 Lazarus You Heung-sik South Korea 17 November 1951
(age 72)
CD 27 August 2022
Francis
Prefect of the Dicastery for the Clergy [246]
229 Fernando Vérgez Alzaga LC Spain 1 March 1945
(age 78)
CD 27 August 2022
Francis
President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State [247]
230 Gianfranco Ghirlanda SJ* Italy 5 July 1942
(age 81)
CD 27 August 2022
Francis
Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta[r] [248]
231 Fortunato Frezza* Italy 6 February 1942
(age 82)
CD 27 August 2022
Francis
Canon of the Chapter of the Papal Basilica of Saint Peter [249]
232 Robert Francis Prevost OSA United States 14 September 1955
(age 68)
CD 30 September 2023
Francis
Prefect of the Dicastery for Bishops [250]
233 Claudio Gugerotti Italy 7 October 1955
(age 68)
CD 30 September 2023
Francis
Prefect of the Dicastery for the Eastern Churches [251]
234 Víctor Manuel Fernández Argentina 18 July 1962
(age 61)
CD 30 September 2023
Francis
Prefect of the Dicastery for the Doctrine of the Faith [252]
235 Emil Paul Tscherrig Switzerland 3 February 1947
(age 77)
CD 30 September 2023
Francis
Apostolic Nuncio to Italy and San Marino [253]
236 Christophe Pierre France 30 January 1946
(age 78)
CD 30 September 2023
Francis
Apostolic Nuncio to the United States [254]
237 Ángel Fernández Artime SDB Spain 21 August 1960
(age 63)
CD 30 September 2023
Francis
Rector Major of the Salesians [255]
238 Agostino Marchetto* Italy 28 August 1940
(age 83)
CD 30 September 2023
Francis
Secretary emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People [256]
239 Luis Pascual Dri OFMCap* Argentina 17 April 1927
(age 96)
CD 30 September 2023
Francis
Confessor at the Shrine of Our Lady of Pompei [es], Buenos Aires [257]


Demographics of the College of Cardinals

At present, 131 of 239 cardinals are eligible to participate in a papal conclave. The number of votes required to be elected pope with a two-thirds supermajority,[3][258] if all 131 cardinal electors were to participate (notwithstanding the maximum of 120 specified in Universi Dominici gregis), would be 88.

Cardinals by appointing Pope

This table indicates the number of current cardinals created by each pope and belonging to each order of the College.

Pope All cardinals Cardinal electors
No. Name CB CP CD Total CB CP CD Total
264 John Paul II
(1978–2005)
5 38 1 44 1 7 0 8
265 Benedict XVI
(2005–2013)
4 59 1 64 2 24 1 27
266 Francis
(2013–present)
3 95 33 131 2 73 21 96
Total 12 192 35 239 5 104 22 131

Cardinals by particular church sui iuris

While most cardinals belong to the Latin Church, which encompasses the vast majority of Catholics, a small number of cardinals belong to one of the twenty-three autonomous (sui iuris) Eastern Catholic Churches. At present, there are six Eastern Catholic cardinals, including four cardinal electors, belonging to six particular churches sui iuris:

Particular church sui iuris All cardinals Cardinal electors
Latin Church (Western) 233 127
Eastern Churches Chaldean Church 1 1
Ethiopian Church 1 1
Maronite Church 1 0
Romanian Greek Church 1 0
Syro-Malabar Church 1 1
Syro-Malankara Church 1 1
Total 6 4
Total 239 131

Cardinals by institute of consecrated life or society of apostolic life

At present, there are 59 cardinals, including 35 cardinal electors, who are members of the religious life, representing 29 institutes of consecrated life and societies of apostolic life. Common names for members, if different, are given in brackets in this table.

Post-nominal Institute or society All cardinals Cardinal electors
CJM Congregation of Jesus and Mary (Eudists) 1 0
CM Congregation of the Mission (Vincentians, Lazarists) 2 1
CMF Congregation of Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Claretians) 2 0
CS Congregation of the Missionaries of Saint Charles Borromeo (Scalabrinians) 1 0
CSC Congregation of Holy Cross (Holy Cross Fathers) 1 1
CSSp Congregation of the Holy Spirit (Holy Ghost Fathers, Spiritans) 2 1
CSsR Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (Redemptorists) 1 1
IMC Institute of Consolata Missionaries 1 1
ISch Institute of Schönstatt Fathers 1 0
ISPX Pius X Secular Institute 1 1
IVD Voluntas Dei Institute 1 1
LC Congregation of the Legionaries of Christ 1 1
MAfr Missionaries of Africa (White Fathers) 1 0
MCCJ Comboni Missionaries of the Heart of Jesus 1 1
MSC Missionaries of the Sacred Heart 1 1
OAR Order of Augustinian Recollects 1 1
OCD Order of Discalced Carmelites 1 1
OCist Order of Cistercians 1 1
OFM Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans) 3 2
OFMCap Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (Capuchins) 5 3
OFMConv Order of Friars Minor Conventual (Conventual Franciscans) 2 2
OMI Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate (Oblates) 1 0
OMM Mariamite Maronite Order (Aleppians) 1 0
OP Order of Preachers (Dominicans) 3 2
OSA Order of Saint Augustine (Augustinians) 1 1
PSDP Poor Servants of Divine Providence 1 0
PSS Society of the Priests of Saint Sulpice (Sulpicians) 1 1
SDB Society of Saint Francis de Sales (Salesians) 11 5
SJ Society of Jesus (Jesuits) 9 6
(none) Secular clergy 181 96
Total 239 131

Cardinals by continent

For the purposes of this article, countries are grouped into continents generally according to the regions of the United Nations geoscheme; for the region of the Americas, North America comprises the subregions of Northern America, Central America and the Caribbean, while South America comprises the remaining subregion of the same name.[259] Statistics for the global distribution of Catholics are taken from the 2021 edition of the Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae (Statistical Yearbook of the Church).[260]

Continent All cardinals Cardinal electors Percentage of global Catholic population (2021)
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Africa 29 12.1% 17 13.0% 19%
North America 36 15.1% 22 16.8% 21%
South America 28 11.7% 15 11.5% 27%
Asia 33 13.8% 22 16.8% 11%
Europe 110 46.0% 52 39.7% 21%
Oceania 3 1.3% 3 2.3% 1%
Total 239 100.0% 131 100.0% 100%

Cardinals by country

At present, 91 countries are represented in the College of Cardinals, including 69 with at least one cardinal elector. The countries with the greatest numbers of cardinals are Italy (forty-eight), the United States (seventeen), and Spain (fourteen). Among the cardinal electors, the countries with the greatest numbers are Italy (fourteen), the United States (eleven), and Spain (eight).

Country Continent All cardinals Cardinal electors
Albania Europe 1 0
Angola Africa 2 0
Argentina South America 7 3
Austria Europe 1 1
Bangladesh Asia 1 0
Belgium Europe 1 1
Bolivia South America 1 0
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1 1
Brazil South America 7 6
Burkina Faso Africa 1 1
Canada North America 4 4
Cape Verde Africa 1 1
Central African Republic Africa 1 1
Chile South America 3 1
Colombia South America 4 1
Cuba North America 1 1
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa 1 1
Croatia Europe 1 1
Czech Republic Europe 1 0
Dominican Republic North America 1 0
East Timor Asia 1 1
El Salvador North America 1 0
Ethiopia Africa 1 1
France Europe 8 6
Germany Europe 7 3
Ghana Africa 1 1
Guatemala North America 1 1
Guinea Africa 1 1
Haiti North America 1 1
Honduras North America 1 0
Hong Kong (China)[e] Asia 3 1
Hungary Europe 1 1
India Asia 5 5
Indonesia Asia 2 1
Iraq Asia 1 1
Ireland Europe 1 0
Italy Europe 48 14
Ivory Coast Africa 1 1
Japan Asia 1 1
Jerusalem[o] Asia 1 1
Kenya Africa 1 1
South Korea Asia 2 1
Laos Asia 1 1
Latvia Europe 1 0
Lebanon Asia 1 0
Lithuania Europe 2 0
Luxembourg Europe 1 1
Madagascar Africa 1 1
Malaysia Asia 1 1
Mali Africa 1 0
Malta Europe 1 1
Mauritius Africa 1 0
Mexico North America 6 2
Mongolia Asia 1 1
Morocco Africa 1 1
Mozambique Africa 1 0
Myanmar Asia 1 1
Netherlands Europe 1 1
New Zealand Oceania 1 1
Nicaragua North America 1 1
Nigeria Africa 4 1
Pakistan Asia 1 1
Panama North America 1 1
Paraguay South America 1 1
Papua New Guinea Oceania 1 1
Peru South America 2 1
Philippines Asia 4 2
Poland Europe 5 4
Portugal Europe 6 4
Romania Europe 1 0
Rwanda Africa 1 1
Saint Lucia North America 1 0
Senegal Africa 1 0
Singapore Asia 1 1
Slovenia Europe 1 0
South Africa Africa 2 1
South Sudan Africa 1 1
Spain Europe 14 8
Sri Lanka Asia 1 1
Sudan Africa 1 0
Sweden Europe 1 1
Switzerland Europe 2 2
Tanzania Africa 2 2
Thailand Asia 2 1
Tonga Oceania 1 1
Uganda Africa 1 0
United Kingdom Europe 3 2
United States North America 17 11
Uruguay South America 1 1
Venezuela South America 2 1
Vietnam Asia 2 0
Total 239 131

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The dean of the College of Cardinals holds the title of the Suburbicarian Diocese of Ostia ex officio, in addition to his original one when first appointed a cardinal bishop.[1][7][8]
  2. ^ a b c Among the cardinal electors, the senior cardinal bishop, the senior cardinal priest, the senior cardinal deacon and the junior cardinal deacon have specific roles in a papal conclave, such as presiding over the conclave itself (the senior cardinal bishop) or announcing the election of the pope (the senior cardinal deacon).[3]
  3. ^ Schonborn was born in Czechoslovakia (in what is now the Czech Republic). He moved to Austria as a child, and has served there for over 50 years.
  4. ^ Pujats was originally created a cardinal in pectore and formally revealed on 21 February 2001.
  5. ^ a b c d Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China.
  6. ^ Brady's territorial jurisdiction as Archbishop of Armagh included a part of the United Kingdom.
  7. ^ Njue was born in 1944,[87] but his precise date of birth is not known. In documenting the age of cardinal electors, the Holy See Press Office uses 31 December 1944 as Njue's birthdate.[88]
  8. ^ Ezzati was born in Italy. He emmigrated to Chile, where he was ordained and where he has mostly served, as a young man.
  9. ^ Felix was born in Dominica, part of the ecclesiastical province of Castries, which he led and which has its seat in St Lucia.
  10. ^ Lacunza Maestrojuán was born in Spain. He has served in Panama for over 50 years.
  11. ^ Lopez was born in Spain. He has served in Morocco for 20 years
  12. ^ Dal Corso was born in Italy. He served in Angola for over 30 years.
  13. ^ Aós Braco was born in Spain. He served in Chile for 40 years.
  14. ^ Marengo was born in Italy. He has served in Mongolia for over 20 years.
  15. ^ a b The jurisdiction of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, based in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in the Old City of Jerusalem in East Jerusalem, is multi-national, encompassing Cyprus, Jordan, Israel and Palestine. The Holy See, in its statistical report of the College of Cardinals, lists "Jerusalem" as Pizzaballa's country.[207] He was born in Italy. He has served in the Custody of the Holy Land for over 25 years.
  16. ^ Bustillo was born in Spain. He has served in France for 30 years.
  17. ^ Farrell was born in Ireland. He served in the United States for over 30 years.
  18. ^ a b c Granted dispensation not to receive episcopal consecration
  19. ^ Becciu resigned the rights and privileges of a cardinal on 24 September 2020.[230][231]
  20. ^ Czerny was born in Czechoslovakia (in what is now the Czech Republic). . He moved to Canada as a child, and has served there and in the Roman Curia.

  1. ^ Originally created a cardinal priest; appointed a cardinal bishop on 1 October 2002[14]
  2. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 19 May 2018 and co-opted as a cardinal bishop on 28 June 2018
  3. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 29 January 1996 and appointed a cardinal bishop on 25 April 2005
  4. ^ Originally created a cardinal priest; appointed a cardinal bishop on 10 May 2008
  5. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; appointed a cardinal bishop on 24 February 2009
  6. ^ a b Originally created a cardinal priest; co-opted as a cardinal bishop on 28 June 2018
  7. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; co-opted as a cardinal bishop on 28 June 2018
  8. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; appointed a cardinal bishop on 1 May 2020
  9. ^ Originally created a cardinal priest; co-opted as a cardinal bishop on 1 May 2020
  10. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 29 January 1996
  11. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 1 March 2008
  12. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 20 May 2006
  13. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 21 February 2011
  14. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 12 June 2014
  15. ^ Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 20 June 2016
  16. ^ a b c d e Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 19 May 2018
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 3 May 2021
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i Originally created a cardinal deacon; became a cardinal priest on 4 March 2022

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "The College of Cardinals General Documentazion". Holy See Press Office. 17 February 2014. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  2. ^ Sägmüller, Johannes Baptist (1913). "Cardinal" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ a b c d Pope John Paul II (22 February 1996). "Universi Dominici Gregis". The Holy See (Apostolic constitution). Vatican Publishing House. Archived from the original on 22 November 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  4. ^ Boudinhon, Auguste (1913). "In Petto" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. ^ "Ordinary Public Consistory for the Creation of 21 New Cardinals, 30.09.2023". Holy See Press Office. 30 September 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  6. ^ "Morto il cardinale Sebastiani. Il Papa: una vita al servizio del Vangelo". Vatican News (in Italian). 16 January 2024. Retrieved 16 January 2024.
  7. ^ Pope Pius X (5 May 1914). Edita a Nobis (PDF) (Motu proprio). Acta Apostolicae Sedis (in Latin). Vol. VI. Rome: Vatican Publishing House. pp. 219–220. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2018 – via the Holy See.
  8. ^ a b "Cardinal Bishops". EWTN. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  9. ^ "Rescriptum ex Audientia Ss.mi: Rescriptum of the Holy Father Francis by which he has decided to co-opt into the Order of Bishops, equating them in all respects with the Cardinals holding the title of a suburbicarian Church, Cardinals Parolin, Sandri, Ouellet and Filoni". Holy See Press Office. 26 June 2018. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  10. ^ "Rescriptum ex Audientia Ss.mi: Rescritto del Santo Padre Francesco con cui ha deciso di cooptare nell'Ordine dei Vescovi, equiparandolo in tutto ai Cardinali insigniti del titolo di una Chiesa suburbicaria, l'Em.mo Cardinale Luis Antonio G. Tagle" [Rescriptum ex Audientia Ss.mi: Rescript of the Holy Father Francis, by which he decides to co-opt into the Order of Bishops His Eminence Cardinal Luis Antonio G. Tagle, equating him in all respects to the Cardinals who have been awarded the title of a suburbicarian Church]. Holy See Press Office (in Italian). 1 May 2020. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  11. ^ Pope Paul VI (11 February 1965). "Ad purpuratorum Patrum Collegium". The Holy See (Motu proprio) (in Latin). Vatican Publishing House. Archived from the original on 17 November 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  12. ^ "Cardinal Priests". EWTN. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  13. ^ "Cardinal Deacons". EWTN. Archived from the original on 3 September 2022. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  14. ^ "Rinunce e nomine" [Resignations and Appointments]. Holy See Press Office (in Italian). 1 October 2002. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  15. ^ "Re Card. Giovanni Battista". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  16. ^ "Sandri Card. Leonardo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  17. ^ "Arinze Card. Francis". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  18. ^ "Bertone Card. Tarcisio, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  19. ^ "Saraiva Martins Card. José, C.M.F." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  20. ^ "Parolin Card. Pietro". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  21. ^ "Ouellet Card. Marc, P.S.S." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  22. ^ "Filoni Card. Fernando". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  23. ^ "Stella Card. Beniamino". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  24. ^ "Tagle Card. Luis Antonio Gokim". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  25. ^ "Raï Card. Béchara Boutros, OMM". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  26. ^ "Sako Card. Louis Raphaël I". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 12 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  27. ^ "Kitbunchu Card. Michael Michai". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  28. ^ "do Nascimento Card. Alexandre". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  29. ^ "Poupard Card. Paul". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  30. ^ "Wetter Card. Friedrich". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  31. ^ "López Rodríguez Card. Nicolás de Jesús". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  32. ^ "Mahony Card. Roger Michael". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  33. ^ "Ruini Card. Camillo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  34. ^ "Darmaatmadja Card. Julius Riyadi, S.I." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  35. ^ "Wamala Card. Emmanuel". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  36. ^ "Maida Card. Adam Joseph". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  37. ^ "Puljić Card. Vinko". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  38. ^ "Sandoval Íñiguez Card. Juan". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  39. ^ "Stafford Card. James Francis". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  40. ^ "De Giorgi Card. Salvatore". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  41. ^ "Rouco Varela Card. Antonio María". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  42. ^ "Pengo Card. Polycarp". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  43. ^ "Schönborn Card. Christoph, OP". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  44. ^ "Rivera Carrera Card. Norberto". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  45. ^ "Pujats Card. Jānis". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  46. ^ "Sepe Card. Crescenzio". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  47. ^ "Kasper Card. Walter". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  48. ^ "Rubiano Sáenz Card. Pedro". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  49. ^ "Bačkis Card. Audrys Juozas". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  50. ^ "Errázuriz Ossa Card. Francisco Javier". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  51. ^ "Napier Card. Wilfrid Fox, OFM". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  52. ^ "Rodríguez Maradiaga Card. Óscar Andrés, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  53. ^ "Cipriani Thorne Card. Juan Luis". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  54. ^ "Herranz Card. Julián". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  55. ^ "Scola Card. Angelo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  56. ^ "Okogie Card. Anthony Olubunmi". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  57. ^ "Zubeir Wako Card. Gabriel". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  58. ^ "Rigali Card. Justin Francis". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  59. ^ "Antonelli Card. Ennio". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  60. ^ "Turkson Card. Peter Kodwo Appiah". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  61. ^ "Bozanić Card. Josip". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  62. ^ "Pham Minh Mân Card. Jean-Baptiste". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  63. ^ "Barbarin Card. Philippe". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  64. ^ "Erdő Card. Péter". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  65. ^ "Rodé Card. Franc, C.M." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  66. ^ "Vallini Card. Agostino". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  67. ^ "Rosales Card. Gaudencio Borbon". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  68. ^ "Ricard Card. Jean-Pierre". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  69. ^ "Cañizares Llovera Card. Antonio". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  70. ^ "O'Malley Card. Seán Patrick, OFMCap". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  71. ^ "Dziwisz Card. Stanisław". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  72. ^ "Zen Ze-kiun Card. Joseph, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  73. ^ "Lajolo Card. Giovanni". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  74. ^ "Cordes Card. Paul Josef". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  75. ^ "Comastri Card. Angelo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  76. ^ "Ryłko Card. Stanisław". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  77. ^ "Farina Card. Raffaele, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  78. ^ "Brady Card. Seán Baptist". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  79. ^ "Martínez Sistach Card. Lluís". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  80. ^ "Vingt-Trois Card. André". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  81. ^ "Bagnasco Card. Angelo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  82. ^ "Sarr Card. Théodore-Adrien". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  83. ^ "Gracias Card. Oswald". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  84. ^ "Robles Ortega Card. Francisco". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  85. ^ "DiNardo Card. Daniel Nicholas". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  86. ^ "Scherer Card. Odilo Pedro". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  87. ^ a b "Njue Card. John". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  88. ^ "Cardinals [sic] electors". Holy See Press Office. 16 January 2024. Archived from the original on 5 January 2024. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  89. ^ "Karlic Card. Estanislao Esteban". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  90. ^ "Amato Card. Angelo, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  91. ^ "Sarah Card. Robert". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  92. ^ "Monterisi Card. Francesco". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  93. ^ "Burke Card. Raymond Leo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  94. ^ "Koch Card. Kurt". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  95. ^ "Piacenza Card. Mauro". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  96. ^ "Ravasi Card. Gianfranco". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  97. ^ "Romeo Card. Paolo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  98. ^ "Wuerl Card. Donald William". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  99. ^ "Assis Card. Raymundo Damasceno". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  100. ^ "Nycz Card. Kazimierz". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  101. ^ "Patabendige Don Card. Albert Malcolm Ranjith". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  102. ^ "Marx Card. Reinhard". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  103. ^ "Brandmüller Card. Walter". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  104. ^ "Monteiro de Castro Manuel". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  105. ^ "Abril y Castelló Card. Santos". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  106. ^ "Vegliò Card. Antonio Maria". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  107. ^ "Bertello Card. Giuseppe". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  108. ^ "Coccopalmerio Card. Francesco". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  109. ^ "Aviz Card. João Braz de". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  110. ^ "O'Brien Card. Edwin Frederick". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  111. ^ "Calcagno Card. Domenico". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  112. ^ "Versaldi Card. Giuseppe". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  113. ^ "Alencherry Card. George". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  114. ^ "Collins Card. Thomas Christopher". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  115. ^ "Duka Card. Dominik, OP". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  116. ^ "Eijk Card. Willem Jacobus". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  117. ^ "Betori Card. Giuseppe". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  118. ^ "Dolan Card. Timothy Michael". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  119. ^ "Woelki Card. Rainer Maria". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  120. ^ "Tong Hon Card. John". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  121. ^ "Mureşan Card. Lucian". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  122. ^ "Thottunkal Card. Baselios Cleemis". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  123. ^ "Onaiyekan Card. John Olorunfemi". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  124. ^ "Salazar Gómez Card. Rubén". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  125. ^ "Nichols Card. Vincent Gerard". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  126. ^ "Brenes Solórzano Card. Leopoldo José". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  127. ^ "Lacroix Card. Gérald Cyprien, I.S.P.X." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  128. ^ "Kutwa Card. Jean-Pierre". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  129. ^ "Tempesta Card. Orani João, OCist". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  130. ^ "Bassetti Card. Gualtiero". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  131. ^ "Poli Card. Mario Aurelio". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  132. ^ "Yeom Soo-jung Card. Andrew". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  133. ^ "Ezzati Andrello Card. Ricardo, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  134. ^ "Ouédraogo Card. Philippe Nakellentuba". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  135. ^ "Quevedo Card. Orlando Beltran, OMI". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  136. ^ "Langlois Card. Chibly". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  137. ^ "Felix Card. Kelvin Edward". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  138. ^ "Clemente Card. Manuel". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  139. ^ "Souraphiel Card. Berhaneyesus Demerew, C.M." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  140. ^ "Dew Card. John Atcherley". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  141. ^ "Menichelli Card. Edoardo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  142. ^ "Nguyên Văn Nhon Card. Pierre". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  143. ^ "Suárez Inda Card. Alberto". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  144. ^ "Bo Card. Charles Maung, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  145. ^ "Kovithavanij Card. Francis Xavier Kriengsak". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  146. ^ "Montenegro Card. Francesco". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  147. ^ "Sturla Berhouet Card. Daniel Fernando, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  148. ^ "Blázquez Pérez Card. Ricardo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  149. ^ "Lacunza Maestrojuán Card. José Luis, OAR". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  150. ^ "Furtado Card. Arlindo Gomes". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  151. ^ "Mafi Card. Soane Patita Paini". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  152. ^ "Villalba Card. Luis Héctor". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  153. ^ "Langa Card. Júlio Duarte". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  154. ^ "Nzapalainga Card. Dieudonné, C.S.Sp". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  155. ^ "Osoro Sierra Card. Carlos". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  156. ^ "da Rocha Card. Sérgio". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  157. ^ "Cupich Card. Blase J." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  158. ^ "D'Rozario Card. Patrick, C.S.C." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  159. ^ "Porras Cardozo Card. Baltazar Enrique". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  160. ^ "De Kesel Card. Jozef". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  161. ^ "Piat Card. Maurice, C.S.Sp". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  162. ^ "Aguiar Retes Card. Carlos". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  163. ^ "Ribat Card. John, M.S.C." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  164. ^ "Tobin Card. Joseph William, C.SS.R." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  165. ^ "Zerbo Card. Jean". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  166. ^ "Omella Card. Juan José". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  167. ^ "Arborelius Card. Anders, OCD". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  168. ^ "Mangkhanekhoun Card. Louis-Marie Ling, I.V.D." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  169. ^ "Rosa Chávez Card. Gregorio". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  170. ^ "De Donatis Card. Angelo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  171. ^ "Coutts Card. Joseph". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  172. ^ "Marto Card. António Augusto dos Santos". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  173. ^ "Barreto Jimeno Card. Pedro Ricardo, S.I." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  174. ^ "Tsarahazana Card. Désiré". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  175. ^ "Petrocchi Card. Giuseppe". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  176. ^ "Maeda Card. Thomas Aquino Manyo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  177. ^ "Porco Ticona Card. Toribio". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 24 July 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  178. ^ "Suharyo Hardjoatmodjo Card. Ignatius". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  179. ^ "García Rodríguez Card. Juan de la Caridad". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  180. ^ "Ambongo Besungu Card. Fridolin, OFMCap". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  181. ^ "Hollerich Card. Jean-Claude, S.I." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  182. ^ "Ramazzini Imeri Card. Álvaro Leonel". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  183. ^ "Zuppi Card. Matteo Maria". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  184. ^ "López Romero Card. Cristóbal, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  185. ^ "Tamkevičius Card. Sigitas, S.I." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  186. ^ "Dal Corso Card. Eugenio, P.S.D.P." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  187. ^ "Kambanda Card. Antoine". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  188. ^ "Gregory Card. Wilton Daniel". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  189. ^ "Advincula Card. Jose Fuerte". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  190. ^ "Aós Braco Card. Celestino, OFMCap". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  191. ^ "Lojudice Card. Augusto Paolo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  192. ^ "Arizmendi Esquivel Card. Felipe". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  193. ^ "Aveline Card. Jean-Marc". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  194. ^ "Okpaleke Card. Peter Ebere". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  195. ^ "Steiner Card. Leonardo Ulrich, OFM". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  196. ^ "Ferrão Card. Filipe Neri António Sebastião do Rosário". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  197. ^ "McElroy Card. Robert Walter". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  198. ^ "do Carmo da Silva Card. Virgilio, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  199. ^ "Cantoni Card. Oscar". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  200. ^ "Poola Card. Anthony". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  201. ^ "Costa Card. Paulo Ceza". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  202. ^ "Goh Card. William Seng Chye". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  203. ^ "Martínez Flores Card. Adalberto". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  204. ^ "Marengo Card. Giorgio, I.M.C." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  205. ^ "Jiménez Carvajal Card. Jorge Enrique, C.I.M." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  206. ^ "Miglio Card. Arrigo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  207. ^ "Composition of Cardinals according to geographical region". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  208. ^ "Pizzaballa Card. Pierbattista, OFM". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  209. ^ "Brislin Card. Stephen". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  210. ^ "Rossi Card. Ángel Sixto, S.I." Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  211. ^ "Rueda Aparicio Card. Luis José". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  212. ^ "Ryś Card. Grzegorz". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  213. ^ "Mulla Card. Stephen Ameyu Martin". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  214. ^ "Cobo Cano Card. José". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  215. ^ "Rugambwa Card. Protase". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  216. ^ "Francis Card. Sebastian". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  217. ^ "Chow Sau-yan Card. Stephen, S.I." Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  218. ^ "Bustsillo Card. François-Xavier, OFMConv". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  219. ^ "Aguiar Alves Card. Américo Manuel". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  220. ^ "Padrón Sánchez Card. Diego Rafael". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  221. ^ "Martino Card. Renato Raffaele". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  222. ^ "Harvey Card. James Michael". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  223. ^ "Baldisseri Card. Lorenzo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 11 January 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  224. ^ "Müller Card. Gerhard Ludwig". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  225. ^ "Mamberti Card. Dominique". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  226. ^ "Zenari Card. Mario". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  227. ^ "Farrell Card. Kevin Joseph". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  228. ^ "Simoni Card. Ernest". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  229. ^ "Ladaria Ferrer Card. Luis Francisco, S.I." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  230. ^ "Rinunce e nomine (continuazione)" [Resignations and Appointments (continued)]. Holy See Press Office (in Italian). 24 September 2020. Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  231. ^ Condon, Ed (3 December 2020). "Analysis: Is there a road back for Cardinal Becciu?". Catholic News Agency. Archived from the original on 31 July 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  232. ^ "Becciu Card. Giovanni Angelo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  233. ^ "Krajewski Card. Konrad". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  234. ^ "Bocos Merino Card. Aquilino, C.M.F." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  235. ^ "Ayuso Guixot Card. Miguel Ángel, M.C.C.J." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  236. ^ "Mendonça Card. José Tolentino de". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 26 September 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  237. ^ "Czerny Card. Michael, S.I." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  238. ^ "Fitzgerald Card. Michael Louis, M. Afr". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  239. ^ "Grech Card. Mario". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  240. ^ "Semeraro Card. Marcello". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  241. ^ "Gambetti Card. Mauro, OFMConv". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  242. ^ "Tomasi Card. Silvano Maria, C.S." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  243. ^ "Cantalamessa Card. Raniero, OFMCap". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  244. ^ "Feroci Card. Enrico". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  245. ^ "Roche Card. Arthur". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  246. ^ "You Heung-sik Card. Lazzaro". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  247. ^ "Vérgez Alzaga Card. Fernando, L.C." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  248. ^ "Ghirlanda Card. Gianfranco, S.I." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  249. ^ "Frezza Card. Fortunato". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  250. ^ "Prevost Card. Robert Francis, OSA". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  251. ^ "Gugerotti Card. Claudio". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  252. ^ "Fernández Card. Víctor Manuel". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  253. ^ "Tscherrig Card. Emil Paul". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  254. ^ "Pierre Card. Christophe Louis Yves Georges". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  255. ^ "Fernández Artime Card. Ángel, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  256. ^ "Marchetto Card. Agostino". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  257. ^ "Dri Card. Luis Pascual, OFMCap". Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  258. ^ Pope Benedict XVI (11 June 2007). "De aliquis mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis". The Holy See (Motu proprio) (in Latin). Vatican Publishing House. Archived from the original on 4 December 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  259. ^ "Methodology". United Nations Statistics Division. Geographic Regions. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  260. ^ "Pubblicati l'Annuario Pontificio 2023 e l'Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2021". L'Osservatore Romano (in Italian). 3 March 2023. Retrieved 3 March 2023.