Gaudencio Borbón Rosales

Archbishop Emeritus of Manila
Cardinal Gaudencio Rosales, circa 2006
ProvinceManila (Emeritus)
SeeManila (Emeritus)
AppointedSeptember 15, 2003
InstalledNovember 21, 2003
Term endedOctober 13, 2011
PredecessorJaime Sin
SuccessorLuis Antonio Tagle
Other post(s)Cardinal-Priest of Santissimo Nome di Maria in Via Latina
OrdinationMarch 23, 1958
by Alejandro Olalia
ConsecrationOctober 28, 1974
by Bruno Torpigliani
Created cardinalMarch 24, 2006
by Pope Benedict XVI
Personal details
Born (1932-08-10) August 10, 1932 (age 91)
DenominationRoman Catholic
Previous post(s)Auxiliary Bishop of Manila (1974–1984)
Bishop of Malaybalay (1984–1992)
Archbishop of Lipa (1993–2003)
Alma materSan Jose Seminary
MottoSi mortuum fuerit, fructum affert
('If it dies, it bears fruit.', John 12:24)
Coat of armsGaudencio Borbón Rosales's coat of arms
Ordination history of
Gaudencio Rosales
Priestly ordination
Ordained byAlejandro Ayson Olalia (Lipa)
DateMarch 23, 1958
PlaceLipa, Batangas
Episcopal consecration
Principal consecratorArchbishop Bruno Torpigliani
Co-consecratorsJaime Sin (Manila.)
Ricardo Vidal (Lipa)
DateOctober 28, 1974
DateMarch 26, 2006
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by Gaudencio Rosales as principal consecrator
Mylo Hubert VergaraFebruary 12, 2005
Pablo Virgilio DavidJuly 10, 2006
Broderick PabilloAugust 19, 2006
Elenito GalidoSeptember 8, 2006
Leopoldo Jaucian, S.V.D.March 26, 2007
Francisco De LeonSeptember 1, 2007
Ruperto SantosJune 25, 2010
Marcelino Antonio MaralitMarch 13, 2015
Socrates Mesiona, M.S.P.February 10, 2017
Louie GalbinesMay 28, 2018
Styles of
Gaudencio B. Cardinal Rosales
Reference styleHis Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal styleCardinal
SeeManila (Emeritus)

Gaudencio Borbón Rosales (born August 10, 1932[1]) is a Filipino Roman Catholic Cardinal who was Archbishop of Manila, succeeding Jaime Sin in 2003, and succeeded by Luis Antonio Tagle in 2011. Being the Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical province of Manila, he was the 31st archbishop of Manila and the fourth native Filipino to hold the post, following centuries of Spanish, American, and Irish prelates. During his last year as archbishop, he was concurrently named apostolic administrator of the Diocese of Pasig from December 21, 2010, to April 20, 2011, a post he accepted after the resignation of Pasig's first bishop, Francisco San Diego.

Early life and priestly ministry

Rosales was born in the then-town of Batangas, Batangas. Rosales' grandfathers were Julián Rosales, a former mayor of the town of Batangas and Pablo Borbón, a former provincial governor of Batangas. Rosales' father, Dr. Godofredo Dilay Rosales, was one of the first Filipino physicians to acquire his medical school and residency training exclusively in the United States of America, after which he returned home to practice in Batangas City. Rosales' mother, Remedios Mayo Borbón, was a first cousin of the nationalist Claro M. Recto. He is the third of seven siblings, the others being Rosie, Guillermo (deceased), Gabriel, Tessie, Gilbert and Mary Grace.

He attended his elementary education at Batangas Elementary School and St. Bridget's Grade School and his secondary education at Batangas High School. As a boy, he wanted already to become a priest. He studied theology at the San José Seminary and had as classmates two other future bishops: Bishop Severino Pelayo, later Military Ordinary of the Philippines, and Bishop Benjamin Almoneda, later Bishop of Daet. On March 23, 1958, he was ordained priest by Lipa Bishop Alejandro Olalia and then assigned to teach for 12 years at St. Francis Minor Seminary, the seminary of the Diocese of Lipa. In 1970, he was given his first parish assignment, the St. Vincent Ferrer Parish in the obscure Barangay Banay-banay in Lipa. In 1972, he was assigned as parish priest of the Immaculate Conception Parish in Batangas City.[2]


In 1974, Rosales was named auxiliary bishop of Manila, the first Batangueño to be named such. Bishop Rosales received his crosier from the Vicar General of Lipa Venerable Alfredo María Obviar (later Bishop of Lucena) and has used it ever since. He took care of the ecclesiastical district of East Antipolo in Rizal, as well as San Juan, Mandaluyong, and Grace Park in Caloocan. Rosales was consecrated bishop of the titular see of Oescus in a ceremony on October 28, 1974, and in 1980 was appointed rector of the archdiocesan major seminary, San Carlos Seminary. On June 9, 1982, he was named coadjutor bishop of Malaybalay in Bukidnon and was later canonically installed as its second bishop on September 14, 1984, after the resignation of Bishop Francisco F. Claver.

Archbishop of Lipa and of Manila

When Archbishop Mariano Gaviola of Lipa retired, Rosales was appointed his successor on December 30, 1992, bringing the latter back to the diocese where he began his ministry. With the announced retirement of Cardinal Jaime Sin, Rosales was named archbishop of Manila by Pope John Paul II on September 15, 2003. He was installed on November 21, 2003.


Rosales's elevation to the College of Cardinals was announced on February 22, 2006. Archbishop Antonio Franco, the Apostolic Nuncio, personally made the announcement at Manila Cathedral during a Mass for the 40th anniversary of the Focolare Movement.

Pope Benedict XVI created Rosales cardinal-priest of Santissimo Nome di Maria in Via Latina in the consistory of March 24, 2006. Rosales joined 14 others, two of them Asians, as the newest members of the College of Cardinals. Pope Benedict told the new cardinals, "I want to sum up the meaning of this new call that you have received in the word which I placed at the heart of my first Encyclical: caritas. This matches well the color of your cardinal's robes. May the scarlet that you now wear always express the caritas Christi, inspiring you to a passionate love for Christ, for his Church and for all humanity." A little later, Benedict added, "I am counting on you, dear Brother Cardinals, to ensure that the principle of love will spread far and wide, and will give new life to the Church at every level of her hierarchy, in every group of the faithful, in every religious institute, in every spiritual, apostolic or humanitarian initiative."[citation needed]

On February 3, 2007, Rosales was appointed for a five-year term on the 15-member Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Concerns of the Apostolic See. In 2008, Cardinal Rosales offered his resignation from the governance of the archdiocese, as required under canon law on reaching the age of 75, but Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re communicated that the Holy See had not accepted it.[3] In the same year also, Cardinal Rosales invited Pope Benedict XVI to visit the Philippines, being the third largest Catholic nation in the world; however, the pope declined due to heavy schedule.[4]

On October 13, 2011, two months after his 79th birthday, Pope Benedict XVI finally accepted his resignation and appointed the then-Bishop of Imus, Luis Antonio Tagle, as his successor. On August 10, 2012, along with the celebration of his 80th birthday, he lost his eligibility to vote on any future conclaves and thus, did not participate in the 2013 conclave that elected Pope Francis.



Archbishop Rosales expressed support for charter change but condemned politicians pushing their personal agenda in amending the constitution. When the state of national emergency was proclaimed, he would ask Filipinos to pray for peace and unity in the country and expressed hopes that the government will not abuse and curtail the rights of the people.

National Statistics Office

In 2007, Cardinal Rosales argued against the National Statistics Office (NSO) requirement that all solemnizing officers/priests undergo training before conducting wedding ceremonies. He said: "We understand the concern of the National Statistics Office (NSO) because we also know of abuses done by the so-called ministers of the Gospel (not priests), but they should not be like that to us, as if we know nothing."[5]

Gay parades

In 2008, Rosales clashed with Ang Ladlad founder Danton Remoto on the subject of allowing gays to participate, in drag, in the Flores de Mayo celebration.[6] Rosales threatened parishes that permit cross-dressing homosexuals to play Saint Helena or female saints in the Santacruzan or Flores de Mayo procession with official punishment and removal from Mass.[7]

Implementing Summorum Pontificum

The guidelines that Rosales wrote for implementing the 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum were reported to have been criticized by Darío Castrillón Hoyos, President of the Ecclesia Dei Commission, as too restrictive.[8] Rosales denied that he had forbidden use of the "Traditional Latin Mass" in his archdiocese, saying he had only opposed celebration by priests of the dissident Society of St. Pius X.[9]


On September 16, 2010, Cardinal Rosales issued a pastoral letter expressing the Catholic Church’s condemnation of abortion and recalling the excommunication imposed by the Church on those who procure it or help others to do so. "A deliberately procured abortion is a moral evil and the Catholic Church attaches the canonical penalty of excommunication on those who procure it and on those who help obtain abortion", the pastoral letter read.[10]

Auxiliary bishops

Below is the list of auxiliary bishops who served during Rosales' term as Archbishop of Manila. The auxiliary bishops are also Vicars-General of the archdiocese.


Aside from the auxiliary bishops, the following priests served as vicars-general of Manila during Rosales' time.


  1. ^ Miranda, Salvador. "ROSALES, Gaudencio Borbon". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Archived from the original on January 22, 2018. Retrieved August 10, 2016.
  2. ^ "Gaudencio B. Cardinal Rosales, D.D." Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  3. ^ "Vatican rejects Rosales' resignation as Manila bishop". GMA News Online. August 8, 2007. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  4. ^ "Adnkronos | News in tempo reale, video e e ultime notizie". Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  5. ^ "Cardinal Rosales to NSO: Priests know best in sanctifying marriage". GMA News Online. December 23, 2007. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  6. ^ "Manila bishop says against gay men in May parade". Reuters. May 5, 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  7. ^, Cardinal: Gays out of ‘Santacruzans’
  8. ^ "Robert Mickens, "Cardinal accused of disobeying Pope", in The Tablet, 4 April 2009". Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  9. ^ "Catholic News Asia | Church, Features, Opinion, Gospel, Dioceses - UCA News". Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  10. ^ Abella, Jerrie M. (September 19, 2010). "Excommunication awaits abortionists — Cardinal Rosales". GMANews.TV. GMA News. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
Catholic Church titles Preceded byProtacio Gungon Rector of San Carlos Seminary 1980–1982 Succeeded byRamon Arguelles Preceded byFrancisco F. Claver Bishop of Malaybalay 1984–1992 Succeeded byHonesto Chaves Pacana, SJ Preceded byMariano Gaviola y Garcés Archbishop of Lipa 1991–2003 Succeeded byRamon Arguelles Preceded byJaime Sin Archbishop of Manila 2003–2011 Succeeded byLuis Antonio Tagle VacantTitle last held byPaulos Tzadua Cardinal-Priest of SS. Nome di Maria in Via Latina 2006–present Incumbent