Archdiocese of Cebu

Archidioecesis Sanctissimi Nominis Iesu sive Cæbuana

  • Arkidiyosesis sa Labing Balaan nga Ngalan ni Jesus sa Sugbo
  • Arquidiócesis del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús de Cebú
Coat of arms of the Archdiocese of Cebu (2022).svg
Coat of arms
Location
CountryPhilippines
TerritoryCebu
Ecclesiastical provinceCebu
Statistics
Area5,088 km2 (1,964 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics (including non-members)
(as of 2014)
4,609,590
4,079,738 (88.5%)
Parishes
Information
DenominationCatholic
Sui iuris churchLatin Church
RiteRoman Rite
Established
  • August 14, 1595 (Diocese)
  • April 28, 1934 (Archdiocese)
CathedralCathedral of Saint Vitalis, Cebu City
Patron saint
Current leadership
PopeFrancis
Metropolitan ArchbishopJose Serofia Palma
Auxiliary Bishops
  • Midyphil B. Billones
  • Ruben C. Labajo
Vicar GeneralMsgr. Vicente Rey Penagunda
Bishops emeritus
Map
Jurisdiction of the metropolitan see

Jurisdiction of the metropolitan see
Website
archdioceseofcebu.ph

The Archdiocese of Cebu (more formally the Archdiocese of the Most Holy Name of Jesus in Cebu; Latin: Archidioecesis Sanctissimi Nominis Iesu seu Cæbuana; Filipino: Arkidiyosesis ng Cebu; Cebuano: Arkidiyosesis sa Sugbo; Spanish: Arzobispado del Santisimo Nombre de Jesus) is a Roman Rite archdiocese of the Catholic Church in the Philippines and one of the ecclesiastical provinces of the Catholic Church in the country. It is composed of the entire civil province of Cebu (Cebu and the nearby islands of Mactan, Bantayan, and Camotes).[3][4][5][6] It is the Mother Church of the Philippines.[7][3][4][5][6] The jurisdiction, Cebu, is considered as the fount of Christianity in the Far East.[3][4][5][6][8][9][10]

The seat of the archdiocese is the Metropolitan Cathedral and Parish of Saint Vitalis and of the Immaculate Conception, more commonly known as the Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral. The archdiocese honors Our Lady of Guadalupe de Cebú as its patroness, St. Vitalis of Milan as its patron and titular, while the second Filipino saint Pedro Calungsod as its secondary patron saint. The current archbishop is the Most Reverend José Serofia Palma, DD, STh.D, who was installed on January 13, 2011. As of 2013, the archdiocese registered a total of 4,609,590 baptized Catholics.[11] It is currently the largest archdiocese in the Philippines and in Asia having the most Catholics, seminarians and priests.[12]

Ecclesiastical Province

Its Ecclesiastical province comprises the Metropolitan's own Archbishopric and the following Suffragan sees :

History

Antecedents

The history of the future Archdiocese of Cebu began with the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Cebu in 1521.[13] The Church anchored in that year[14] by the native Cebuanos' profession of faith in Christ,[15] baptism,[16] the daily celebration of the Mass,[17] and the chaplain of the expedition, Fr. Pedro Valderrama being the legitimate pastor for their spiritual needs. However, immediately after its inception during the aftermath of Battle of Mactan, the Church of Cebu experienced decadence due to lack of shepherds to enforce and edify the natives on the faith. Most of the natives materially apostatized, while others clung unto the image of the Santo Niño (the first Christian icon in the Philippines given as a baptismal gift by Magellan). The unintended negligence lasted for 44 years until it was re-established in 1565 by the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi and Fray Andrés de Urdaneta. The remnant of the Cebuano Church in 1521, as evident in the person of Rajah Tupas, was resuscitated by the Augustinians as an Abbey nullius (an equivalent of a diocese)[18] when the formal evangelization of the Philippines commenced with Fr. Urdaneta as the first prelate.[19][20][21] The oversight of the natives was then succeeded to Fray Diego de Herrera who would later re-baptized Tupas and his servants in 1568. Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi established his government in Cebu, thus the first capital of the Philippines.

The Church expanded from Cebu when the remaining missionaries led by Fr. Diego de Herrera when they were forced northwest temporarily due to conflict with the Portuguese and laid the foundations of the Christian community in the Panay in around 1569.[3][6]

In 1570 the second batch of missionaries reached Cebu. The island became the ecclesiastical "seat" as it was the center for evangelization. A notable missionary was Fr. Alfonso Jimenez, O.S.A., who travelled and penetrated the Camarines region through the islands of Masbate, Leyte, Samar, and Burias and founded the Church there. He was called the first apostle of the region.[3][6]

By 1571, Fr. Herrera who was assigned as chaplain of Legazpi, from Panay advanced further north and founded the local Church community in Manila. There, Legazpi transferred the seat of government though Cebu remained the spiritual capital of the country.[3][6]

In 1572 the Spaniards led by Juan de Salcedo marched from Manila further north with the second batch of Augustinian missionaries and pioneered the evangelization to the communities in the Ilocos (starting with Vigan) and the Cagayan regions.[3][6]

Diocese of Cebu

On February 6, 1579, the Philippines' first diocese, the Diocese of Manila, had been established as a suffragan of the See of Mexico. On August 14, 1595, Pope Clement VIII issued four bulls to Spain: one with the incipit Super universas orbis ecclesias[22] elevating the See of Manila to metropolitan status; and three with the incipit Super specula militantis Ecclesiae[23] erecting the three suffragan dioceses of Manila, which were the Diocese of Cebu, the Diocese of Nueva Cáceres, and the Diocese of Nueva Segovia.[24] The Diocese of Cebu's first bishop was Pedro de Agurto, an Augustinian.[3][24] As a diocese, Cebú had a very extensive territory which then included the whole of the Visayas, Mindanao[13] and "more southern islands";[25] also it extended farther to the Pacific such as the Marianas,[26] Carolines, and Palau.[27]

However it lost territory repeatedly:

Archdiocese of Cebu

On April 28, 1934, Pope Pius XI promulgated an apostolic constitution with the incipit Romanorum Pontificum semper separating the dioceses of Cebu, Calbayog, Jaro, Bacolod, Zamboanga and Cagayan de Oro from the ecclesiastical province of Manila. The same constitution elevated the diocese into an archdiocese while placing all the newly separated dioceses under a new ecclesiastical province with Cebu as the new metropolitan see.[28] The last suffragan bishop, Gabriel M. Reyes, was promoted as its first Archbishop.

On November 8, 1941, it lost territory to establish Diocese of Tagbilaran as its suffragan.

Cebu was visited by Pope John Paul II in 1981. Between November 10, 1985 to March 1, 1986, the archdiocese held its Fourth Diocesan Synod of Cebu at the Seminaryo Mayor de San Carlos. Recently, It hosted the 51st International Eucharistic Congress from January 24 to 31, 2016.

Beginnings of Philippine Christian Tradition

In Cebu the first baptism was made (April 14, 1521), hence, Rajah Humabon and the rest of the natives became the very first Filipino Christians. In the island also was the first Mass in which Filipino converts participated. Also in the territory the first resistance against the Mohammedan advance from the south.[29] The first Philippine Christian feast dedicated to the Sto. Niño was instituted and celebrated there. The first recorded confession and the last rites of an accused inhabitant transpired.[30] The very first temples were erected (the Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral and Basilica del Santo Niño) in the Philippines.[31] The first Christian Marriage transpired with Isabel, the niece of Rajah Tupas and Andres, the Greek caulker of Legazpi, and their children baptized representing the first infant baptisms.[32]

Coat of Arms

The ecclesiastical arms of the Archdiocese of Cebu was redesigned by a professional Italian Heraldic artist, Sig. Marco Foppoli, as commissioned by the priests-secretaries of the Office of the Archbishop in the first quarter of 2021, with the facilitation and benefaction of Rev. Msgr. Jan Thomas V. Limchua.

The re-designed coat of arms of the Archdiocese consists of a simple yet traditional shield, which is the most commonly used form in ecclesiastical heraldry. In a chapé (“mantled”) ployé partition, which is formed by two arched lines drawn from the center chief to the sides, the shield itself is divided into two fields: the upper field, in red (gules); and the lower field, in blue (azure).

The upper field of red represents the Sñr. Sto. Niño de Cebu (Bato Balani sa Gugma, or Magnet of Love), whose very image, which at first was a gift during the First Baptism five hundred (500) years ago, has now become the symbol of Faith in Cebu.

On this same field are two lions: the first lion, in gold, is emblazoned with the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Castile; while the other, in silver, is emblazoned with the personal coat of arms of Ferdinand Magellan—these two elements were present in the original coat of arms granted to the Archdiocese. Both refer to the Hispanic origin and nascent beginning of Catholicism in Cebu, the Cradle of Christianity in the Philippines.

These two lions support the stylized monogram of the Holy Name of Jesus inside a stylized image of the sun—symbolizing Christ as the light of the world. It is deliberately placed at the top center of the arm, representing the titular of the Archdiocese. It also recalls the life and ministry of Jesus in the words of St. Paul (Letter to the Philippians): “…he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, even death on a cross. Because of this, God greatly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bend, of those in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” (Phil. 2:7-11)

The field of red also honors the Visayan Proto-Martyr, San Pedro Calungsod.

The lower field of blue symbolizes Our Lady and her motherly mantle of love and compassion for the Cebuano faithful as also portrayed by the monogram "Auspice Maria" (Under the Protection of Mary) with a gold crown (above), a silver crescent (below), and gold gloriole (around the monogram). This imagery specifically refers to her image and title, Our Lady of Guadalupe de Cebu, through whose intercession, and by God’s grace flowing from above, has saved Cebu from the cholera epidemic of 1902. On 16 July 2006, Virgen de Guadalupe de Cebu was canonically crowned by the authority of Pope Benedict XVI as Patroness of the Archdiocese.

The upward, arrow tip-like shape of the blue field can be understood as a reminder to the Cebuano faithful that a deep devotion to the Virgin Mary inevitably leads to a greater love for her Divine Son, Our Lord. This is reminiscent of the traditional aphorism, "Ad Jesum per Mariam" (to Jesus, through Mary).

The entire shield is surmounted by the conventional heraldic elements identifying it to be the coat of arms of an Archdiocese, namely a Miter, and the crossed Crozier and Archiepiscopal Cross.

Written on a scroll, below the arms, is the Motto of the Archdiocese: “Sanctum Nomen Eius,” which means “Holy is His Name,” taken from Mary’s Magnificat (Luke 1:49). [33]

Approbations

Cebu's Basilica Minore del Sto. Niño: Mother and Head of All Churches

In the Apostolic Letter Ut Clarificetur, on the conferring the titles and privileges of the basilica, Pope Paul VI in 1965 described the Cebu's now Basilica del Santo Niño as the "Mother and Head of all Churches in the Philippines" (mater et caput... omnium ecclesiarum Insularum Philippinarum).[34] The same Paul VI also named the basilica the "symbol of the birth and growth of Christianity in the Philippines."[35]

Seat of Philippine Christianity

Pope John Paul II, in his Homily for Families in Cebu (February 19, 1981), called the island as the birthplace of the faith:

Finding myself in this important city known as the cradle of Christianity in the Philippines, I want to express my deep joy and profound thanksgiving to the Lord of history. The thought that for 450 years the light of the Gospel has shone with undimmed brightness in this land and on its people is cause for great rejoicing.[36]

Ordinaries

Prelates of Cebu

Suffragan Bishops of Cebu

Metropolitan Archbishops of Cebu

Bishop Period in Office Coat of Arms Notes
1. Gabriel M. Reyes April 28, 1934 – August 25, 1949
(15 years, 119 days)
Coat of arms of Gabriel Martelino Reyes as Archbishop of Cebu.svg
Appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Manila & Titular Archbishop of Phulli
2. Julio Cardinal Rosales y Ras December 17, 1949 – August 24, 1982
(32 years, 250 days)
Coat of arms of Julio Rosales y Ras.svg
Created Cardinal by Pope Paul VI on April 28, 1969
3.
Cardinal Ricardo Vidal.jpg
Ricardo Cardinal Vidal August 24, 1982 – October 15, 2010
(28 years, 52 days)
Coat of arms of Ricardo Jamin Vidal.svg
Created Cardinal by Pope John Paul II on May 25, 1985
4.
Archbishop Jose Palma in Traditional Roman Catholic Vestments.jpg
Jose S. Palma October 15, 2010 – Present
(12 years, 36 days)
Coat of arms of José Serofia Palma as Archbishop of Cebu (2022).svg

Auxiliary Bishops

Bishop Period in Office Titular See Coat of Arms Notes
1. Juan Durán, O. de M. † 1680 -1681 Zenopolis in Lycia
2. Juan Bautista Gorordo y Perfecto † 1909-1910 Nilopolis Succeeded as Bishop of Cebu
3. Manuel Sandalo Salvador 1960-1969 Nasbinca
Zarna (As Titular Archbishop)
4. Nicolas Mollenedo Mondejar 1970-1974 Grumentum Appointed Bishop of Romblon
5. Jesus Armamento Dosado, C.M. 1977-1979 Nabala
Coat of Arms of Jesus Dosado.svg
Appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Cagayan de Oro, later Archbishop of Ozamis
6. Angel Nacorda Lagdameo 1980-1986 Oreto
Coat of arms of Angel Lagdameo-Dgte.svg
Appointed Bishop of Dumaguete
7. Camilo Diaz Gregorio 1987-1989 Girus
Coat of arms of Camilo Diaz Gregorio as Bishop of Bacolod.svg
Appointed Bishop of Bacolod
8. Leopoldo Sumaylo Tumulak 1987-1992 Lesvi
Coat of arms of Leopoldo Sumaylo Tumulak as Bishop of Tagbilaran.svg
Appointed Bishop of Tagbilaran
9. Emilio Layon Bataclan 1990-1995; 2004-2015 Gunela (1900-1995)
Septimunicia (2004-2015)
Coat of arms of Emilio Layon Bataclan.svg
Appointed Bishop of Iligan, Reappointed as Auxiliary Bishop of Cebu
10. Antonio Racelis Rañola 1990-2003 Claternae
Coat of arms of Antonio Racelis Rañola.svg
11. Jose Serofia Palma 1997-1999 Vazari-Didda Appointed Bishop of Calbayog, later Archbishop of Cebu
12. Precioso Dacalos Cantillas 1995-1998 Vicus Caesaris Appointed Bishop of Maasin
13. John Forrosuelo Du 1997-2001 Timici Appointed Bishop of Dumaguete; later Archbishop of Palo
14. Antonieto Dumagan Cabajog 1999-2001 Reperi
Coat of arms of Antonieto Dumagan Cabajog as Auxiliary Bishop of Cebu.svg
Appointed Bishop of Surigao
15. Julito Buhisan Cortes 2001-2013 Severiana Appointed Bishop of Dumaguete
16. Isabelo Caiban Abarquez 2002-2004 Talaptula Appointed Bishop of Calbayog
17. Oscar Jaime Llaneta Florencio 2015-2019 Lestrona
Coat of arms of Oscar Jaime Llaneta Florencio.svg
Appointed Bishop of the Military Ordinariate of the Philippines
18. Dennis Cabanada Villarojo 2015-2019 Gisipa
Coat of arms of Dennis Villarojo.svg
Appointed Bishop of Malolos
19. Midyphil Bermejo Billones 2019- present Tagarata
Coat of Arms of Midyphin Billones.svg
20. Ruben Caballero Labajo 2022- present Abbir Maius
Coat of arms of Ruben Caballero Labajo.svg
Basilica Minore Sto. Niño, Cebu City.
Basilica Minore Sto. Niño, Cebu City.

Diocesan Seminaries

Rector: Rev. Fr. Allan Delima

Rector: Rev. Msgr. Joseph Tan P.C., S.T.L.

Rector: Rev. Msgr. Vicente Rey M. Penagunda, P.C., V.G.

Director: Rev. Fr. Alvin Raypan

Archdiocesan Calendar

The Calendar of the Archdiocese of Cebu is based on the General Roman Calendar and the Philippine Standard Calendar. Below are the following additions and changes to the calendar.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Most Rev. Antonia R. Rañola, D.D." Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  2. ^ "Rinunce e nomine" [Resignations and Appointments] (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 1 October 2015. B0746. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Cebu—Cradle of the Philippine Church and Seat of Far-East Christianity." International Eucharistic Congress 2016, December 4, 2014, accessed December 4, 2014, http://iec2016.ph/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Cebu%E2%80%94Cradle-of-the-Philippine-Church-and-Seat-of-Far-East-Christianity.pdf
  4. ^ a b c "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cebu".
  5. ^ a b c The Church of Cebu's Basilica del Santo Niño is named by the Vatican as "mother and head of all churches in the Philippines" (mater et caput... omnium ecclesiarum Insularum Philippinarum). See https://www.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/la/apost_letters/documents/hf_p-vi_apl_19650401_ut-clarificetur.html.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g John Kingsley Pangan, Church of the Far East (Makati: St. Pauls, 2016),
  7. ^ "[T]here was founded in Zebu . . . the church and ecclesiastical community of these islands" The Philippine Islands 1493-1803, vol. 23, eds. Emma H. Blair, James A. Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903), 209.
  8. ^ "Cebu & Philippines". July 2014.
  9. ^ "Cebu Archdiocese Philippines | Archdiocese of Cebu Philippines | Ucanews". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  10. ^ "'Cradle of Christianity' or 'Seat of Christianity' in the Far East? | Philippine Church History". Archived from the original on 2016-10-13. Retrieved 2014-12-29.
  11. ^ Cebu (Archdiocese) [Catholic-Hierarchy]
  12. ^ "Archdiocese of Cebu". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  13. ^ a b "History : The Official Website of Cebu Archdiocese". Archived from the original on 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  14. ^ Carmelo D. F. Morelos, "'Go… Make Disciples!' – A Pastoral Letter on the Fourth Centenary of the Archdioceses of Manila, Cebu, Cáceres, Nueva Segovia," Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, January 29, 1994, accessed September 6, 2014, http://cbcponline.net/v2/?p=8078
  15. ^ Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan’s Voyage Around the World, vol. 1, trans. James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 159.
  16. ^ Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan’s Voyage Around the World, vol. 1, trans. James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 151-155.
  17. ^ Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan’s Voyage Around the World, vol. 1, trans. James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 157.
  18. ^ gcatholic.org
  19. ^ The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, vol. 2, eds. Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903), 33, note 5.
  20. ^ Blair, Emma Helen; Robertson, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 vol. 2. Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company. p. 168.
  21. ^ Bartholomé de Letona, OSF, The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, vol. 36, eds. Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 210.
  22. ^ Siniculus. "Dei praesidio fultus: Philippine Bullary I".
  23. ^ Siniculus. "Dei praesidio fultus: Philippine Bullary II".
  24. ^ a b Philippine Star: "Fray Pedro de Agurto, OSA: The first Bishop of Cebu" By Fr. Ric Anthony Reyes, OSA (The Freeman) October 12, 2014
  25. ^ The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 — Volume 12 of 55 Summary.
  26. ^ "Archdiocese of Cebu, Philippines".
  27. ^ Felipe Redondo y Sendino, Breve reseña de lo que fue y de lo que es la Diócesis de Cebú en las Islas Filipinas, trans. Azucena L. Pace (Cebu City: University of San Carlos Press, 2014), Breve Reseña, 74.
  28. ^ Pope Pius XI, Apostolic Constitution separating some dioceses from the ecclesiastical province of Manila to form the new ecclesiastical province of Cebu Romanorum Pontificum semper (28 April 1934), Acta Apostolicae Sedis 27 (1935), pp.263-264. PROVINCIA ECCLESIASTICA MANILANA DISMEMBRATIO ET NOVA CAEBUANA PROVINCIA ERIGITUR.
  29. ^ Juan de Medina, OSA, "Historia de la Orden de San Agustin de estas Islas Filipinas," in The Philippine Islands 1493-1803, vol. 23, eds. Emma H. Blair, James A. Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903), 185.
  30. ^ Résumé of Documents, 153.
  31. ^ Astrid Sala-Boza, "The Contested Site of the Finding of the Holy Child: Villa San Miguel or San Nicolas (Cebu El Viejo)," Philippine Quarterly of Culture Society 34, (2006): 232. www.jstor.org/stable/29792595; The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, vol. 2, eds. Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903), 121.
  32. ^ Résumé of Documents, 140-141.
  33. ^ "The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu updated their profile picture". The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu. Retrieved 2022-11-06 – via Facebook.
  34. ^ "Ut clarificetur, Litterae Apostlicae, Titulus ac privilegia Basilicae Minoris ecclesiae Sanctissimo Nomini Iesu Caebuae dicatae conferuntur, d. 1 m. Aprilis a. 1965, Paulus PP. VI | Paulus PP. VI".
  35. ^ "Radio message on the 4th centenary of the evangelization of the Philippines (May 2, 1965) | Paul VI".
  36. ^ "19 February 1981: Mass for families, Cebu City, Philippines | John Paul II".
  37. ^ Bartolomé de Letona, OSF (1662), “Description of the Filipinas Islands” in The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, vol. 34, eds. Emma H. Blair and James A. Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906), 208. "The Order of St. Augustine entered the islands in the year [1]565; its first superior, and first prelate of all the islands was Fray Andres de Urdaneta - a Vascongado,40 and a son of the convent and province of Mexico; he was the apostle who unfurled the gospel banner, and he planted the faith in the island of Zebu and others."
  38. ^ Bibliography on Legazpi and Urdaneta], Isacio R. Rodriguez, Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints(Ateneo de Manila University:1965).
  39. ^ The Philippine Islands 1493-1803, vol. 23, eds. Emma H. Blair, James A. Robertson (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903), 209. "In April of the year 1565, there was founded in Zebu (afterward being transferred to Manila) the church and ecclesiastical community of these islands; and its ordinary jurisdiction was allotted to the superiors of the Order of St. Augustine, who were the founders and apostles of this kingdom; they held that dignity up to the year of [15]77".

Notes

  1. ^ The religious superiors, in this case the Augustinians in Cebu, functioned as ordinaries in mission territories with no diocese through the papal bull Omnimodam auctoritatem nostram made by Pope Adrian VI. Thus, consequently making the first Augustinian superiors as Prelates of Cebu. Their prelacy are more historical than canonical. The modern equivalent of this is a Territorial Superior. See more in gcatholic.org.

Sources and external links

Coordinates: 10°17′45″N 123°54′11″E / 10.2958°N 123.9030°E / 10.2958; 123.9030