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|Doping in sport|
The Pittsburgh drug trials of 1985 were the catalyst for a Major League Baseball-related cocaine scandal. Several current and former members of the Pittsburgh Pirates – Dale Berra, Lee Lacy, Lee Mazzilli, John Milner, Dave Parker, Rod Scurry – and other notable major league players – Willie Aikens, Vida Blue, Enos Cabell, Keith Hernandez, Jeffrey Leonard, Tim Raines, Lonnie Smith and Alan Wiggins – were called before a Pittsburgh grand jury. Their testimony led to the drug trials, which made national headlines in September 1985.
Eleven players were officially suspended, but all the suspensions were commuted in exchange for fines, drug testing, and community service. The Pittsburgh drug trials are considered one of baseball's biggest all-time scandals, albeit one that was "behind the scenes" and did not affect play on the field.
The players were granted immunity in exchange for their testimony.
Ex-Pirate John Milner talked about getting amphetamines from Hall of Famers Willie Mays and Willie Stargell. Milner added that he bought two grams of cocaine for $200 in the bathroom stalls at Three Rivers Stadium during a Pirates–Houston Astros game in 1980. Keith Hernandez revealed he had used cocaine for three years. Hernandez later added that about 40% of all Major League Baseball players were using cocaine in the early 1980s – he quickly backtracked, however, saying that he might have been "grossly wrong." Tim Raines admitted keeping a gram of cocaine in his uniform pocket (as well as revealing that he snorted during games), and that he only slid into bases headfirst so as not to break the vial.
Testimony also revealed that Rod Scurry once left the stadium to go looking for cocaine during the late innings of a Pirates game. Drug dealers frequented the Pirates' clubhouse. Even the Pirate Parrot, Kevin Koch, was implicated for buying cocaine and introducing a few of the ballplayers to a local drug dealer.
Dealer Curtis Strong (ostensibly the Philadelphia Phillies' clubhouse caterer) and six Pittsburgh men were convicted and found guilty of 11 counts of distributing cocaine by the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania:
In September 2006, Shiffman and the former mascot Koch were interviewed on HBO's Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel in a segment entitled "Under the Influence."
On February 28, 1986, Baseball Commissioner Peter Ueberroth handed down suspensions to 11 players. All the suspensions were commuted in exchange for fines and community service. Ueberroth also asked each suspended player to submit to voluntary urine tests – ultimately, the Players Association thwarted that plea.
Seven players were determined to have been prolonged drug users who had also facilitated distribution to other players, and were suspended for a full season. The players were allowed to continue playing under the condition that they donated 10% of their base salaries to drug-abuse programs, submitted to random drug testing, and contributed 100 hours of drug-related community service.
Four players were suspended for 60 days; they were allowed to continue playing if they donated 5% of base salaries and contributed 50 hours of drug-related community service:
Ten other players were named, but not suspended or otherwise punished. They were, however, subject to random drug testing for the duration of their careers:
After the 1985 season ended, Chuck Tanner, manager of the Pirates since 1977, was fired after a 104 loss season, the worst since 1954.
In July 1987, a year and a half after the verdicts, and after Commissioner Ueberroth declared that baseball was free of drugs, Lonnie Smith told the Kansas City Times that under his agreement he was supposed to be tested six-to-eight times per year, but had not been tested to-date in 1987. More so, he strongly disagreed with Ueberroth that baseball was then drug-free.
Several players went on to rejuvenated careers in the wake of the scandal:
Others continued to struggle with substance abuse:
Serving as a precursor to those listed on the Mitchell Report not being voted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum due to steroid abuse, Hall of Fame caliber players associated with the drug trials have long been thought to be effectively blackballed from the Hall without being formally banned from baseball, possibly preventing Hernandez and Parker from being inducted, though Raines would eventually be inducted in 2017.
In 2015, the Pittsburgh drug trials were the subject of an ESPN 30 for 30 documentary.