Rose Bowl Game
Rose Bowl Game presented by Prudential
The Granddaddy of Them All
StadiumRose Bowl
LocationPasadena, California
Previous stadiumsTournament Park
(1902, 1916–1922)
Temporary venueDuke Stadium, Durham, North Carolina (1942)[a]
AT&T Stadium, Arlington, Texas (2021)[b]
Operated1902, 1916–present
Championship affiliation
Conference tie-insBig Ten (1947–present)
Previous conference tie-insPac-12 (1917–2023)
PayoutUS$35 million/conference (As of 2016)[2]
Former names
  • Tournament East–West football game (1902, 1916–1922)
  • Rose Bowl (1923–1998)
  • Rose Bowl presented by AT&T (1999–2002)
  • Rose Bowl presented by PlayStation 2 (2003)
  • Rose Bowl presented by Citi (2004–2010)
  • Rose Bowl presented by Vizio (2011–2014)
  • Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual (2015–2020)
  • Rose Bowl Game presented by Capital One (2021)
  • Rose Bowl Game presented by Capital One Venture X (2022)
2022 season matchup
Utah vs. Penn State (Penn State 35–21)
2023 season matchup
Michigan vs. Alabama (Michigan 27–20OT)

The Rose Bowl Game is an annual American college football bowl game, traditionally played on January 1 (New Year's Day) at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California. When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, the game is played on Monday, January 2. Nicknamed "The Granddaddy of Them All" by broadcaster Keith Jackson, it was the first postseason football game ever established.[3] The Rose Bowl Game was first played in 1902 as the Tournament East–West football game, and has been played annually since 1916. Since 1945, it has been the highest attended college football bowl game.[4] The game is a part of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association's "America's New Year Celebration", which also includes the historic Rose Parade. Winners of the game receive the Leishman Trophy, named for former Tournament of Roses presidents, William L. Leishman and Lathrop K. Leishman who played an important part in the history of this game.

The Rose Bowl Game has hosted the conference champions from the Big Ten and Pac-12 conferences (or their predecessors) since 1947. Since 2002, the Rose Bowl Game has occasionally deviated from its traditional matchups for use in "national championship" systems. In 2002 and 2006 (the 2001 and 2005 seasons), under the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) system, the Rose Bowl was designated as its championship game, and hosted the top two teams determined by the BCS system. Beginning in 2015, the Rose Bowl has been part of the College Football Playoff (CFP) as one of the New Year's Six bowls—the top six major bowl games in the national championship system—hosting one of the semifinal games every three years. During non-CFP years, the Rose Bowl reverts to its traditional Pac-12/Big Ten matchup, unless the champions from those conferences are selected to play in the College Football Playoff.


Originally titled the "Tournament East–West football game",[5] the first Rose Bowl was played on January 1, 1902, starting the tradition of New Year's Day bowl games. The football game was added in 1902 to help fund the cost of the Rose Parade.[6] The inaugural game featured Fielding H. Yost's dominating 1901 Michigan team, representing the East, which crushed a previously 3–1–2 team from Stanford University, representing the West, by a score of 49–0 after Stanford quit in the third quarter. Michigan finished the season 11–0 and was crowned the national champion. Yost had been Stanford's coach the previous year. The game was so lopsided that for the next thirteen years, the Tournament of Roses officials ran chariot races, ostrich races, and other various events instead of football.[7] But, on New Year's Day 1916, football returned to stay as the State College of Washington (now Washington State University) defeated Brown University in the first of what was thereafter an annual tradition.[8]

Tournament Park and Rose Bowl stadium

The very first Rose Bowl Game at Tournament park in 1902: Michigan v Stanford

Before the Rose Bowl was built, games were played in Pasadena's Tournament Park, approximately three miles (5 km) southeast of the current Rose Bowl stadium, near the campus of Caltech. Tournament Park was found to be unsuitable for the increasingly large crowds gathering to watch the game and a new, permanent home for the game was commissioned.

The Rose Bowl stadium, designed after the Yale Bowl in New Haven, hosted its first "Rose Bowl" game on January 1, 1923. The name of the stadium was alternatively "Tournament of Roses Stadium" or "Tournament of Roses Bowl", until the name "Rose Bowl" was settled on before the 1923 game.[9]

The stadium seating has been reconfigured several times since its original construction in 1922. For many years, the Rose Bowl stadium had the largest football stadium capacity in the United States, eventually being surpassed by Michigan Stadium in 1998.[10][11] The maximum stated seating capacity was 104,594 from 1972 to 1997. Capacity was lowered after the 1998 game; the 2006 game, which was also the BCS championship game, attracted a crowd of 93,986; and there were 94,118 spectators at the 2011 game between TCU and Wisconsin.[12] As of 2012, the Rose Bowl is number seven on the list of American football stadiums by capacity with a current official seating capacity of 92,542 and is still the largest stadium that hosts post-season bowl games.[13] The Rose Bowl is also the only CFP bowl game that is held in a non-NFL stadium.

Team selection 1916–1946

In the game's early years, except during World War I, the Rose Bowl always pitted a team—not necessarily the conference champion—from the Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), the predecessor of the current Pac-12 Conference, against an opponent from the Eastern U.S. During the last two years of World War I, teams from military bases met in the Rose Bowl. During its history, a number of notable matchups have been made with the top football teams and top coaches of the time. These include the 1925 game, with Knute Rockne's Notre Dame and their Four Horsemen, against "Pop" Warner's Stanford; the 1926 edition saw the Alabama Crimson Tide's win over Washington; and 1940 featured Howard Jones' USC Trojans against Bob Neyland's Tennessee Volunteers. During this period, there were ten games in which undefeated teams were matched.

World War II – 1942 venue change to Durham, North Carolina

See also: 1942 Rose Bowl and 1943 Rose Bowl

A packed Duke Stadium during the 1942 Rose Bowl

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and a series of attacks on West Coast shipping beginning on December 18,[14] there were concerns about a possible Japanese attack on the West Coast. The Rose Parade, with a million watchers, and the Rose Bowl, with 90,000 spectators, were presumed to be ideal targets for the Japanese. Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt recommended that the Rose Parade and Rose Bowl festivities be cancelled.[15][16][17] The Rose Bowl committee originally planned to cancel the game. On December 16, Duke University invited the game and Oregon State to Duke's home stadium in Durham, North Carolina.[18][19] After the 1942 Allied victory in the Battle of Midway and the end of the Japanese offensives in the Pacific Theater during 1942, it was deemed that a large portion of the West Coast was no longer vulnerable to attack, and the Rose Bowl Game continued on in the Rose Bowl stadium. The Tournament of Roses parade itself still was not held in 1943 because of the war.[20]

Big Nine–PCC agreement

During World War II, many college football schools had dropped some conference opponents and instead played football against local military base teams. Many colleges could not even field teams because of the draft and manpower requirements.[21] After the war was over, demobilization and the G.I. Bill enabled returning servicemen to attend college. The 1946 season was the first true post-war college football season with travel restrictions lifted and civilian college opponents returning to schedules.

The Big Nine and PCC were of the same accord when it came to treating players as amateurs, as compared to the semi-professional status that the Southern Universities proposed. Also, the Big Nine and PCC both had the same attitudes towards desegregation and allowing African-Americans to play football.[22] Many other universities were still segregated. None of the Southeastern Conference schools had an African American athlete until 1966. The Cotton Bowl, Orange Bowl, and Sugar Bowl would not be integrated until 1948, 1955, and 1956 respectively.[23]

The Big Nine agreed in 1946, after eight years of negotiating over payments, rules, and ticket allocations, to a five-year exclusive deal with the Rose Bowl to send the conference champion to meet the PCC champion.[24] UCLA, USC, Minnesota and Illinois all voted against it.[25] The 1947 Rose Bowl, with UCLA meeting Illinois, was the first game under this agreement.

Big Ten–AAWU/Pac-8/10/12 agreement

When the PCC dissolved prior to the 1959 season following a pay-for-play scandal in 1958, there was no official agreement in force. The Tournament of Roses selected from the former members of PCC and invited Washington, the first champion of the newly formed Athletic Association of Western Universities (AAWU), to play Big Ten champion Wisconsin in the 1960 Rose Bowl. The Big Ten authorized its members to accept any Rose Bowl invitation at their discretion.

The AAWU signed an agreement with the Rose Bowl that remained in force from the 1961 Rose Bowl until the advent of the BCS era in 1998. In 1962, after Minnesota changed its vote against pursuing a new agreement (resolving a 5–5 voting deadlock which had prevented any new negotiations for years), a Big Ten agreement was finalized, which went into effect with the 1963 Rose Bowl and lasted until the BCS era.

While the Big Ten supplied the "East" representative and the PCC, AAWU, or Pac-8/10 supplied the "West" representative from the 1947 Rose Bowl to the BCS era, an "exclusive" Rose Bowl agreement did not exist throughout this period. In particular, the Big Ten was not part of any agreement for at least the 1961 and 1962 games. In particular, the 1961 Big Ten champion Ohio State, declined the invitation to play in the 1962 game without penalty.[26][27][28]

The AAWU used "Big Five", "Big Six", and "Pacific-8" as unofficial nicknames (each reflecting the number of conference members). It officially adopted the "Pacific-8" name for the 1968 season. The name changed to "Pacific-10" with the arrival of Arizona and Arizona State in 1978, its last official name change prior to the formation of the BCS in 1998. The Big Ten Conference retained the same name throughout this period, even though it had eleven members by the start of the BCS era because of the addition of Penn State in 1990.

Both conferences had a "no repeat" rule in force for a number of years. Under this rule, any team that had appeared in the Rose Bowl game the previous season could not go, even if they were the conference champion. The notable exception was Minnesota playing in the 1961 and 1962 games during the period when the conference agreements were in a state of flux. Second-ranked Ohio State did not participate because its faculty council voted it down,[26][27][28] allowing Minnesota to return.[29] The PCC's rule went into effect following California's third straight defeat in 1951 and ended with conference's disbandment in the summer of 1959; it affected the 1955 and 1958 games. The Big Ten abolished their rule in 1972; it had recently affected the 1966 game. Southern California played in four consecutive Rose Bowl games from 1967 to 1970; Ohio State played in four straight from 1973 to 1976.

Both conferences also had "exclusive agreements" with the Rose Bowl game, in the sense that member schools were not allowed to play in any other bowl game. Both conferences abolished this rule before the 1975 NCAA Division I football season. As a result, Michigan and USC were allowed to play in the 1976 Orange Bowl and the 1975 Liberty Bowl, respectively.

Bowl Championship Series

The Rose Bowl with the banners for the Rose Bowl Game (the right scoreboard had been removed during the 2011 renovation)
Stanford defeated Wisconsin 20–14 in the 2013 Rose Bowl on January 1, 2013

As of the 1998 season, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS), team selection for the Rose Bowl was tied to the other three BCS bowls, although in any given year the Rose Bowl still attempted, if possible, to maintain the traditional Pac-10 (Pac-12 after the addition of Utah and Colorado in 2011) versus Big Ten format (though if the champion from either or both conference was ranked BCS #1 or #2, they were allowed into the national championship game and were replaced by another team, typically from the same conference as the team being replaced). Twice in this era, the Rose Bowl had served as the BCS championship game.

The 2002 game served as the BCS championship game between the BCS No. 1–ranked Miami, then a member of the Big East Conference, and the BCS No. 2–ranked Nebraska, then a member of the Big 12 Conference. The Nebraska selection as the BCS No. 2 team was controversial because Oregon was ranked No. 2 in both the AP and Coaches Polls, while Nebraska was ranked No. 4 in both polls and did not play in its conference championship game (No. 3 Colorado, who would play Oregon in that year's Fiesta Bowl, did and won the Big 12's automatic bid to the BCS). This prevented a West Coast team playing in the Rose Bowl for the first time, and it also marked the first matchup since 1946 not to feature the traditional pairing of Pac-10 vs. Big Ten teams.

The 2006 Rose Bowl game featured offensive powerhouses Texas, riding a 19-game winning streak, and USC, which entered the game with a 34-game winning streak and two Heisman Trophy winners. Texas won 41–38. The game had a television viewership of 35.6 million,[30] the highest for college football contest since the 1987 Fiesta Bowl between Penn State and Miami.

On two other occasions during the BCS era, Rose Bowl participation had expanded beyond the Big Ten and Pac-10. The 2003 Rose Bowl couldn't select Big Ten co-champion and automatic qualifier Ohio State, who finished No. 2 in the BCS and thus received a bid to the Fiesta Bowl to play for the national championship. The Rose Bowl was poised to select Big Ten co-champion Iowa as an at-large in order to preserve the traditional Big Ten/Pac-10 match up. However, the Orange Bowl, which selected ahead of the Rose Bowl that year, chose the Hawkeyes. As a result, the Rose Bowl featured the first appearance by Oklahoma, who faced Pac-10 Champion Washington State. The 2005 game featured Texas of the Big 12 Conference, selected, amid some controversy, over California of the Pac-10, marking the second time a West Coast team did not make the Rose Bowl. The controversy was the result of the BCS computer rankings which elevated Texas over California. Texas went on to defeat Michigan in the 2005 game, featuring a four-touchdown performance by Vince Young, foreshadowing his 467-yard performance a year later in the 2006 defeat of USC that won the National Title for Texas.

The 2004 game is also noteworthy. In this game, USC defeated Michigan, 28–14, thus earning the top ranking in the AP Poll and a share of the national championship with BCS champion LSU. USC, despite being No. 1 in the AP poll, did not qualify for the BCS championship game because of their standing in the BCS system.

The second BCS-era Rose Bowl arrangement ran from 2004 through 2014. The Big Ten and Pac-12 (the new name of the Pac-10) retained their bids, but a provision was inserted mandating that the first time that either conference could not fill their bid (because a school from the Big Ten or Pac-12 qualifies for the BCS National Championship Game), and if a non-BCS conference school qualified, the Rose Bowl was required to take that school.[31] As a result, Texas Christian University (TCU) became the first team from a non-automatic qualifying conference to play in the Rose Bowl in the BCS era. The 2010 TCU Horned Frogs finished their second consecutive regular season at 12–0, were back-to-back champions of the Mountain West Conference, and ranked No. 3 in the final BCS Poll. TCU defeated No. 5 Wisconsin 21–19 in the 2011 Rose Bowl. TCU's appearance satisfied the 'first time' clause of the agreement.

The 100th Rose Bowl Game featured a traditional pairing of Big Ten champion versus Pac-12 champion, with Michigan State playing against Stanford on January 1, 2014. Michigan State won the game, 24–20.

The Bowl Championship Series format ended with the 2014 BCS National Championship Game, played at the Rose Bowl Stadium on January 6.

College Football Playoff

The BCS was replaced by the College Football Playoff (CFP) in 2014, seeding four teams into two national semifinal games, leading to a championship game. As part of the arrangement, the Rose Bowl game was selected as a semifinal playoff game every three years. In years when the Rose Bowl is not part of the playoff, it takes the Pac-12 and Big Ten champions, unless one or both teams qualify for the playoff, in which case they are replaced by an alternate team from the same conference.

The first game under the new arrangement was played on January 1, 2015, and was known as the College Football Playoff semifinal at the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual. It featured the Oregon Ducks of the Pac-12 Conference and the Florida State Seminoles, the first Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) team to participate in the Rose Bowl. Oregon defeated Florida State, 59–20, ending the Seminoles' 29-game winning streak, which dated back to the end of the 2012 season. As a result, Oregon advanced to the 2015 CFP National Championship played on January 12. The 59 points were a new Rose Bowl Game scoring record for a team.

The 2016 Rose Bowl featured Pac-12 champions Stanford against Big Ten West Division champions Iowa. Stanford defeated Iowa, 45–16, scoring 35 points in the first half, the most points ever scored in the first half of a Rose Bowl. The 2017 Rose Bowl featured Penn State of the Big Ten and USC of the Pac-12. Penn State set a record for the most points score by a losing team in a Rose Bowl, as USC won, 52–49.

In the 2018 Rose Bowl, the Georgia Bulldogs (12–1) defeated the Oklahoma Sooners (12–1), 54–48, in double overtime in a semifinal playoff game to advance to the 2018 CFP National Championship game. It was the first Rose Bowl game to go into overtime. The 2024 Rose Bowl, also a semifinal playoff game, became the second Rose Bowl game requiring overtime, as Michigan (13–0) defeated Alabama (12–1), 27–20.

COVID-19 — 2021 venue change to Arlington, Texas

Main article: 2021 Rose Bowl

In early December 2020, it was announced that the 2021 Rose Bowl, a CFP semifinal game, would be contested behind closed doors without fans, due to California Governor Gavin Newsom's orders in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in California.[32] This was met with criticism,[33] including from Notre Dame head coach Brian Kelly, who wanted players' families to be allowed to attend.[34] On December 19, it was reported that a request by the Tournament of Roses to the State of California, requesting a special exemption to allow some fans to attend, was denied.[35] Later that day, the CFP announced that the semifinal game would be moved from Pasadena to AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas.[36] It was not immediately clear if the game would still be called the Rose Bowl.[37] A press release from the Pasadena Tournament of Roses stated:[38]

"It is not yet determined if the CFP semifinal in Dallas will be called the CFP Semifinal at the Rose Bowl Game presented by Capital One. The name is a part of the Master License Agreement and is co-owned by the Pasadena Tournament of Roses and the City of Pasadena."

On December 30, the City of Pasadena and the Tournament of Roses announced that the game in Arlington could use the Rose Bowl name.[39] The only prior instance of the game being played outside of Pasadena was the 1942 edition.[35]

Sponsorship and broadcasting rights


Large card stunt[40] in 2004

For many years the Rose Bowl eschewed sponsorship, but in 1999, it became "The Rose Bowl Game presented by AT&T." Unlike the other bowl games, the sponsor was not added to the title of the game, but instead as a presenter.[41] In 2002 it was branded The Rose Bowl Game presented by PlayStation 2. From 2003 to 2010, after the agreement with Sony expired, the game was presented by Citi.

In June 2010, Citi decided to end sponsorship of the Rose Bowl games, including the National Championship game.[42] In October 2010, HDTV maker Vizio signed a 4-year contract to be the official sponsor of the Rose Bowl games through 2014.[43][44] After Vizio declined to renew sponsorship in 2014, financial services giant Northwestern Mutual became the new presenting sponsor.[45] From 2015 to 2020, the game was sponsored by Northwestern Mutual and officially known as the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual.[46][47]

The 2021 edition, sponsored by Capital One, was officially known as the Rose Bowl Game presented by Capital One.[48] As the sponsor of the 2021 Orange Bowl, Capital One became the first company to sponsor two New Year's Six bowls. Capital One continued their sponsorship of the game, with the 2022 edition officially being named the Rose Bowl Game presented by Capital One Venture X after the company's travel rewards credit card.[49]

Prudential Financial became the new sponsor of the Rose Bowl in 2023 and will continue until the 2026 game.[50]


Main article: List of Rose Bowl Game broadcasters

The Rose Bowl was first televised in 1947 on W6XYZ,[51] an experimental station in Los Angeles that would eventually become KTLA.[52] The 1952 game was the first nationally televised bowl game and the first nationally televised college game of any sport.[53] From 1952 to 1988,[54] the Rose Bowl was televised by NBC at 2 p.m. PST, and in most years was the only New Year's Day bowl airing at that time. The 1956 Rose Bowl has the highest TV rating of all college bowl games, watched by 41.1% of all people in the US with TV sets.[55] The 1962 game was the first college football game broadcast in color. Television ratings for the Rose Bowl declined as the number of bowl games increased.[55] The other bowl games also provided more compelling match-ups, with higher-ranked teams.[55] In 1988, NBC gave up the broadcast rights, as the television share dropped in 1987 below 20.[55]

From 1989 to 2010, the game was broadcast on ABC, usually at 2 p.m. PST.[55] The first 9-year contract in 1988 started at about $11 million, which is what NBC had been paying.[55] The 2002 Rose Bowl was the first broadcast not set at the traditional 2:00pm West Coast time.[56] The visual of the afternoon sun setting on the San Gabriel Mountains on New Year's Day is recognized as an important part of the tradition of the game.[57][58]

The 2005 edition was the first one broadcast in HDTV. Beginning in 2007, Fox had the broadcast rights to the other Bowl Championship Series games, but the Rose Bowl, which negotiated its own television contract independent of the BCS, had agreed to keep the game on ABC. Beginning with the 2010 season, ESPN (majority-owned by ABC's parent company, The Walt Disney Company) now broadcasts all the BCS/CFP games, including the Rose Bowl game.[59][60] The game is also broadcast nationally by ESPN Radio and by ESPN International for Latin America. In 2013, ESPN Deportes provided the first Spanish language telecast in the U.S. of the Rose Bowl Game.[61]

The Rose Bowl game contract with ESPN was extended on June 28, 2012, to 2026, for a reportedly $80 million per year.[62][63]

Game results

Winners appear in boldface while italics denote a tie game.

Team rankings entering games for which the Rose Bowl was designated a CFP semifinal are taken from CFP rankings. Otherwise, rankings are taken from the AP Poll (inaugurated in 1936, prior to the 1937 Rose Bowl) before each game was played.

Date played West / Pac-12 East / Big Ten Attendance Notes
January 1, 1902 Stanford 0 Michigan 49 8,000 notes
January 1, 1916 Washington State 14 Brown 0 7,000 notes
January 1, 1917 Oregon 14 Penn 0 26,000 notes
January 1, 1918[c] Mare Island – USMC 19 Camp Lewis – US Army 7 25,000 notes
January 1, 1919[c] Mare Island – USMC 0 Great Lakes – US Navy 17 25,000 notes
January 1, 1920 Oregon 6 Harvard 7 30,000 notes
January 1, 1921 California 28 Ohio State 0 42,000 notes
January 2, 1922 California 0 Washington & Jefferson 0 40,000 notes
January 1, 1923 USC 14 Penn State 3 43,000 notes
January 1, 1924 Washington 14 Navy 14 40,000 notes
January 1, 1925 Stanford 10 Notre Dame 27 53,000 notes
January 1, 1926 Washington 19 Alabama 20 50,000 notes
January 1, 1927 Stanford 7 Alabama 7 57,417 notes
January 2, 1928 Stanford 7 Pittsburgh 6 65,000 notes
January 1, 1929 California 7 Georgia Tech 8 66,604 notes
January 1, 1930 USC 47 Pittsburgh 14 72,000 notes
January 1, 1931 Washington State 0 Alabama 24 60,000 notes
January 1, 1932 USC 21 Tulane 12 75,562 notes
January 2, 1933 USC 35 Pittsburgh 0 78,874 notes
January 1, 1934 Stanford 0 Columbia 7 35,000 notes
January 1, 1935 Stanford 13 Alabama 29 84,474 notes
January 1, 1936 Stanford 7 SMU 0 84,474 notes
January 1, 1937 #5 Washington 0 #3 Pittsburgh 21 87,196 notes
January 1, 1938 #2 California 13 #4 Alabama 0 90,000 notes
January 2, 1939 #7 USC 7 #3 Duke 3 89,452 notes
January 1, 1940 #3 USC 14 #2 Tennessee 0 92,200 notes
January 1, 1941 #2 Stanford 21 #7 Nebraska 13 91,500 notes
January 1, 1942 #12 Oregon State 20 #2 Duke 16 56,000[a] notes
January 1, 1943 #13 UCLA 0 #2 Georgia 9 93,000 notes
January 1, 1944 USC 29 #12 Washington 0 68,000 notes
January 1, 1945 #7 USC 25 #12 Tennessee 0 91,000 notes
January 1, 1946 #11 USC 14 #3 Alabama 34 93,000 notes
January 1, 1947 #4 UCLA 14 #5 Illinois 45 90,000 notes
January 1, 1948 #8 USC 0 #2 Michigan 49 93,000 notes
January 1, 1949 #4 California 14 #7 Northwestern 20 93,000 notes
January 2, 1950 #3 California 14 #6 Ohio State 17 100,963 notes
January 1, 1951 #5 California 6 #9 Michigan 14 98,939 notes
January 1, 1952 #7 Stanford 7 #4 Illinois 40 96,825 notes
January 1, 1953 #5 USC 7 #11 Wisconsin 0 101,500 notes
January 1, 1954 #5 UCLA 20 #3 Michigan State 28 101,000 notes
January 1, 1955 #17 USC 7 #1 Ohio State 20 89,191 notes
January 2, 1956 #4 UCLA 14 #2 Michigan State 17 100,809 notes
January 1, 1957 #10 Oregon State 19 #3 Iowa 35 97,126 notes
January 1, 1958 Oregon 7 #2 Ohio State 10 98,202 notes
January 1, 1959 #16 California 12 #2 Iowa 38 98,297 notes
January 1, 1960 #8 Washington 44 #6 Wisconsin 8 100,809 notes
January 2, 1961 #6 Washington 17 #1 Minnesota 7 97,314 notes
January 1, 1962 #16 UCLA 3 #6 Minnesota 21 98,214 notes
January 1, 1963 #1 USC 42 #2 Wisconsin 37 98,698 notes
January 1, 1964 Washington 7 #3 Illinois 17 96,957 notes
January 1, 1965 #8 Oregon State 7 #4 Michigan 34 100,423 notes
January 1, 1966 #5 UCLA 14 #1 Michigan State 12 100,087 notes
January 2, 1967 USC 13 #7 Purdue 14 100,807 notes
January 1, 1968 #1 USC 14 #4 Indiana 3 102,946 notes
January 1, 1969 #2 USC 16 #1 Ohio State 27 102,063 notes
January 1, 1970 #5 USC 10 #7 Michigan 3 103,878 notes
January 1, 1971 #12 Stanford 27 #2 Ohio State 17 103,839 notes
January 1, 1972 #16 Stanford 13 #4 Michigan 12 103,154 notes
January 1, 1973 #1 USC 42 #3 Ohio State 17 106,869 notes
January 1, 1974 #7 USC 21 #4 Ohio State 42 105,267 notes
January 1, 1975 #5 USC 18 #3 Ohio State 17 106,721 notes
January 1, 1976 #11 UCLA 23 #1 Ohio State 10 105,464 notes
January 1, 1977 #3 USC 14 #2 Michigan 6 106,182 notes
January 2, 1978 #13 Washington 27 #4 Michigan 20 105,312 notes
January 1, 1979 #3 USC 17 #5 Michigan 10 105,629 notes
January 1, 1980 #3 USC 17 #1 Ohio State 16 105,526 notes
January 1, 1981 #16 Washington 6 #5 Michigan 23 104,863 notes
January 1, 1982 #12 Washington 28 #13 Iowa 0 105,611 notes
January 1, 1983 #5 UCLA 24 #19 Michigan 14 104,991 notes
January 2, 1984 UCLA 45 #4 Illinois 9 103,217 notes
January 1, 1985 #18 USC 20 #6 Ohio State 17 102,594 notes
January 1, 1986 #13 UCLA 45 #4 Iowa 28 103,292 notes
January 1, 1987 #7 Arizona State 22 #4 Michigan 15 103,168 notes
January 1, 1988 #16 USC 17 #8 Michigan State 20 103,847 notes
January 2, 1989 #5 USC 14 #11 Michigan 22 101,688 notes
January 1, 1990 #12 USC 17 #3 Michigan 10 103,450 notes
January 1, 1991 #8 Washington 46 #17 Iowa 34 101,273 notes
January 1, 1992 #2 Washington 34 #4 Michigan 14 103,566 notes
January 1, 1993 #9 Washington 31 #7 Michigan 38 94,236 notes
January 1, 1994 #14 UCLA 16 #9 Wisconsin 21 101,237 notes
January 2, 1995 #12 Oregon 20 #2 Penn State 38 102,247 notes
January 1, 1996 #17 USC 41 #3 Northwestern 32 100,102 notes
January 1, 1997 #2 Arizona State 17 #4 Ohio State 20 100,635 notes
January 1, 1998 #8 Washington State 16 #1 Michigan 21 101,219 notes
January 1, 1999 #6 UCLA 31 #9 Wisconsin 38 93,872 notes
January 1, 2000 #22 Stanford 9 #4 Wisconsin 17 93,731 notes
January 1, 2001 #4 Washington 34 #14 Purdue 24 94,392 notes
January 3, 2002BCS #4 Nebraska 14 #1 Miami (FL) 37 93,781 notes
January 1, 2003 #7 Washington State 14 #8 Oklahoma 34 86,848 notes
January 1, 2004 #1 USC 28 #4 Michigan 14 93,849 notes
January 1, 2005 #6 Texas 38 #13 Michigan 37 93,468 notes
January 4, 2006BCS #1 USC 38 #2 Texas 41 93,986 notes
January 1, 2007 #8 USC 32 #3 Michigan 18 93,852 notes
January 1, 2008 #6 USC 49 #13 Illinois 17 93,923 notes
January 1, 2009 #5 USC 38 #6 Penn State 24 93,293 notes
January 1, 2010 #7 Oregon 17 #8 Ohio State 26 93,963 notes
January 1, 2011 #3 TCU 21 #4 Wisconsin 19 94,118 notes
January 2, 2012 #6 Oregon 45 #9 Wisconsin 38 91,245 notes
January 1, 2013 #8 Stanford 20 #23 Wisconsin 14 93,359 notes
January 1, 2014 #5 Stanford 20 #4 Michigan State 24 95,173 notes
January 1, 2015CFP #2 Oregon 59 #3 Florida State 20 91,322 notes
January 1, 2016 #5 Stanford 45 #6 Iowa 16 94,268 notes
January 2, 2017 #9 USC 52 #5 Penn State 49 95,128 notes
January 1, 2018CFP #2 Oklahoma 48 (2OT) #3 Georgia 54 92,844 notes
January 1, 2019 #9 Washington 23 #5 Ohio State 28 91,853 notes
January 1, 2020 #7 Oregon 28 #11 Wisconsin 27 90,462 notes
January 1, 2021CFP #1 Alabama 31 #4 Notre Dame 14 18,373[b] notes
January 1, 2022 #10 Utah 45 #7 Ohio State 48 87,842 notes
January 2, 2023 #7 Utah 21 #9 Penn State 35 94,873 notes
January 1, 2024CFP #4 Alabama 20 (OT) #1 Michigan 27 96,371 notes


^BCS Denotes BCS National Championship Game
^CFP Denotes College Football Playoff semifinal game
  1. ^ a b The 1942 game was played in Duke Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, because of a restriction on crowds allowed on the West Coast after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  2. ^ a b The 2021 game was moved to Arlington, Texas, shortly after event organizers were unable to receive an exception from the state of California to allow fan attendance during the COVID-19 pandemic.[1]
  3. ^ a b During World War I, military teams played

Future games

Main article: New Year's Six § Future games

Appearances and win–loss records

The below tables list results by teams competing as members of the Big Ten conference, Pac-12 conference, and all other participants. Included in Pac-12 results are teams who competed as a member of the Pacific Coast Conference, Pacific-8 Conference, or Pacific-10 Conference—predecessors of the Pac-12.

Updated through the January 2023 edition (109 games, 218 total appearances).

† Some teams who are members of the Pac-12 and Big Ten made appearances while not members; thus, the following results are included in the "Other teams" table:

‡ The Southeastern Conference has one current member and two former members who made additional appearances in the Rose Bowl while those schools were not members of the SEC. Alabama made additional appearances in 1926, 1927, and 1931 before becoming a charter member of the SEC in 1932. Another SEC charter member, Georgia Tech, made an appearance in 1929, and left the SEC in 1964. Tulane, also a charter member, made an appearance in 1932, prior to the SEC's establishment in December of that year. Tulane left the SEC in 1966.

Frequent participants

If there are any Big Ten teams that shoot for a national championship, they're damn fools ... You play to win the Big Ten championship, and if you win it and go to the Rose Bowl and win it, then you've had a great season.

— Bo Schembechler of Michigan, July 1989[65]

Among Pac-8/10/12 and Big Ten schools, the record for longest drought since a team's last Rose Bowl appearance is held by California (1959), followed by Minnesota (1962), Oregon State (1965), and Indiana (1968).

Among Pac-8/10/12 and Big Ten schools who have played in at least one Rose Bowl, the record for the longest period since a win is held jointly by Indiana and Nebraska, who have never won, followed by Washington State (1916), Cal (1939), Oregon State (1942), Northwestern (1949), and Iowa (1959). As of 2016, head coaches Howard Jones (5–0) and John Robinson (4–0) lead the list of undefeated Rose Bowl records.[66]

Archie Griffin of Ohio State and Brian Cushing of USC are the only players to ever start in four Rose Bowl games. Legendary coach Woody Hayes led Ohio State to the Rose Bowl from 1973 to 1976, while USC head coach Pete Carroll led the Trojans to the Rose Bowl from 2006 to 2009.

Rose Bowl records at the Hall of Champions

Current members of the Pac-12 or the Big Ten to have not appeared in the Rose Bowl are Arizona (who joined the then-Pac-10 in 1978) and Colorado (who joined the Pac-12 in 2011), and Maryland and Rutgers (who both joined the Big Ten in 2014), though California appeared in the Rose Bowl only as a member of a predecessor league to the Pac-12.[67] Similar to Cal, Nebraska played in the 1941 and 2002 games, but was not a member of the Big Ten Conference at these times. Idaho and Montana, who were members of the Pacific Coast Conference from 1922 until 1958 and 1950 respectively, never finished near the top in the PCC football standings. Former Big Ten member Chicago withdrew from the league prior to the bowl arrangement being set.

USC has played the most Big Ten schools in the Rose Bowl. As of 2016, the only opponents remaining for the Trojans are Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, and the two newest Big Ten schools that have yet to appear in the Rose Bowl: Maryland and Rutgers. Ohio State and Michigan are tied for playing the most schools in the Pac-12 in the Rose Bowl. The remaining opponents for the Buckeyes are Oregon State, Washington State, and the two Pac-12 schools that have yet to appear in the Rose Bowl: Arizona and Colorado. The remaining opponents for the Wolverines other than Arizona and Colorado are Oregon and Utah.

Common matchups

The most frequent Rose Bowl matchup is USC vs Michigan, occurring for the eighth time in 2007, with USC holding a 6–2 advantage (including rare meetings outside the Rose Bowl, USC leads this series 6–4). The next most frequent matchup is USC–Ohio State, occurring for the seventh time in 1985, with USC holding a 4–3 advantage.

Matchups that have occurred more than once:

# of Times West / Pac-12 East / Big Ten Record Years played
8 USC Michigan USC, 6–2 1948, 1970, 1977, 1979, 1989, 1990, 2004, 2007
7 USC Ohio State USC, 4–3 1955, 1969, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1980, 1985
4 Washington Michigan Tied, 2–2 1978, 1981, 1992, 1993
3 USC Penn State USC, 3–0 1923, 2009, 2017
3 UCLA Michigan State Michigan State, 2–1 1954, 1956, 1966
2 Stanford Michigan Tied, 1–1 1902, 1972
2 California Ohio State Tied, 1–1 1921, 1950
2 Stanford Alabama Alabama, 1–0–1 1927, 1935
2 USC Pittsburgh USC, 2–0 1930, 1933
2 USC Tennessee USC, 2–0 1940, 1945
2 UCLA Illinois Tied, 1–1 1947, 1984
2 USC Wisconsin USC, 2–0 1953, 1963
2 Oregon Ohio State Ohio State, 2–0 1958, 2010
2 Washington Iowa Washington, 2–0 1982, 1991
2 UCLA Wisconsin Wisconsin, 2–0 1994, 1999
2 Stanford Wisconsin Tied, 1–1 2000, 2013
2 Oregon Wisconsin Oregon, 2–0 2012, 2020

Top-ranked teams

No. 1 ranked teams at the end of the regular season that have played in the Rose Bowl game are listed below:

Twice in a season

Of the 24 bowl rematches of regular season games, five have taken place in the Rose Bowl. In three of those instances, the same team won both the regular season game and the Rose Bowl Game. UCLA won three of those five Rose Bowl games, including both instances in which a different team lost the regular season game but won the Rose Bowl Game.

Game arrangements

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2006 Rose Bowl: Texas defeated Southern California 41–38 on January 4, 2006

Beginning with the 1947 Rose Bowl, the Pacific Coast representative was the home team, and the Big Nine representative was the visitor. This arrangement would alternate each year. The stadium seating started with the Big Nine representatives in the end zone, but eventually was set with the Big Ten fans and team on the West (press box) side, and Pacific-10 fans and team on the East side. The home team wears their darkest home jerseys, and the visiting team wears the white visiting jerseys. There have been exceptions to the uniform arrangement: UCLA wore their home jerseys, light blue, in the 1962, 1966, and 1976 Rose Bowl games, with the Big Ten opponent also wearing their home uniforms.

From 1947 through 2001, the Big Ten team was the home team in odd-numbered years, and the Pac-10 team was the home team in even-numbered years. In 2003, Washington State was the home team, as a non-Big Ten or Pac-10 school (Oklahoma of the Big 12) was the opponent; the same applied in 2005, when Michigan played another Big 12 school, Texas.

Beginning with the 2002 Rose Bowl, Nebraska was home, with team and fans on the East sideline. From 2006 through 2013, the home team had been the team with the highest BCS season ending ranking. For the 2005 Rose Bowl, the Michigan team was on the East sideline; Texas was the visiting team and was on the West sideline. For the 2006 Rose Bowl, USC was the home team and Texas was the visiting team on the West sideline. Traditionally, the Big Ten (or its BCS replacement) is on the West side (press box) and the Pac-12 team is on the East side.

During the BCS era, the institution with the higher BCS ranking performed the national anthem, and performed first at halftime. With the exception of BCS championship years, the National Anthem was performed by the band. In BCS Championship years, a performer was invited to sing the Anthem, the last being LeAnn Rimes in 2006. The Rose Bowl does not have other performers (including notable recording artists) during the halftime show besides the school marching bands. As part of the television contract, a portion of each band's halftime performance is shown on television. Each school and each conference are allocated television spots to advertise. For the 100th game on January 1, 2014, Merry Clayton, Lisa Fischer, Judith Hill and Darlene Love sang the national anthem in honor of the song's 200th anniversary. This was the first time in Rose Bowl history that the anthem was performed by singers rather than by a marching band.[68] Today, the institution with the higher ranking by the CFP selection committee performs the national anthem and performs first at halftime.

The coin toss was traditionally presented by the grand marshal of the Rose Parade or the president of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association (if the grand marshal was unable to attend the game).

Player of the Game award

The Rose Bowl's most valuable player is presented the Player of the Game award.[69] The Helms Athletic Foundation created the honor, which was first awarded in the 1940s.[70] Helms executive director Bill Schroeder polled a Helms Hall Board composed of sportswriters to make the selection.[70][69] The modern award selection continues to be made in collaboration with the national media covering the game.[69]

Player of the Game honors were also awarded retroactively all the way back to the 1902 Rose Bowl.[70][69]

Occasionally, the award has been shared by two players. Four players have been named the Player of the Game of more than one Rose Bowl: Bob Schloredt, Washington (1960, 1961), Charles White, USC (1979, 1980), Ron Dayne, Wisconsin (1999, 2000), and Vince Young, Texas (2005, 2006).

Player of the Game awards, 1902, 1916–2004

Game Player of the Game[71][72] Team Position
1902 Neil Snow Michigan FB
1916 Carl Dietz Washington State FB
1917 John Beckett Oregon T
1918 Hollis Huntington Mare Island FB
1919 George Halas Great Lakes E
1920 Edward Casey Harvard HB
1921 Harold Muller California E
1922 Russell Stein Washington & Jefferson T
1923 Leo Calland USC G
1924 Ira McKee Navy QB
1925 Elmer Layden Notre Dame FB
Ernie Nevers Stanford FB
1926 Johnny Mack Brown Alabama HB
George "Wildcat" Wilson Washington HB
1927 Fred Pickhard Alabama T
1928 Clifford "Biff" Hoffman Stanford FB
1929 Benjamin Lom California HB
1930 Russell Saunders USC QB
1931 John "Monk" Campbell Alabama QB
1932 Erny Pinckert USC HB
1933 Homer Griffith USC QB
1934 Cliff Montgomery Columbia QB
1935 Millard "Dixie" Howell Alabama HB
1936 James "Monk" Moscrip Stanford E
Keith Topping E
1937 Bill Daddio Pittsburgh E
1938 Victor Bottari California HB
1939 Doyle Nave USC QB
Al Krueger E
1940 Ambrose Schindler QB
1941 Peter Kmetovic Stanford HB
1942 Donald Durdan Oregon State HB
1943 Charles Trippi Georgia HB
1944 Norman Verry USC G
1945 Jim Hardy QB
1946 Harry Gilmer Alabama HB
1947 Claude "Buddy" Young Illinois HB
Julius Rykovich HB
1948 Bob Chappuis Michigan HB
1949 Frank Aschenbrenner Northwestern HB
1950 Fred "Curly" Morrison Ohio State FB
1951 Don Dufek Michigan FB
1952 William Tate Illinois HB
1953 Rudy Bukich USC QB
1954 Billy Wells Michigan State HB
1955 Dave Leggett Ohio State QB
1956 Walter Kowalczyk Michigan State HB
1957 Kenneth Ploen Iowa QB
1958 Jack Crabtree Oregon QB
1959 Bob Jeter Iowa HB
1960 Bob Schloredt Washington QB
George Fleming HB
1961 Bob Schloredt QB
1962 Sandy Stephens Minnesota QB
1963 Pete Beathard USC QB
Ron Vander Kelen Wisconsin QB
1964 Jim Grabowski Illinois FB
1965 Mel Anthony Michigan FB
1966 Bob Stiles UCLA DB
1967 John Charles Purdue DB
1968 O. J. Simpson USC TB
1969 Rex Kern Ohio State QB
1970 Bob Chandler USC FL
1971 Jim Plunkett Stanford QB
1972 Don Bunce QB
1973 Sam Cunningham USC FB
1974 Cornelius Greene Ohio State QB
1975 Pat Haden USC QB
John McKay Jr. SE
1976 John Sciarra UCLA QB
1977 Vince Evans USC QB
1978 Warren Moon Washington QB
1979 Charles White USC TB
Rick Leach Michigan QB
1980 Charles White USC TB
1981 Butch Woolfolk Michigan RB
1982 Jacque Robinson Washington RB
1983 Don Rogers UCLA FS
Tom Ramsey QB
1984 Rick Neuheisel QB
1985 Tim Green USC QB
Jack Del Rio LB
1986 Eric Ball UCLA TB
1987 Jeff Van Raaphorst Arizona State QB
1988 Percy Snow Michigan State LB
1989 Leroy Hoard Michigan FB
1990 Ricky Ervins USC TB
1991 Mark Brunell Washington QB
1992 Steve Emtman DT
Billy Joe Hobert QB
1993 Tyrone Wheatley Michigan RB
1994 Brent Moss Wisconsin RB
1995 Danny O'Neil Oregon QB
Ki-Jana Carter Penn State RB
1996 Keyshawn Johnson USC WR
1997 Joe Germaine Ohio State QB
1998 Brian Griese Michigan QB
1999 Ron Dayne Wisconsin RB
2001 Marques Tuiasosopo Washington QB
2002 Ken Dorsey Miami QB
Andre Johnson WR
2003 Nate Hybl Oklahoma QB
2004 Matt Leinart USC QB

Player of the Game awards, 2005–present

Beginning with the 2005 Rose Bowl, Player of the Game awards have been given to both an offensive and defensive player.

Game PotG — Offense[71] Team Position PotG — Defense[71] Team Position
2005 Vince Young Texas QB LaMarr Woodley Michigan LB
2006 Michael Huff Texas S
2007 Dwayne Jarrett USC WR Brian Cushing USC OLB
2008 John David Booty QB Rey Maualuga LB
2009 Mark Sanchez QB Kaluka Maiava LB
2010 Terrelle Pryor Ohio State QB Kenny Rowe Oregon DE
2011 Andy Dalton TCU QB Tank Carder TCU LB
2012 Lavasier Tuinei Oregon WR Kiko Alonso Oregon LB
2013 Stepfan Taylor Stanford RB Usua Amanam Stanford DB
2014 Connor Cook Michigan State QB Kyler Elsworth Michigan State LB
2015 Marcus Mariota Oregon QB Tony Washington Oregon LB
2016 Christian McCaffrey Stanford RB Aziz Shittu Stanford DE
2017 Sam Darnold USC QB Stevie Tu'ikolovatu USC DT
2018 Sony Michel Georgia RB Roquan Smith Georgia LB
2019 Dwayne Haskins Ohio State QB Brendon White Ohio State S
2020 Justin Herbert Oregon QB Brady Breeze Oregon S
2021 DeVonta Smith Alabama WR Patrick Surtain II Alabama CB
2022 Jaxon Smith-Njigba Ohio State WR Tommy Eichenberg Ohio State LB
2023 Sean Clifford Penn State QB Ji'Ayir Brown Penn State S
2024 J. J. McCarthy Michigan QB Mason Graham Michigan DT


Game records

Team Performance vs. opponent Year
Most points scored 59, Oregon vs. Florida State (21) 2015
Most points scored (losing team) 49, Penn State vs. USC (52) 2017
Most points scored (both teams) 102, Georgia (54) vs. Oklahoma (48) 2018
Most points scored in a half 41 (second half), Oregon vs. Florida State 2015
Most points scored in a half (both teams) 56, shared by:

(first half), Oregon vs. Wisconsin
(first half), Utah vs. Ohio State

Fewest points allowed 0, Washington vs. Iowa (tied with 17 others) 1982
Largest margin of victory 49, shared by:
Michigan (49) vs. Stanford (0)
Michigan (49) vs. USC (0)

First downs 33, USC vs Penn State 2017
Rushing yards 503, Michigan vs. Stanford 1902
Passing yards 573, Ohio State vs. Utah 2022
Total yards 683, Ohio State vs. Utah 2022
Individual Performance, team vs. opponent Year
Total offense 583, C. J. Stroud, Ohio State vs Utah 2022
Touchdowns 6, C. J. Stroud, Ohio State vs Utah 2022
Rushing yards 247, Charles White, USC vs. Ohio State (39 attempts, 1 TD) 1980
Rushing TDs 5, Neil Snow, Michigan vs. Stanford 1902
Passing yards 573, C. J. Stroud, Ohio State vs Utah (37-46-1, 6 TD) 2022
Passing TDs 6, C. J. Stroud, Ohio State vs Utah 2022
Receptions 15, Jaxon Smith-Njigba, Ohio State vs Utah 2022
Receiving yards 347, Jaxon Smith-Njigba, Ohio State vs Utah 2022
Receiving TDs 3, Marvin Harrison Jr., Ohio State vs Utah (tied with 3 others) 2022
All-purpose Yards 368, Christian McCaffrey, Stanford vs. Iowa 2016
Tackles 17, John Boyett, Oregon vs. Wisconsin (tied with 1 other) 2012
Sacks 3, Kenny Rowe, Oregon vs. Ohio State (tied with 3 others) 2010
Interceptions 3, Bill Paulman, Stanford vs. SMU (tied with 1 other) 1936
Long plays Performance, team vs. opponent Year
Touchdown run 91, De'Anthony Thomas, Oregon vs. Wisconsin 2012
Touchdown pass 88, Sean Clifford to KeAndre Lambert-Smith, Penn State vs. Utah 2023
Kickoff return 103, Al Hoisch, UCLA vs. Illinois (TD) 1947
Punt return 86, Aramis Dandoy, USC vs. Ohio State (TD) 1955
Interception return 78, Elmer Layden, Notre Dame vs. Stanford (TD) 1925
Fumble return 58, Tony Washington, Oregon vs. Florida State (TD) 2015
Punt 73, Don Bracken, Michigan vs. Washington 1981
Field goal 55, Rodrigo Blankenship, Georgia vs. Oklahoma 2018

Note: When there is a tie, the most recent one will be listed.

Rose Bowl Hall of Fame

Inductees (by year)[75]

All-Century Class

The Rose Bowl Game All-Century Class was announced on December 28, 2013.[81]

They are:

In addition to being named as All-Century representatives for their respective decades, John McKay and Archie Griffin were named the 100th Rose Bowl Game All-Century Coach and Player respectively.

The finalists:



See also


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34°09′40″N 118°10′05″W / 34.161°N 118.168°W / 34.161; -118.168