Sodium peroxide
Sodium peroxide
IUPAC name
Sodium peroxide
Other names
Disodium peroxide
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.013.828 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 215-209-4
RTECS number
  • WD3450000
UN number 1504
  • InChI=1S/2Na.O2/c;;1-2/q2*+1;-2 ☒N
  • [O-][O-].[Na+].[Na+]
Molar mass 77.98 g/mol
Appearance yellow to white powder
Density 2.805 g/cm3
Melting point 460 °C (860 °F; 733 K) (decomposes)
Boiling point 657 °C (1,215 °F; 930 K) (decomposes)
Solubility Soluble in acid
Insoluble in base
Reacts with ethanol
−28.10·10−6 cm3/mol
89.37 J/(mol·K)
95 J/(mol·K)[1]
−515 kJ·mol−1[1]
−446.9 kJ/mol
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS03: OxidizingGHS05: Corrosive
H271, H314
P210, P220, P221, P260, P264, P280, P283, P301+P330+P331, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P306+P360, P310, P321, P363, P370+P378, P371+P380+P375, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash point Non-flammable
Safety data sheet (SDS) External MSDS
Related compounds
Other cations
Lithium peroxide
Potassium peroxide
Rubidium peroxide
Caesium peroxide
Related sodium oxides
Sodium oxide
Sodium superoxide
Sodium ozonide
Related compounds
Sodium hydroxide
Hydrogen peroxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Sodium peroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Na2O2. This yellowish solid is the product of sodium ignited in excess oxygen.[3] It is a strong base. This metal peroxide exists in several hydrates and peroxyhydrates including Na2O2·2H2O2·4H2O, Na2O2·2H2O, Na2O2·2H2O2, and Na2O2·8H2O.[4] The octahydrate, which is simple to prepare, is white, in contrast to the anhydrous material.[5]


Sodium peroxide crystallizes with hexagonal symmetry.[6] Upon heating, the hexagonal form undergoes a transition into a phase of unknown symmetry at 512 °C.[7] With further heating above the 657 °C boiling point, the compound decomposes to Na2O, releasing O2.[8]

2 Na2O2 → 2 Na2O + O2


Commercially, sodium peroxide is produced from the elements in a two-stage process. First sodium is oxidized to sodium oxide:[7][9]

4Na + O2 → 2 Na2O

Subsequently, this oxide is treated with more oxygen:

2 Na2O + O2 → 2 Na2O2

It may also be produced by passing ozone gas over solid sodium iodide inside a platinum or palladium tube. The ozone oxidizes the sodium to form sodium peroxide. The iodine can be sublimed by mild heating. The platinum or palladium catalyzes the reaction and is not attacked by the sodium peroxide.

The octahydrate can be produced by treating sodium hydroxide with hydrogen peroxide.[5]


Sodium peroxide hydrolyzes to give sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide according to the reaction[9]

Na2O2 + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2O2

Sodium peroxide was used to bleach wood pulp for the production of paper and textiles. Presently it is mainly used for specialized laboratory operations, e.g., the extraction of minerals from various ores. Sodium peroxide may go by the commercial names of Solozone[7] and Flocool.[8] In chemistry preparations, sodium peroxide is used as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as an oxygen source by reacting it with carbon dioxide to produce oxygen and sodium carbonate:

Na2O2 + CO2 → Na2CO3 + 12 O2
Na2O2 + H2O + 2 CO2 → 2 NaHCO3 + 12 O2

It is thus particularly useful in scuba gear, submarines, etc. Lithium peroxide and potassium superoxide have similar uses.

Sodium peroxide was once used on a large scale for the production of sodium peroxoborate, but alternative routes to that cleaning agents have been developed.[4]


  1. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 978-0-618-94690-7.
  2. ^ "Hazard Rating Information for NFPA Fire Diamonds". Archived from the original on 2004-09-04.
  3. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1984). Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-08-022057-4.
  4. ^ a b Harald Jakob, Stefan Leininger, Thomas Lehmann, Sylvia Jacobi, Sven Gutewort. "Peroxo Compounds, Inorganic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_177.pub2.
  5. ^ a b R. A. Penneman (1950). "Potassium Sodium Peroxide 8-Hydrate". Inorg. Synth. 3: 1–4. doi:10.1002/9780470132340.ch1.
  6. ^ Tallman, R. L.; Margrave, J. L.; Bailey, S. W. (1957). "The Crystal Structure Of Sodium Peroxide". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (11): 2979–80. doi:10.1021/ja01568a087.
  7. ^ a b c Macintyre, J. E., ed. Dictionary of Inorganic Compounds, Chapman & Hall: 1992.
  8. ^ a b Lewis, R. J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 10th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 2000.
  9. ^ a b E. Dönges "Lithium and Sodium Peroxides" in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 979.