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Third World socialism is a political philosophy and variant of socialism that has been proposed by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Buddhadasa, Fidel Castro, Muammar Gaddafi, Saddam Hussein, Juan Domingo Perón, Modibo Keïta, Walter Lini, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Jawaharlal Nehru, Kwame Nkrumah, Julius Nyerere, Sukarno, Ahmed Sékou Touré and other socialist leaders of the Third World who saw socialism as the answer to a strong and developed nation.
Third World socialism is made up of African socialism, Arab socialism, Buddhist socialism, Islamic socialism, Melanesian socialism, Nasserism, and Nehruism. Gaddafi's version was more inspired in the ideas of Arab nationalism, direct democracy, strongman politics and national liberation struggle while Bhutto's was more Western-aligned and resembled, allied and inspired itself in the ideas of Western democratic socialism/social democracy and had membership in the Socialist International.
In the 21st century, the pink tide, with its anti-Americanism, connection with the less developed Eastern Europe, a unity and sense of underdevelopment among developing countries and pro-Arabism, is a new kind of Third World socialism, of which Latin American socialism of the 21st century take part as an ideologically specific form of Third Worldism.