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Nepal is a landlocked mountainous country where transportation is difficult due to the terrain.


Road is the country's primary transport mode. The Economic Survey 2014-15 released by the Ministry of Finance (Nepal), shows that the country has a total road network of 80,078 kilometres (49,758 mi), which includes 26,935 kilometres (16,737 mi) of roads constructed and being maintained by the Department of Roads and 53,143 kilometres (33,022 mi) of roads constructed by local government bodies.[1]

Road System Classification[2]
Type Description Average
speed limit
H National highways are the major roads connecting Eastern Nepal with Western Nepal, and Southern Nepal with Northern. They are designated by letter 'H' followed by a two-digit number. 80 kmph
F Feeder roads run alongside National Highways or sometimes link two highways. They are designated by letter 'F' followed by a 3-digit number. 60 kmph
D District roads sometimes link two or more districts or act as an internal road link in a district. 60 kmph
U Urban roads are freeways[clarification needed] intended to serve within a specific metro, sub-metro, municipality or rural-municipality. 40 kmph



Further information: Nepal Railways and 8 different India–Nepal cross-border rail lines

Nepal Government Railway operated a short narrow gauge railway from 1927 to 1965. Presently in 2022, there are two operational railway lines in the country, both of which connect Nepal with India: the RaxaulSirsiya and the JainagarJanakpur. The former is a 6 km (3.7 mi) line from Raxaul, India to Sirsiya Inland Container Depot (or dry port) near Birgunj, Nepal, and is primarily used for freight transport.[3] It allows container traffic to be imported to Nepal through the Sirsiya dry port container depot.[4] The latter is a 51 km (32 mi) line from Jaynagar, India to Janakpur, Nepal, and is used primarily for passenger transport.[5]

Nepal and India had agreed to construct 8 different India–Nepal cross-border rail lines, this includes linking Raxaul with Kathmandu, during Prime Minister KP Oli's visit to India.[6] A team of technical officers visited Kathmandu to study the proposed railway from Raxaul to Kathmandu and they have stated that a feasibility study of the project would begin. They have already identified Chobhar as the terminus of the 113 km-long line. [7]

China–Nepal railway is a planned line through Kathmandu, linking India with Lhasa in Tibet, has been proposed by the KP Oli government. In November 2017, Chinese media reported the arrival of a delegation of Chinese railway experts in Nepal. They discussed the possibility of a rail connection between China and Nepal.[8] In August 2018, the two sides reached an agreement on construction details of the railway.[9][10]


See also: List of airports in Nepal

There are 53 airports in Nepal as of 2020 out of which 34 are in operation. There are three international airports that serve as the aviation hubs: Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu, Gautam Buddha International Airport in Lumbini, and Pokhara International Airport in Pokhara.

Type Paved
Under 914 m (3000 feet) 31 1
914–1,523 m (3000–5000 feet) 7 1
1,524–2,437 m (5000–8000 feet) 1 0
2,437–3,047 m (8000–10,000 feet) 0 0
Over 3,047 m (over 10,000 feet) 1 0
Total 40 2

Airports redundant and not in operation


Nepal is a landlocked country with no ocean borders.[11]

Nepal's three dry ports are Birgunj, Biratnagar, and Bhairahawa.


  1. ^ "Total road length crosses 80,000km - The Himalayan Times - Nepal's No.1 English Daily Newspaper | Nepal News, Latest Politics, Business, World, Sports, Entertainment, Travel, Life Style News".
  2. ^ "Nepal Road Standard 2070 - DoR Nepal".
  3. ^ "Nepal Railway Assessment". Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  4. ^ "Introduction". Department of Customs dryport office, Government of Nepal. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Indian goods train from Jayanagar arrives in Janakpur".
  6. ^ "India And Nepal To Speed Up Raxaul-Kathmandu Rail Project". 11 July 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  7. ^ "DoR says land acquisition a major hurdle". Kantipur Publications. 24 July 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  8. ^ 中方铁路代表团赴尼泊尔开展铁路调研 (A team of Chinese railway representatives visit Nepal to initiate a railway study), 2017-11-14
  9. ^ Giri, A; Giri, S (24 August 2018). "Nepal, China agree on rail study". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  10. ^ "Nepal in talks with China to build $8 bn cross-border rail link". Times of India. May 14, 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-09-01.
  11. ^ "Transportation in Nepal : Roadways, Airways, Railways, Waterways, Ropeways". 2016-09-15. Retrieved 2017-11-08.

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from The World Factbook (2024 ed.). CIA. (Archived 2003 edition)