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Because Cyprus no longer has a working railway system, various other methods of transport are needed to ensure the proper delivery of any cargo, be it human or freight. Since the last railway was dismantled in 1952, the only remaining modes of transport are by road, by sea, and by air.

Roads

Main article: Roads and motorways in Cyprus

Night view between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Geitonia junction in Limassol

From the 12,118 kilometres (7,530 mi) of roads in the areas controlled by the Republic of Cyprus in 2006, 7,850 kilometres (4,880 mi) were paved, while 4,268 kilometres (2,652 mi) were unpaved. In 1996, the Turkish Cypriot area showed a close, but smaller ratio of paved to unpaved with about 1,370 kilometres (850 mi) out of 2,350 kilometres (1,460 mi) paved and 980 kilometres (610 mi) unpaved.[1] As a legacy of British rule, Cyprus is one of only three EU nations in which vehicles drive on the left.

Motorways

Public Transportation

Nicosia's residents rely on private cars to go around the city. With more than 629 automobiles per 1,000 people, Cyprus has one of the highest car ownership rates in the world, yet the country uses very little green transportation. Only 3% of journeys in the Greater Nicosia urban region are made by public transportation. Cycling is considerably less common—2%.[2][3][4] The government of Cyprus and authorities of Nicosia have developed a public transportation plan to ensure access to more areas and provide more options, apart from private cars.[2]

Public Transportation Companies

In Cyprus, public transportation by bus is run by different companies based on the district.

Nicosia and Larnaca: NPT (Nicosia Public Transport) and LPT (Larnaca Public Transport), operated by Cyprus Public Transport (CPT)

Limassol: EMEL (Transport Company for Limassol Commuters)

Paphos: OSYPA (Paphos Transport Organisation)

Famagusta: OSEA (Famagusta District Transport Organisation)

INTERCITY BUSES: Services transport between all major cities

Solomos Square bus station

Public Buses

In 2006, extensive plans were announced to improve and expand bus services and restructure public transport throughout Cyprus, with the financial backing of the European Union Development Bank. In 2010, the new revised and expanded bus network was implemented into the system.[5]

In 2020, the transport companies for the districts of Nicosia and Larnaca were changed from OSEL (Nicosia District Transport Organisation) to NPT (Nicosia Public Transport) and from ZENON Larnaca Buses[6] to LPT (Larnaca Public Transport) respectively.[7]

In 2022, Cyprus Public Transport made new plans for Nicosia's Public Transport by changing route numbers, adding new bus hubs and modernising buses and the all-out feel of the transport system. The plan has been introduced in two phases and is currently completed.[8]

Licensed vehicles

Public blue buses operated by OSEL in Makariou Avenue, Nicosia
A taxi in Cyprus

Road transport is the dominant form of transport on the island. Figures released by the International Road Federation in 2007 show that Cyprus holds the highest car ownership rate in the world with 742 cars per 1,000 people.[9]

Number of licensed vehicles[10]
Vehicle Category 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Private vehicles 270,348 277,554 291,645 324,212 344,953 363.383 400.432 432,702 450,182
Taxis 1,641 1,559 1,696 1,770 1,845 1.780 1.856 1,864 1,870
Rental cars 8,080 8,509 9,160 9,652 8,336 7.782 8.648 8,951 8,452
Buses 3,003 2,997 3,275 3,199 3,217 3.221 3.292 3,402 3,449
Τrucks 117,942 117,792 119,646 117,825 118,355 115,723 117,498 121,779 124,097
Tractors 13,594 13,932 14,284 13,941 14,368 14,739 14,956 15,478 15,877
Motorcycles 41,985 40,276 41,516 41,396 40,381 40,359 41,211 43,219 42,690
TOTAL 442,999 448,687 466,938 498,054 517,087 532.248 591,962 631,824 651,149

Public transport in Cyprus is limited to privately run bus services (except in Nicosia and Larnaca), taxis, and interurban 'shared' taxi services (locally referred to as service taxis). Thus, private car ownership in the country is the fifth highest per capita in the world. However, in 2006 extensive plans were announced to expand and improve bus services and restructure public transport throughout Cyprus, with the financial backing of the European Union Development Bank

Sea Harbours and Ports

The ports of Cyprus are operated and maintained by the Cyprus Ports Authority. Major harbours of the island are Limassol Harbour, and Larnaca Harbour, which service cargo, passenger, and cruise ships. Limassol is the larger of the two, and handles a large volume of both cargo and cruise vessels. Larnaca is primarily a cargo port but played a big part in the evacuation of foreign nationals from Lebanon in 2006, and in the subsequent humanitarian aid effort. A smaller cargo dock also exists at Vasilikos, near Zygi (a small town between Larnaca and Limassol). Smaller vessels and private yachts can dock at Marinas in Cyprus.

Public Bicycle Sharing System

Public bicycles in Nicosia

Nextbike is the latest transportation system in Cyprus, similar to programs employed successfully in various cities around the world. Bicycles can be found at stations in Nicosia and Limassol, as well as with 1 station in Larnaca.

Merchant Marine

See full article on Cyprus Merchant Marine

Total: 1,414 ships (with a volume of 1,000 gross tonnage (GT) or over) totaling 23,497,776 GT/37,331,506 tonnes deadweight (DWT)

Ships by Type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 442, cargo ship 495, chemical tanker 22, combination bulk 40, combination ore/oil 8, container ship 144, Liquified Gas Carrier 6, passenger ship 8, petroleum tanker 142, refrigerated cargo 41, roll-on/roll-off 45, short-sea passenger 13, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 2 (1999 est.)

Airports

Larnaca International Airport

In 1999, Cyprus had 12 airports with paved runways. Of them, seven had runways of lengths between 2,438 and 3,047 metres, one had a length between 1,524 and 2,437 metres, three had lengths between 914 and 1524 metres, and one had a length less than 914 metres.

Of the three airports with unpaved runways, two had lengths less than 914 metres and one had a length between 914 and 1524 metres.

International Airports

Larnaca International Airport is the island's main airport and flies to many locations worldwide.

Paphos International Airport is the 2nd largest airport and mostly flies to Europe, via Ryanair; with occasional flights to other continents.

Nicosia International Airport is an abandoned airport. It used to be the island's main airport until 1974. It remains closed to the public.

Ercan International Airport is the main airport in the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. The airport's only destination is Turkey, serviced only by Turkish airlines (not to be confused with the company). Flights to and from Ercan Airport are illegal.

References

  1. ^ Τμήμα Δημοσίων Έργων - Στατιστικά Στοιχεία - Συντήρηση Δρόμων 2006 Archived 2008-11-25 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b "Get on the bus first to make Nicosia tram infrastructure worth the investment". European Investment Bank. Retrieved 2022-09-01.
  3. ^ "Trem Global | Public Transportation in Nicosia". www.tremglobal.com. Retrieved 2022-09-01.
  4. ^ "Sustainable Transport". www.cea.org.cy. Retrieved 2022-09-01.
  5. ^ "Cyprus By Bus - Cyprus Bus stops, bus routes and bus time tables". www.cyprusbybus.com. Retrieved 2019-12-28.
  6. ^ 24h.com.cy (2020-06-23). "Απεργιακά μέτρα αρχίζουν εργαζομένων στην εταιρεία «ΖΗΝΩΝ» Λάρνακας – 24h.com.cy" [Workers at the "Zenon" company in Larnaca begin strike action - 24h.com.cy] (in Greek). Retrieved 2023-09-20.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ "Ανακοινωθέντα Άρθρο - PIO" [Announced Article - PIO]. www.pio.gov.cy (in Greek). Retrieved 2023-09-20.
  8. ^ "First phase of new bus network kicks off in Nicosia | Cyprus Mail". cyprus-mail.com/. 2022-01-29. Retrieved 2023-09-01.
  9. ^ Ryu, Jin (2007-12-14). "Korea Ranks 40th in Car Ownership". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on 2007-12-20. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
  10. ^ "ΑΡΧΙΚΗ". PIO – Public Works Department official statistics. Retrieved 2018-08-16.