Transport in Luxembourg is ensured principally by road, rail and air. There are also services along the river Moselle which forms the border with Germany. The road network has been significantly modernised in recent years with motorways to adjacent countries. The advent of the high-speed TGV link to Paris has led to renovation of the capital's main railway station while a new Schengen-only passenger terminal at Luxembourg Airport opened in 2017. Trams in the capital were reintroduced in December 2017 and there are plans for light-rail and/or tram-train lines in adjacent areas.

All public transport in Luxembourg (buses, trams, and trains) has been free to use since 29 February 2020, as part of a larger mobility experiment with goals to increase walking for short trips, increase bicycling, and increase the transit ridership sharply as the network is enlarged and service frequency is increased.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Current cross-border railway network, connecting Luxembourg City with Luxembourg's neighbouring countries, north (Belgium) – south (France) and east (Germany) – west (France)[7]


Operated by Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois (CFL), Luxembourg's railways form the backbone of the country's public transport network, linking the most important towns. The total length of operational (standard gauge) track is 274 km (170 mi), though it was some 550 km (340 mi) at the end of the Second World War. There are regular services from Luxembourg City to Ettelbruck, Esch-sur-Alzette, Wasserbillig and Kleinbettingen while international routes extend to Trier, Koblenz, Brussels, Liège, Metz and Nancy.[8]

The railway network links into Belgium, Germany and France. Some of the cross-border services are run by CFL, others by SNCF, NMBS/SNCB and DB.

There is now a frequent high-speed connection to Paris via the LGV Est line. EuroCap-Rail is a proposed high-speed axis connecting Brussels, Luxembourg (city), and Strasbourg.


Road network

Luxembourg's A7 motorway

The six Luxembourg motorways cover a total distance of 165 km (103 mi), linking the capital with Trier (Germany), Thionville (France) and Arlon (Belgium) as well as with Esch-sur-Alzette and Ettelbruck in Luxembourg. Luxembourg's motorways are toll free. The speed limit is normally 130 km/h (81 mph), 110 km/h (68 mph) in rainy weather. With 56.8 km (35.3 mi) of motorway per 1,000 km2 (390 sq mi), Luxembourg probably now has the highest density of motorways in Europe.[9]

Luxembourg City is a major business and financial center. Many workers prefer to live in the three neighboring countries and drive to work each day. This creates huge traffic jams during peak commuting hours. Tailbacks on the E411 motorway can extend five or more kilometers into Belgium and can take an hour or more to navigate.

The remaining road network in Luxembourg accounts for a total length of 2,730 km (1,700 mi), consisting of 839 km (521 mi) of trunk roads (RN or routes nationales) and 1,891 km (1,175 mi) of secondary roads (CR or chemins repris).[10]

Evaluation of road km[11]
Year (as of 01.01) 1990 1995 2000 2008 2012 2016 2017 2019
[km] [km] [km] [km] [km] [km] [km] [km]
Roads (total) 2775 2820 2863 2875 2899 2908 2912 2914
Trunk roads 869 869 837 837 837 837 837 839
Motorways 78 123 115 147 152 161 165 165
Secondary roads 1828 1828 1911 1891 1891 1891 1891 1891

Bus services

Comprehensive bus services linking the towns and villages of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg are contracted out to private operators by the RGTR (Régime général des transports routiers) under the Ministry of Transport.[12]

Luxembourg City is served by 163 of its own AVL (Autobus de la Ville de Luxembourg) buses transporting some 28 million passengers per year (2007). As with the RGTR, AVL contracts out to private operators for a number of services. Most of these buses are in AVL colors but the owner's name is often mentioned on them in small print. Also, the letters on the license plate can give ownership away to those that know how that system works. There are 25 regular bus routes plus special bus services through the night.[13]

The TICE or Syndicat des Tramways Intercommunaux dans le Canton d’Esch/Alzette operates several bus routes. They are centered on the city of Esch-sur-Alzette in the southeast of the country. Most are urban and suburban routes but some extend into the surrounding countryside.[14]

CFL, the Luxembourg railway company, operates some 17 bus routes, mainly serving towns and villages that are no longer served by rail.[15]

A number of smaller cities like Ettelbruck and Wiltz have started their own local services, some of which reach out to nearby villages. These services are not part of the RGTR and national tickets are not always honored.

All transport companies work together under the Verkéiersverbond, which covers all bus, tram, and train routes. Starting from 29 Feb 2020, all public transport was made free throughout the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, funded through general taxation. However first class tickets can still be purchased for use on the trains: a ticket valid for 2 hours is €3, whilst a one-day ticket is €6.


Veloh bike sharing Luxemburg

In the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the EV5 Via Romea Francigena runs 107 km (66 mi) and follows a network of dedicated cycle paths from the Belgian border, through to its cliff-top capital city, and towards the French and German borders at Schengen. The EV5 follows the following national routes in Luxembourg: PC18, PC17, PC12, PC13, the Luxembourg-Ville route no. 10, PC1, PC11, PC7 and PC3.

In Luxembourg, the EV5 goes through Strassen, Luxembourg, Hesperange and Schengen. It then passes through back to France.


Main article: Trams in Luxembourg

Luxembourg's historic tramway network closed in 1964 as part of a general decline of trams across Europe but the city reintroduced trams at the end of 2017 as part of the renaissance of tramways. The phased approach initially saw trams running through the Kirchberg quarter to the Grand Duchess Charlotte Bridge, and later Place de l'Etoile, before the line was eventually extended to the old town in Ville Haute and on towards Luxembourg railway station. Currently under construction are the extensions to the Cloche d'Or business district in the south, and Luxembourg Airport in the north. A new funicular line was also opened allowing connections between trams running along the Kirchberg approach to the Grand Duchess Charlotte Bridge and a new station serving a CFL rail line located in the Pfaffenthal valley below.[16] The full tramline is planned to be completed by 2023.

Moselle tourist boats at Remich


The river Moselle forms a 42 km (26 mi) natural border between Luxembourg and Germany in the southeast of the country. In the summer months, the Princess Marie-Astrid and a few other tourist boats operate regular services along the river.[17]

Mertert near Grevenmacher on the Moselle is Luxembourg's only commercial port. With two quays covering a total length of 1.6 km (0.99 mi), it offers facilities connecting river, road and rail transport. It is used principally for coal, steel, oil, agricultural goods and building materials.[18] In 2016, the port handled 1.2 million tonnes of cargo.[19]


Luxembourg Airport at Findel, some 6 km (3.7 mi) to the north of the city, is Luxembourg's only commercial airport. Thanks to its long runway (4,000 m), even the largest types of aircraft are able to use its facilities.[20]

Luxembourg airport

Luxair, Luxembourg's international airline, and Cargolux, a cargo-only airline, operate out of the airport. In 2008, the airport ranked as Europe's 5th largest and the world's 23rd by cargo tonnage.[21]

Luxair has regular passenger services to 20 European destinations and operates tourist flights to 17 more.[22] Other airlines operating flights to and from Luxembourg include British Airways, KLM, Scandinavian Airlines, Swiss Global Air Lines, and TAP Portugal.

A large new airport terminal building was opened in 2008 with more modern facilities, including an underground carpark.[23][24] In order to accommodate anticipated growth in travel within the Schengen Area, in 2016 an abandoned terminal was renovated to handle low-capacity and regional flights.[25]


The trunk natural gas pipelines in Luxembourg have a total length of 155 km (96 mi) (2007).[26]

Russia and Norway are the main producers. The Luxembourg network is connected to Germany, France and Belgium.[27]

Merchant Navy

MS Princesse Marie-Astrid on the river Moselle near Ehnen

Luxembourg has 150 vessels in its merchant navy. These include 4 bulk carriers, 1 container ship, 21 general cargo ships, 3 oil tankers, and 121 others.[28]

See also


  1. ^ "Luxembourg becomes first country with free public transport". France 24. Luxembourg. 29 February 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Luxembourg makes public transport free". Deutsche Welle (DW). 29 February 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  3. ^ Kirby, Paul (29 February 2020). "Free transport in Luxembourg, but what's the cost?". BBC News. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  4. ^ Abnett, Kate (29 February 2020). "Luxembourg becomes first country to make public transport free". Reuters. Luxembourg. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  5. ^ Calder, Simon (29 February 2020). "'Like the first step on the moon': Luxembourg makes history as first country with free public transport". The Independent. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  6. ^ Shi, Toshihiko (2020). "Reinventing public transport system in Luxembourg and its implications for foreign tourists". Journal of Global Tourism Research. 5 (2): 161–166. doi:10.37020/jgtr.5.2_161.
  7. ^ File:Luxembourg.png
  8. ^ Les transports en commun au Grand-Duché. Retrieved 3 March 2009.
  9. ^ Autostrade in Europe - Data updated to 1 January 2003 Archived 25 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  10. ^ "Routes nationales et Chemins Repris". (in French). Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  11. ^ "Longueur du réseau routier". (in French). Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  12. ^ Les autobus RGTR from Mobilitéits Zentral. Archived 15 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  13. ^ Ville de Luxembourg: Autobus. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  14. ^ Intercommunaux du Canton d’Esch. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  15. ^ Horaires des lignes de bus CFL. Archived 4 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  16. ^ "UNE RÉALISATION PAR ÉTAPES | – Un tram pour la Ville de Luxembourg". (in French). Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  17. ^ MS Princesse Marie-Astrid. Entente Touristique de la Moselle. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  18. ^ Le Port de Mertert from Ministère des Transports. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  19. ^ ""The Port of Mertert is connecting with the transport hub at Bettembourg"". The Business Report. 22 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  20. ^ Aviation from Ministère des Transports. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  21. ^ Cargo Traffic 2007 FINAL from Airports Council International. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  22. ^ Luxair Winter Timetable 2008/2009. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  23. ^ "About Luxembourg Airport". Luxembourg Airport.
  24. ^ "Parking". Luxembourg Airport.
  25. ^ "Terminal B, Luxembourg International Airport". Airport Technology. Retrieved 9 February 2024.
  26. ^ CIA World Factbook - Luxembourg. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  27. ^ Infos gaz naturel - Au Luxembourg from Erdgas. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  28. ^ "Luxembourg". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 22 May 2023. Archived from the original on 24 May 2023. Retrieved 26 May 2023.