Preferred IUPAC name
2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid
3D model (JSmol)
  • InChI=1S/C7H16NO5P/c8-6(7(9)10)4-2-1-3-5-14(11,12)13/h6H,1-5,8H2,(H,9,10)(H2,11,12,13) checkY
  • InChI=1/C7H16NO5P/c8-6(7(9)10)4-2-1-3-5-14(11,12)13/h6H,1-5,8H2,(H,9,10)(H2,11,12,13)
  • O=P(O)(O)CCCCCC(N)C(=O)O
  • O=P(O)(O)CCCCCC(C(=O)O)N
Molar mass 225.179 g/mol
Density 1.39 g/mL
Boiling point 480.1 °C (896.2 °F; 753.2 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

AP-7 is a selective NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist that competitively inhibits the glutamate binding site and thus activation of NMDAR. It has anticonvulsant effects.[1]

AP-7 functions specifically as a NMDA recognition site blocker, in contrast with 7-chlorokynurenate, which acts as a glycine site modulation blocker.[2]

Animal studies

AP-7 injected directly into the dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG) of rats produced an anxiolytic effect, whereas direct injection outside of the DPAG did not elicit anxiolytic effects. This suggests that a portion of systemically taken NMDA antagonist's anxiolytic effects comes from the DPAG region of the brain, at least in rats.[3]

The DPAG of the brain is thought to deal with fear-like defensive behavior via NMDA and glycine B receptors.[4] These excitatory glutamate receptors work with the inhibitory GABA receptors to achieve equilibrium in the DPAG of the brain.[5]

AP-7 has been known to cause muscle rigidity and catalepsy in rats following bilateral microinjections (0.02-0.5 nmol) into the globus pallidus and ventral-posterior portions of the caudate-putamen.[6]

The optically pure D-(−)-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid [D-AP7], has also been examined. In groups of hypoxia-treated rats, D-AP7 enhanced motility, exhibited anxiogenic-like effect and impaired consolidation in passive avoidance. Both AP-7 and D-AP7 function as potent, specific antagonists of the NMDA receptor.[7]

See also


  1. ^ Meldrum B, Millan M, Patel S, de Sarro G (1988). "Anti-epileptic effects of focal micro-injection of excitatory amino acid antagonists". J. Neural Transm. 72 (3): 191–200. doi:10.1007/BF01243419. PMID 3047315. S2CID 6216838.
  2. ^ Guillemin GJ (April 2012). "Quinolinic acid, the inescapable neurotoxin". FEBS J. 279 (8): 1356–65. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2012.08485.x. PMID 22248144. S2CID 205884904.
  3. ^ Guimarães FS, Carobrez AP, De Aguiar JC, Graeff FG (1991). "Anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP7 microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey". Psychopharmacology. 103 (1): 91–4. doi:10.1007/BF02244080. PMID 1672463. S2CID 6498237.
  4. ^ Carobrez AP, Teixeira KV, Graeff FG (December 2001). "Modulation of defensive behavior by periaqueductal gray NMDA/glycine-B receptor". Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 25 (7–8): 697–709. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(01)00059-8. PMID 11801295. S2CID 28687622.
  5. ^ Car H, Wiśniewski K (March 1998). "The effect of baclofen and AP-7 on selected behavior in rats". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 59 (3): 685–9. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(97)00462-0. PMID 9512072. S2CID 37405373.
  6. ^ Turski L, Klockgether T, Turski WA, Schwarz M, Sontag KH (March 1990). "Blockade of excitatory neurotransmission in the globus pallidus induces rigidity and akinesia in the rat: implications for excitatory neurotransmission in pathogenesis of Parkinson's diseases". Brain Res. 512 (1): 125–31. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(90)91180-O. PMID 2159826. S2CID 37123476.
  7. ^ Nadlewska A, Car H, Wiśniewska R, Hoły Z, Wiśniewski K (2003). "Behavioral effects of D-AP7 in rats subjected to experimental hypoxia" (PDF). Pol J Pharmacol. 55 (3): 337–44. PMID 14506312.