Canton of Basel-Landschaft
Kanton Basel-Landschaft (German)
Canton of Basel-Country
Flag of Canton of Basel-Landschaft
Coat of arms of Canton of Basel-Landschaft
Location in Switzerland
Map of Basel-Landschaft

Karte Kanton Baselland 2010.png
Coordinates: 47°7′N 7°44′E / 47.117°N 7.733°E / 47.117; 7.733Coordinates: 47°7′N 7°44′E / 47.117°N 7.733°E / 47.117; 7.733
Largest cityAllschwil
Subdivisions86 municipalities, 5 districts
 • ExecutiveRegierungsrat (5)
 • LegislativeLandrat (90)
 • Total517.67 km2 (199.87 sq mi)
 (June 2021)[2]
 • Total292,955
 • Density570/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
ISO 3166 codeCH-BL
Highest point1,169 m (3,835 ft): Hinteri Egg
Lowest point246 m (807 ft): confluence of the river Birs with the Rhine, at Birsfelden

Basel-Landschaft or Basel-Country, informally known as Baselland or Baselbiet (/ˌbɑːzəl ˈlændʃɑːft/; German: Kanton Basel-Landschaft [ˈkantɔn ˌbaːzl̩ ˈlantʃaft] (listen); Romansh: Chantun Basilea-Champagna; French: Canton de Bâle-Campagne; Italian: Canton Basilea Campagna), is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation. It is composed of five districts and its capital city is Liestal. It is traditionally considered a "half-canton", the other half being Basel-Stadt, its urban counterpart.

Basel-Landschaft is one of the northernmost cantons of Switzerland. It lies essentially south of the Rhine and north of the Jura Mountains. The canton shares borders with the canton of Basel-Stadt to the north, the canton of Aargau to the east, the canton of Solothurn to the south and the canton of Jura to the west. It shares international borders as well with France and Germany to the north.

Together with Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft was part of the canton of Basel, which joined the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1501. Political quarrels and armed conflict led to the partition of the canton in 1833.


Main article: Canton of Basel

Basel-Landschaft, together with Basel-Stadt, formed the historic Canton of Basel until they separated following the uprising of 1833 (Battle of the Hülftenschanz near Frenkendorf).

Castle of Angenstein in Duggingen
Castle of Angenstein in Duggingen

In Roman times, the area of Basel was a centre of Roman activity. There are well-preserved remains at the site of Augusta Raurica in the canton of Basel-Landschaft. Around 200 AD there were about 20,000 people living in this city, now part of the much smaller Augst. The remains are on display in an open-air museum. The museum attracts over 140,000 visitors per year. Many of these visitors are schoolchildren from other parts of Switzerland. The site of Augusta Raurica includes the best-preserved amphitheatre north of the Alps, and a reconstructed Roman villa.

The lands of the canton Basel-Landschaft are part of the lands acquired by the city of Basel. Until the end of the 16th century, most of the canton's land belonged to the city of Basel. After Napoleon's visit in 1798, the country achieved equality with the city. The country was economically dependent on the city, most probably because of the cost and difficulty in transporting agricultural goods to further markets, the financing of land transactions and crop production by city-based merchants. Low levels of education and literacy in the agricultural areas of Europe was typical in that era. The best students would be sponsored and sent away for higher learning.[citation needed] The city of Basel remained the cultural and economic centre of both Basel half cantons until then. Castles and residences of Basel merchants dominated much of the landscape in Basel-Landschaft.

Caricature of the division of Basel, 1833
Caricature of the division of Basel, 1833

After 1830 there were political quarrels and armed conflict in the canton of Basel. Some of these were concerned with the rights of the population in the agricultural areas. They ultimately led to the separation of the canton Basel-Landschaft from the city of Basel on 26 August 1833. Since then, there has been a movement for reunification. This movement gained momentum after 1900 when many parts of Basel-Landschaft became industrialized. The two half cantons agreed in principle to merge, but in 1969 the people of Basel-Landschaft voted down a referendum on this proposal in favour of retaining their independence. It is thought that the closing economic gap between the two cantons was the main reason why the population changed their attitude.[citation needed]

That vote was not the end of a close relationship between the two Basels. The two half cantons have since signed a number of agreements to co-operate. The contribution of Basel-Landschaft to the University of Basel since 1976 is just one example.


The canton of Basel-Landschaft lies in the northwestern corner of Switzerland just south of the canton of Basel-Stadt.

With a few exceptions, it includes the towns of the Laufental along the river Birs, the Birseck and the Leimental, as well as the towns along the Ergolz and its tributaries. The shape of the canton is very irregular, and its borders cut across several towns.

In terms of size, it is one of the smaller cantons of Switzerland (18th of 26). However, it is number 10 in terms of population.[3]

Basel-Landschaft borders on the east and north with the canton of Aargau and the Rhine, which forms the border with Germany (state of Baden-Württemberg). On the northwest, it borders with France (department of Haut-Rhin).

On the south, it borders on the canton of Solothurn, with a few exclaves of that canton within its western area. In the extreme southwest, it borders on the canton of Jura.

The Jura mountain chain traverses the canton. The rivers Ergolz and Birs drain the lands of the canton.

The thirty rivers of Baselland are:


Former town hall in Liestal, the cantonal capital.
Former town hall in Liestal, the cantonal capital.

Since the decision to remain independent from Basel-Stadt in 1969 there have been a number of requests in the parliament for Basel-Landschaft to become a full canton. In 1988 the canton of Basel-Landschaft had this aim written into its constitution. The aim remains to change the Swiss constitution to recognize the two cantons of Basel as full members.

Federal election results

Percentage of the total vote per party in the canton in the Federal Elections 1971-2015[4]
Party Ideology 1971 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015
FDP.The Liberalsa Classical liberalism 23.0 23.9 26.7 25.1 22.0 24.8 19.6 22.1 19.9 17.0 11.5 15.8
CVP/PDC/PPD/PCD Christian democracy 13.3 13.3 11.5 10.8 12.3 11.6 11.7 12.0 10.0 11.4 8.2 9.1
SP/PS Social democracy 28.2 30.3 31.4 32.5 22.8 24.4 25.3 23.3 24.7 25.2 24.4 22.2
SVP/UDC Swiss nationalism 11.8 10.7 10.6 11.2 12.0 12.3 10.8 18.0 26.5 28.5 26.9 29.8
Ring of Independents Social liberalism 13.8 11.2 7.8 4.4 2.7 * b 1.3 * * * * *
EVP/PEV Christian democracy * * 3.9 * 3.2 2.6 1.7 2.4 2.7 2.8 3.3 2.2
GLP/PVL Green liberalism * * * * * * * * * * 5.0 2.7
BDP/PBD Conservatism * * * * * * * * * * 6.4 2.8
PdA/PST-POP/PC/PSL Socialism * 1.8 1.0 * * * * * * * * *
POCH Progressivism * 3.3 7.1 7.2 7.4 c * * * * * *
GPS/PES Green politics * * * 1.9 6.9 11.0 9.5 9.2 12.6 13.8 13.6 14.2
FGA Feminist * * * 3.0 2.0 c * * * * * *
SD/DS National conservatism 10.0 5.6 * 3.9 6.2 9.1 11.0 10.1 2.7 0.8 0.7 *
EDU/UDF Christian right * * * * * * 0.6 * * 0.5 * 0.4
FPS/PSL Right-wing populism * * * * 2.6 4.3 1.3 0.3 0.2 * * *
Other * * * * * * 7.1 2.5 0.8 * * 0.8
Voter participation % 51.8 48.3 43.0 49.3 46.8 44.5 41.3 41.8 44.2 49.3 48.2 46.8
^a FDP before 2009, FDP.The Liberals after 2009
^b "*" indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton.
^c Part of the GPS

Political subdivisions

The nine municipalities of the Arlesheim district used to belong to the diocese of Basel. In 1792 French troops occupied the district and in 1793 the lands were annexed by France, which explains the linguistic switch of the Family of the House of Basel's name from "von Basel" to "de Bâle", since Arlesheim holds their manor. In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna the district joined Basel.

The district of Laufental has the same history as that of Arlesheim. The important difference is that in 1815 Laufental joined Bern rather than Basel. When the canton of Jura was created in 1979, the district of Laufental became an enclave of the canton of Bern. It was allowed self- determination and in 1980 the people decided to join the canton of Basel-Landschaft. This led to Laufental joining the canton of Basel-Landschaft on 1 January 1994 after a lengthy administrative process.


Districts of Canton Basel-Landschaft
Districts of Canton Basel-Landschaft

There are 5 areas (Bezirke) in Basel-Landschaft (as of 2021):


Main article: Municipalities of the canton of Basel-Landschaft

There are 86 municipalities in the canton (As of 2009).[5]


The population is predominantly German-speaking. Protestantism is the main religion in the canton (43% as of 2000), while about one-third of the population (32%) is Roman Catholic.[6] The Swiss Reformed Church and Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland are recognized as state churches. Between 1959 and 1970 the canton was Switzerland's fastest-growing, as the population almost doubled from 108,000 to 205,000. Today, the canton has a population (as of 30 June 2021) of 292,955.[2] As of 2007, the population included 48,719 foreigners who made up 18.1% of the population.[7]

Historical population

The historical population is given in the following table:

Historic Population Data[8]
Year Total Population Swiss Non-Swiss Population share
of total country
1850 47,885 46,103 1,782 2.0%
1900 68,497 61,001 7,496 2.1%
1950 107,549 100,923 6,626 2.3%
1990 233,488 197,292 36,196 3.4%
2020 290,969


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Elektra Birseck Münchenstein in Münchenstein

Agriculture in the canton includes fruit growing, dairy farming and cattle breeding. Important industries include textiles, metals and chemicals.

The canton of Basel-Landschaft is part of the economic region around Basel that includes parts of France and Germany as well as both half cantons of Basel. Since the 1960s there are agreements in force to strengthen contacts within the so-called Regio Basiliensis. This economic co-operation is often considered as the most intensive in Europe.

From the 17th century until the beginning of the 20th century silk weaving was important in Basel-Landschaft. Factories were established as early as 1850, following the finding of salt in underground deposits, founding industries such as the chemical industry in Schweizerhalle. The chemical industry means that Basel is one of the richer parts of Switzerland.

See also


  1. ^ Arealstatistik Land Cover - Kantone und Grossregionen nach 6 Hauptbereichen accessed 27 October 2017
  2. ^ a b Canton of Basel-Land Statistics, Wohnbevölkerung nach Nationalität und Konfession per 30. Juni 2021 (in German) accessed 22 September 2021
  3. ^ Office, Federal Statistical (8 October 2020). "Permanent resident population in private households by canton and household size, 2010-2019 - 2010-2019 | Table". Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  4. ^ Nationalratswahlen: Stärke der Parteien nach Kantonen (Schweiz = 100%) (Report). Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2015. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  5. ^ "Liste officielle des communes de la Suisse - 01.01.2008". Office fédéral de la statistique. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
  6. ^ Federal Department of Statistics (2004). "Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion". Archived from the original (Interactive Map) on 29 December 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
  7. ^ Federal Department of Statistics (2008). "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit, Geschlecht und Kantonen". Archived from the original (Microsoft Excel) on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 5 November 2008.
  8. ^ "Basel-Landschaft". Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz (in German). Retrieved 25 January 2022.