This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Romanian. (May 2022) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Romanian article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 314 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Romanian Wikipedia article at [[:ro:Bătălia de la Rovine]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ro|Bătălia de la Rovine)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Battle of Rovine
Part of the Ottoman wars in Europe
Battle of Rovine (1395).jpg
Date17 May 1395
Location
Rovine, Wallachia
Result Wallachian victory[1][2][3][4]
Belligerents
 Wallachia Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Wallachia Mircea the Elder
Coat of arms of Mrnjavčević family (small).svg
Andrijaš Mrnjavčević 
Coat of arms of Mrnjavčević family (small).svg
Dimitar Mrnjavčević
Sultan Bayezid I
Coat of arms of Moravian Serbia.svg
Stefan Lazarević

Coat of arms of Mrnjavčević family (small).svg
Marko Mrnjavčević 
Zegligovic Coat of Arms.png
Konstantin Dejanović 
Balsic small COA.svg
Konstantin Balšić
Casualties and losses
Heavy Heavy

The Battle of Rovine took place on 17 May 1395.[5] The Wallachian army led by Voivod Mircea the Elder opposed the Ottoman invasion personally led by Sultan Bayezid I the Thunderbolt. The Turkish force heavily outnumbered the Wallachian troops. The legend says that on the eve of the battle, dressed as a peace emissary, Mircea cel Bătrân talked to Bayezid asking him to leave Wallachia and promising him safe passage back. The Sultan proudly insisted on fighting.

Battle

The battle took place probably near the Argeș River,[6] but the exact location is disputed. The Wallachian victory is confirmed by numerous sources and historians.[1][2][3][4]

During the battle, a key tactical role was played by the Wallachian archers who severely depleted the Ottoman ranks during their initial attack.[7] Bayezid's vassals, the Serbian lords Stefan Lazarević and Marko Mrnjavčević, two of the greatest knights of the time, participated and fought bravely; Stefan showed great courage, Marko was killed in action.

An alternative historical view is that the dramatic confrontation lasted not just a single day, but an entire week, being in the first stage a war of positions. The fierce battle ended with heavy casualties for both sides, eventually each army withdrawing from the battlefield. Although Wallachians pushed back the enemy, the Ottomans were able to defend their resulting position relying on the personal guard of the Sultan composed of Janissaries. This was the impregnable position of the Ottoman defense a year later, in the famous Battle of Nicopolis. This tactical innovation became a fundamental element of the Ottoman war strategies until the 18th century. The army of Mircea, sustaining heavy casualties, and unable to break the defense of the Sultan's camp, was finally obliged to withdraw. Because the Ottoman Empire was not able to conquer Wallachia at this time, Rovine remains one of the most important battles in Romanian history.[6]

An epic description of the confrontation is presented in the poem "Scrisoarea a III-a" (The Third Letter) written by the Romanian national poet, Mihai Eminescu. The Dečani chronicle describes the battle and reports that Prince Marko and Constantine Dragaš died fighting.[8] The same source mentions that Marko's brother, Andreja Mrnjavčević, also perished during the fight.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b Fine 1994, p. 424
  2. ^ a b Norman Angell (2004). Peace Theories and the Balkan War. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4191-4050-1.
  3. ^ a b Jim Bradbury (2004). The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-22126-9.
  4. ^ a b Norman L. Forter; Demeter B. Rostovsky (1971). The Roumanian Handbook. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-405-02747-5.
  5. ^ Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State, p. 551. Published by Rutgers University Press, 1969. ISBN 0-8135-1198-4.
  6. ^ a b Dan Ioan Mureşan. "Avant Nicopolis: observations sur la campagne de 1395 pour le contrôle du Bas-Danube". Archived from the original on 12 February 2009.
  7. ^ Cronica bulgară la I. Bogdan, Ein Beitrag zur bulgarischen und serbischen Geschichtschreibung, în Archiv für slavische Philologie, p. 530. The historical sources mention that the sun was blocked out by the vast number of arrows.
  8. ^ Ђурић, Иван (1984). Сумрак Византије: време Јована VIII Палеолога (1392–1448). Народна књига. p. 78. У Дечанском летопису је, уз вест о боју на Ровинама, забележено како су тамо погинули Марко Краљевић и Константин Драгаш.
  9. ^ Successors of the Mrnjavčević family and theritories under their power 1371–1459, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy, PhD thesis of Aleksić Vladimir (2012), p. 147.

Sources